De Malignis Cogitationibus

 Based on: Cassian, Institutes, frontispiece Corvina, Paris, 1498 (image modif.)

Translation by Luke Dysinger,O.S.B.  This English translation is partly based on versions by Palmer, Kadloubovsky, the Greek text below is based on Migne, the Philokalia, and Muyldermans: it has been superceded by the critical edition of Guillaumont; and revision in accordance with the critical edition is ongoing.[1]




Περὶ διαφόρων πονηρῶν λογισμῶν

 See Cassian Conf. 5.6


 1. OF the demons opposing the ascetical life [pratiké], those standing in the first [wave] for combat are:

[1] those entrusted with the appetites of gluttony,

[2] those that inspire us to love money, and

[3] those that entice us to seek human glory.

[p.148]1.Τῶν ἀντικειμένων δαιμόνων τῇ πρακτικῇ, πρῶτοι κατὰ τὸν πόλεμον συνίστανται

οἱ τὰς τῆς γαστριμαργίας ὀρέξεις πεπιστευμέοι,

καὶ οἱ τὴν φιλαργυρίαν ἡμῖν ὑποβάλλοντες,

καὶ οἱ πρὸς τὴν τῶν ἀνθρώπων δόξαν ἡμᾶς ἐκκαλούμενοι.

All the rest march behind and receive the wounded whom these three pass along to them.

Οἱ δ' ἄλλοι πάντες κατόπιν τούτων βαδίζοντες, τοὺς ὑπὸ τούτων [79.1201a] τιτρωσκομένους διαδ́εχονται.

[1] For it is impossible to fall into the spirit of adultery, unless one has succumbed to gluttony;

[2] it is impossible to be agitated by anger, unless one covets and fights for food, or money, or fame;

Οὐκ ἔστι γὰρ ἐμπεσεῖν εἰς χεῖρας τοῦ πνεύματος τῆς πορνείας, μὴ ὑπὸ τῆς γαστριμαργίας καταπεσόντα·

καὶ οὐκ ἔστι ταράξαι θυμὸν, μὴ ὑπὲρ βρωμάτων ἢ χρημάτων, ἢ δόξης ἀλόγων ἐπιθυμιῶν μαχόμενον·

[3] and it is impossible to avoid the demon of sadness, unless one has been deprived of all he wants to obtain;

[4] nor is it possible to escape pride, this first offspring of the devil, unless one has uprooted the love of money... the root of all evil (1Tim. 6.10); since Poverty brings a man low according to the wise Solomon, (Prov.10:4).

καὶ οὐκ ἔστι τὸν τῆς λύπης δαίμονα διαφυγεῖν, τούτων πάντων στερηθέντα, ἢ μὴ δυνηθέντα τυχεῖν·

οὐδὲ ἀποφεύξεται τὴν ὑπερηφανίαν τις, τὸ πρῶτον γέννημα τοῦ διαβόλου, μὴ τὴν τῶν κακῶν ῥίζαν ἐξορίσας φιλαργυρίαν, εἴπερ καὶ πενία ἄνδρα ταπεινοῖ, κατὰ τὸν σοφὸν Σολομῶντα·

In other words, it is impossible for a man to fall under the power of any demon, unless he is first wounded by the three of the first wave.

 [p.152] καὶ συλλήβδην ἐιπεῖν, οὐκ ἔστιν ἄνθρωπον περιπεσεῖν δαίμονι, μὴ πρότερον ὑπ' ἐκείνων τῶν πρωτοστατῶν κατατρωθέντα,

THIS is why the devil suggested these three [tempting-] thoughts to the Lord (Mt 4:3, ff):

[1] the first, when he suggested that stones should become bread;

[2] the second, when he promised the whole world, if [the Lord] would fall down and worship him;

[3] and the third, when he said that if he would listen to him he would be glorified, suffering no harm from his fall [from the Temple].

διὸ καὶ τοὺς τρεῖς τούτους λογισμοὺς ὁ διάβολος τότε τῷ Σωτῆρι προσήγαγε. [Mt 4:3, ff]

Πρῶτον μὲν τοὺς λίθους, [79.1200b] ἄρτους γενέσθαι παρακαλῶν,

ἔπειτα δὲ τὸν κόσμον ὅλον ἐπαγγελλόμενος εἰ πεσὼν προσκυνήσει·

καὶ τρίτον εἰ ἀκούσοι δοξασθήσεσθαι λέγων, μηδὲν ἐκ τοῦ τηλικούτου πτώματος πεπονθότα,

But our Lord, showing himself to be above this, commanded the devil to get behind him (cf. Mat. 4:1-10), showing us by this that it not possible to banish the devil unless we depise these three [tempting-]thoughts.

ὧν, ὁ Κύριος ἡμῶν κρείττων φανεὶς, εἰς τοὐπίσω τῷ διαβόλῳ χωρεῖν προσέταττε, διὰ τούτων καὶ ἡμᾶς διδάσκων, ὡς οὐκ ἔστιν ἀπώσασθαι τὸν διάβολον, μὴ τῶν τριῶν τούτων καταφρονήσαντας λογισμῶν.

Xc02 (Thoughts imprint; luminosity)


 2.  ALL the [tempting-] thoughts of demonic origin introduce into the soul concepts of sensory concerns [“objects”]: because of this the nous, stamped with the imprint of these concerns, carries them about within itself; and [so] from the concern itself it [can] henceforth recognize the approaching demon.

[p.154] 2. Πάντες οἱ δαιμονιώδεις λογισμοὶ, νοήματα εἰς τὴν ψυχὴν αἰσθητῶν πραγμάτων εἰσφέρουσιν, ἐν οἱς τυπούμενος ὁ νοῦς τὰς μορφὰς τῶν πραγμάτων ἐκείνων ἐν ἑαυτῷ περιφέρει, καὶ ἀπ ᾿αὐτοῦ τοῦ πράγματος λοιπὸν ἐπιγινώσκει τὸν προσεγγίσαντα δαίμονα·

For example, if the face of a person who has done me harm or insulted me appears in my mind (dianoia), I recognize the approach of the [tempting-]thought of memory of injury. Or if there arises a memory of possessions or of esteem, we will recognize from the concern which [demon] is troubling us. And it is the same with other [tempting-]thoughts: from the [mental] concern we can discover which demon stands beside us, suggesting the representation (fantasia) to us.

[79.1201c] οἰον, εἰ τοῦ ζημιώσαντός με, καὶ ἀτιμασαντός με ἐν τῇ διανοίᾳ μου τὸ πρόσωπον γένοιτο, ἐλέγχεται ὁ τῆς μνησικακίας παραβαλὼν λογισμός. Εἰ πάλιν χρημάτων, ἢ δόξης ἀνάμνησις γένοιτο, ἐκ τοῦ πράγματος δῆλον ὅτι ὁ θλίβων ἡμᾶς ἐπιγνωσθήσεται· καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν ἄλλων δὲ λογισμῶν ὡσαύτως, ἀπὸ τοῦ πράγματος εὑρήσεις τὸν παρεστῶτα, καὶ ὑποβαλλοντα τὰς φαντασίας δαίμονα.

I do not say that all memories of such concerns [“objects”] come from the demons; for when the nous is activated by man it is its nature to bring forth the representation (fantasia) of past events.

Οὐ πάσας δὲ τὰς μνήμας τῶν τοιούτων πραγμάτων ἐκ δαιμόνων λέγω συμβαίνειν· ἐπειδὴ πέφυκε καὶ αὐτὸς ὁ νοῦς κινούμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τῶν γεγονότων ἀναφέρειν τὰς φαντασίας,

But all thoughts producing indignation (thumos) or desire (epithumia) in a way that is contrary to nature [are caused by demons].  For through disturbance of these two powers the nous mentally commits adultery and becomes incensed, and is no longer able to welcome in itself the representation (fantasia) of its [divine] lawgiver:

 [p.156] ἀλλ ᾿ ὅσαι τῶν μνημῶν θυμὸν, ἢ ἐπιθυμίαν παρὰ φύσιν συνεπισπῶνται. Διὰ γὰρ τὴν ταραχὴν τῶν δύο δυνάμεων τούτων, ὁ νοῦς κατὰ διάνοιαν μοιχεύει, καὶ μάχεται τοῦ νομοθετήσαντος [79.1201d] αὐτὸν θεοῦ τὴν φαντασίαν ἀναδέξασθαι μὴ δυνάμενος,.

for such luminosity only appears in the mind (hegimonikon) with the deprival of all conceptions (noemata) of objects [“concerns”] at the time of prayer.

εἴπερ ἡ λαμπρότης ἐκείνη κατὰ στέρησιν πάντων τῶν ἐν τοῖς πράγμασι νοημάτων ἐν τῷ καιρῷ τῆς προσευχῆς τῷ ἡγεμονικῷ παραφαίνεται.



3. A PERSON cannot drive away impassioned memories unless he watches over his desire and indignation:

[1] destroying the one [i.e. desire] with fasting, vigils and sleeping on the ground; and

[2] taming the other [indignation] by patient endurance, forgetfulness of injury, and almsgiving. 

3. Οὐκ ἄν ἀπόθοιτο τὰς ἐμπαθεῖς μνήμας ὁ ἄνθρωπος, μὴ ἐπιθυμίας, καὶ θυμοϋ ἐπιμέλειαν ποιησάμενος,

τὴν μὲν [p.158] νηστείαις, ἀγρυπνίαις, καὶ χαμευνείαις καταναλώσας,

τὸν δὲ μακροθυμίαις, καὶ ἀμνησικακίαις, καὶ ἐλεημοσύναις καθημερώσας

For with these two passions are connected almost all the demonic [tempting-]thoughts that lead the nous to disaster and destruction. (1Tim 6:9)

· ἐκ γὰρ τῶν δύο τούτων παθῶν πάντες σχεδὸν οἱ δαιμονιώδεις συνίστανται λογισμοὶ οἱ τὸν νοῦν ἐμβάλλοντες εὶς ὅλεθρον, καὶ ἀπώλειαν.

 IT is impossible to overcome these passions unless we can rise above attachment to food and possessions, to esteem, and even to our own body, through which the demons often attempt to attack us.

[79.1204A]   Ἀδύνατον δέ τινα τῶν παθῶν τούτων περιγενέσθαι, μὴ παντελῶς βρωμάτων καὶ χρημάτων, καὶ δόξης ὑπεριδόντα, ἔτι δὲ καὶ τοῦ ἰδίου σώματος διὰ τοὺς ῥαπίζειν αὐτὸ πολλάκις ἐπιχειροῦντας·

It is essential, then, to imitate people who are in danger at sea and throw things overboard because of the violence of the winds and the threatening waves. But here we must be very careful in case we cast things overboard just to be seen doing so by men. For then we shall get the reward we want; but we shall suffer another shipwreck, worse than the first, blown off our course by the contrary wind of the demon of self-esteem.

Πᾶσα οὖν ἀνάγκη μιμεῖσθαι τοὺς κινδυνεύοτας, εν θαλάττη, καὶ τῶν σκευῶν ἐκβολὴν ποιουμένους διὰ τὴν βίαν τῶν ἀνεμων καὶ τῶν ἐπανισταμένων κυμάτων.  Ἀλλ' ἐνταῦθα προσεκτέον ἀκριβῶς, [p.158] μή πως ἐκβολὴν ποιούμενοι τῶν σκευῶν, πρὸς τὸ θεαθεῖναι τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ποίσωμεν· ἐπεὶ ἀπέχομεν τὸν μισθὸν ἡμῶν, καὶ ἄλλο τοῦ προτέρου χαλεπώτερον διδέξεται ἡμᾶς ναυάγιον, τοῦ τῆς κενοδοξίας ἡμῖν ἀντιπνεύσαντος δαίμονος. ´.

That is why our Lord, instructing the nous, our helmsman, says in the Gospels: ‘Take heed that you do not give alms in front of others, to be seen by them; for unless you take heed, you will have no reward from your Father in heaven. ‘ Again, He says: `When you pray, you must not be as the hypocrites are: for they love to pray standing in synagogues and at street- corners, so as to be seen by men. Truly I say to you, they get the reward they want [...] Moreover when you fast, do not put on a gloomy face, like the hypocrites; for they disfigure their faces, so that they may be seen by men to be  fasting. Truly I say to you, they get the reward they want’ (cf. Mt. 6: 1- 18).

Διὸ καὶ ὁ Κύριος ἡμῶν ἐν τοῖς Εὐαγγελίοις, τὸν κυβερνήτην νοῦν παιδεύων, [79.1204b] ̧ προσέχετε, φασὶν, τὴν ἐλημοσύνην ἡμῶν μὴ ποιεῖν ἔμπροσθεν τῶν ἀνθρώπων πρὸς τὸ θεαθεῖναι αὐτοῖς, εἰ δὲ μήγε μισθ̀ον οὐκ ἔχετε παρὰ τῷ Πατὶ ὑμῶν τῷ ἐν τοὶς οὐρανοῖς. ς  Καὶ πάλιν· ̧  Ὅταν προσεύχησθε, φησὶν, οὐκ ἔσεσθε ὥσπερ οἱ ὑποκριταὶ, ὅτι φιλοῦσιν ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς, καὶ ἐν ταῖς γωνίαις τῶν πλατειῶν ἑστῶτες προσεύχεσθαι, ὅπως φανῶσι τοῖς ἀνθρώποις· ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ὅτι ἀπέχουσι τὸν μισθὸν αὐτῶν. ς  Καὶ πάλιν λέγει· ̧  Ὅταν νηστεύητε, μὴ γίνεσθε, ὥσπερ οἱ ὑποκριταὶ σκυθρωποὶ· ἀφανίζουσι γὰρ τὰ πρόσωπα αὐτῶν, ὅπως φανῶσι τοῖς ἀνθρώποις νηστεύοντες· ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀπέχουσιν τὸν μισθὸν αὐτῶν.ς

BUT observe how the Physician of souls here:

[1] through acts of mercy [medically] treats our irascibility;

[2] through prayer purges the nous;

[3] and through fasting causes desire to atrophy.

  Ἀλλὰ προσεκτέον ἐνταῦθα τῷ ἰατρῷ τῶν ψυχῶν, [79.1204c] πῶς

̈διὰ μὲν τῆς ἐλεημοσύνης τὸν θυμὸν θεραπεύει,

διὰ δὲ τῆς προσευχῆς τὸν νοῦν καθαρίζει, [p.162] 

καὶ πάλιν διὰ τῆς νηστείας τὴν ἐπιθυμίαν καταμαραίνει,̈

FROM these [virtues] the new man is formed, renewed according to the image of his Creator (Gal. 3:28), in whom, thanks to holy apatheia, there is neither male nor female; and, thanks to singleness of faith and love there is neither Greek nor Jew, circumcision nor uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bond nor free; but Christ is all, and in all (Col. 3: 10-11).

ἐξ ὧν συνίσταται ὁ νέος ἄνθρωπος, ὁ ἀνακαινούμενος κατ̓ εἰκόνα τοῦ κτίσαντος αὐτὸν, ἐν ᾧ οὐκ ἔστι διὰ τὴν ἀγίαν ἀπάθειαν ἄρσεν, καὶ θῆλυ, οὐδὲ διὰ τὴν μίαν πίστιν, καὶ ἀγάπην,  Ἕλλην, καὶ  Ἰουδαῖος, περιτομὴ, καὶ ἀκροβυστία, Βάρβαρος, Σκύθης, δοῦλος, καὶ ἐλεύθερος, ἀλλὰ τὰ πάντα ἐν πᾶσι Χριστός



(The Role of the Memory in Dreams)


4. We shall now enquire how, in the fantasies that occur during sleep, the demons imprint shapes and forms on our nous. Normally the nous receives these shapes and forms either through the eyes when it is seeing, or through the ears when it is hearing, or through some other sense, or else through the memory, which stirs up and imprints on the nous things which it has experienced through the body.

4. [79.1204c]  [p.162] Ζητητέον δὲ πῶς ἐν ταῖς καθ ᾿ ὕπνον φαντασίαις τυποῦσιν ἡμων τὸ ἡγεμονικὸν καὶ σχηματίζουσιν οἱ δαίμονες· τὸ γὰρ τοιοῦτον ἔοικε συμβαίνειν τῷ νῷ, ἢ δι ὀφθαλμῶν ὀρωντι, ἢ δι ἀκοῆς ἀκούοντι, ἢ [79.1204d] πάλιν δι αἰσθήσεως ποιᾶς, ἢ ἀπὸ τῆς μνήμης ἥτις τυποῖ μὲν τὸ ἡγεμονικὸν, οὐ διὰ τοῦ σώματος, πλὴν ἁπερ διὰ τοῦ σώματος ἔσχε, ταῦτα κινει.

Now it seems to me that in our sleep, when the activity of our bodily senses is suspended, it is by arousing the memory that the demons make this imprint. But, in that case, how do the demons arouse the memory? Is it through the passions Clearly this is so, for those in a state of purity and dispassion no longer experience demonic fantasies in sleep.

Οἱ οὖν δαίμονες ἐοίκασί μοι τὴν μνήμην κινοῦντες, τυποῦν τὸ ἡγεμονικόν· τὸ γὰρ ὅργανον ὑπὸ τοῦ ὔπνου κατέχεται ἀνενέργητον.  Πῶς οὖν πάλιν τὴν μνήμην κινοῦσι ζητητέον, ἢ τάχα ιὰ τῶν παθῶν; καὶ τοῦτο δῆλον ἐκ τοῦ μηκέτι τοὺς καθαροὺς καὶ ἀπαθεις πάσχειν τὶ τοιοῦτον.

There is also an activity of the memory that is not demonic: it is caused by ourselves or by the angelic powers, and through it we may meet with saints and delight in their company. We should notice in addition that during sleep the memory stirs up, without the body’s participation, those very images which the soul has received in association with the body. This is clear from the fact that we often experience such images during sleep, when the body is at rest.

Εστι δὲ καὶ κίνησίς τις ἁπλῆ ὑφ' ἡμῶν γινομένη, ἢ ὑπὸ ἁγίων δυνάμεων, καθ' ἣν ἁγίοις τε συντυγχάνομεν ἐν τοῖς ὕπνοις καὶ ὁμιλοῦμεν, καὶ συνεστιώμεθα.  Πλὴν προσεχτέον, ὅτι ἅπερ μετὰ τοῦ σώματος ἡ ψυχὴ εἰσδέχεται εἴδωλα, [79.1205a] ταυτα ᾶνευ τοῦ σώματος ἡ μνήμη κινεῖ καὶ τοῦτο σαφὲς ἐκ τοῦ πολλάκις καὶ ἐν τοῖς ὕπνοις πάσχειν ἡμᾳς τοῦτο ἡρεμοῦντος τοῦ σώματος.

Just as it is possible to think of water both while thirsty and while not thirsty, so it is possible to think of gold with greed and without greed. The same applies to other things. Thus if we can discriminate in this way between one kind of fantasy and another, we can then recognize the artfulness of the demons. We should be aware, too, that the demons also use external things to produce fantasies, such as the sound of waves heard at sea.

 Ὥσπερ ἔστι γὰρ μνημονεῦσαι ὕδατος καὶ μετὰ δίψης, καὶ ἄνευ δίψης· οὕτως ἔστι μνημονεῦσαι χρυσίου μετὰ πλεονεξίας, καὶ ἄνευ πλεονεξίας, καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν ἄλλων πραγμάτων ὡσαύτως.  Τὸ δὲ τοιάσδε ἢ τοιάσδε εὑρίσκειν φαντασιῶν διαφορὰς τὸν τοῦν, τῆς ἐκείνων κακοτεχίας ἐστὶ γνώρισμα.  Ἅμα δὲ καὶ τοῦτο ἰστέον, ὅτι καὶ τοῖς ἔξωθεν πράγμασι κέχρηνται πρὸς τὰς φαντασίας οἱ δαίμονες, ὡς ἐπὶ τῶν πλεόντων τῷ ἤχῳ τῶν κυμάτων.



5. When our thumos (incensive faculty) is aroused in a way contrary to nature, it greatly furthers the aim of the demons and is an ally in all their evil designs. Day and night, therefore, they are always trying to provoke it. And when they see it tethered by gentleness, they at once try to set it free on some seemingly just pretext; in this way, when it is violently aroused, they can use it for their shameful purposes. So it must not be aroused either for just or for unjust reasons; and we must not hand a dangerous sword to those too readily incensed to wrath, for it often happens that people become excessively worked up for quite trivial reasons.

[p.166] 5. Σφωδρα τω σκοπω των δαιμονων ὁ θυμος ἡμων συμβαλλεται παρα φυσιν κινουμενος, και προς πασαν αυτων κακομηχανιαν γινεται χρησιμωτατος, ὁθεν νυκτωρ, και μεθ ἡμεραν ταρασσειν [79.1205b] τουτον ουδεις αυτων παραιτειται, αλλ ὁταν ιδωσιν αυτον δεθεντα πραοτητι, το τηνικαυτα επι δικαιαις προφασεσιν ευθυς αυτον απολυουσιν, ἱνα οξυτερος γεγονως, και προς τους θηριωδεις λογισμους αυτων χρησιμευη, διοπερ αναγκη, μητε δικαιοις, μητε επ αδικοις πραγμασιν αυτο ερεθιζειν μητε κακον ξιφος διδοναι τοις ὑποβαλλουσιν.  Οπερ πολλακις πολλους ποιουντας επισταμαι, και πλεον η χρη, επι μικραις αναπτομενους προφασεσιν.

Tell me, why do you rush into battle so quickly, if you are really above caring about food, possessions and glory? Why keep a watchdog if you have renounced everything? If you do, and it barks and attacks other men, it is clear that there are still some possessions for it to guard. But since I know that wrath is destructive of pure prayer, the fact that you cannot control it shows how far you are from such prayer.

                [79.1205b] Υπερ τινος γαρ, ειπε μοι, και προσπιπτεις ταχεως [79.1205c] εις μαχην, ειπερ βρωματων, και δοξης, και χρηματων καταπεφρονηκας τι δε τρεφεις τον κυνα, μηδεν εχειν επαγγελλομενος  Ει δε οὑτος ὑλακτει, και τοις ανθρωποις επερχεται, προδηλος ει ενδον κεκτημενος τινα, και ταυτα φυλασσειν βουλομενος.  Αλλ εγω τον τοιαυτον μαχραν καθαρας προσευχης πειθομαι ειναι λυμενωμα τον θυμον της τοιαυτης επισταμενος.

 I am also surprised that you have forgotten the saints: David who exclaims, `Cease from anger, and put aside your wrath' (Ps. 37: 8 LXX); and Ecclesiastes who urges us, `Remove wrath from your heart, and put away evil from your flesh' (Eccl. r x: 1 0. LXX); while the Apostle commands that always and everywhere men should `lift up holy hands, without anger and without quarreling' ( 1Tim. 2:8). And do we not learn the same from the mysterious and ancient custom of putting dogs out of the house during prayer? This indicates that there should be no wrath in those who pray. `Their wine is the wrath of serpents' (Deut 32:33. LXX)); that is why the Nazarenes abstained from wine.

Πρὸς δὲ τούτοις θαυμάζω, ὡς καὶ τῶν ἁγίων ἐπιλελησμένων, τοῦ μὲν Δαβὶδ βοῶντος, ̧Παῦσαι ἀπὸ ὁργῆς, καὶ ἐγκατάλιπε θυμόν·ς τοῦ δὲ  Ἐκκλησιαστοῦ παραγγέλλοντος, ̧  Ἀπόστησον θυμὸν ἀπὸ καρδίας σου, καὶ πάραγε πονηρίαν ἀπὸ σαρκός σου· ς τοῦ δὲ  Ἀποστόλου προστάσσοντος, ̧ Χωρὶς ὀργῆς, καὶ διαλογισμῶν ἐν παντὶ τόπῳ ἐπαίρειν οσίας χεῖρας πρὸς Κ́ριον.ς  Τί δὲ οὐ μανθάνομεν απὸ [79.1205d] τῆς τῶν ἀνθρώπων μυστικῆς, καὶ παλαιᾶς συνηθείας διωκούσης ἐκ τῶν οἴκων τοὺς κύνας ἐν τῷ καιρῷ τῆς προσευχῆς, καὶ τοῦτο αἰνιττομένης, ὡς οὐ δεῖ συμπαρῆναι τοῖς προσευχομένοις θυμόν; Καὶ πάλιν· ̧ Θυμὸς δρακόντων ὁ οἴνος αὐτῶν. ς  Οἴνου δὲ οἱ Ναζιραῖοι ἀπείχοντο.

Gall and the loin are not eaten by the gods.” This was said by one of the pagan sages (Menander, Dyskolos 451-3; cit.Clem Alex. Strom 7.31.1) who, I believe, did now know what he said. For I understand the former as a symbol of anger and the latter as [a symbol] of irrational desire.

Χολὴν δὲ καὶ ὀσφὺ ἄβρωτα τοῖς θεοῖς τις τῶν ἔξωθέν σοφῶν ἀπεφήνατο εἶναι, οὐκ εἰδὼς, οἶμαι, [p.170] ὃ ἔλεγεν, ὧν τὸ μὲν ὀργῆς, τὸ δὲ ἀλόγου ἐπιθυμίας ἔγωγε σύμβολον εἶναι νομίζω.

6 6


6. It is needless to insist that we should not worry about clothes or food. The Saviour Himself forbids this in the Gospels: `Do not worry about what to eat or drink, or about what to wear’ (cf. Mt. 6:25). Such anxiety is a mark of the Gentiles and unbelievers, who reject the providence of the Lord and deny the Creator. An attitude of this kind is entirely wrong for Christians who believe that even two sparrows which are sold for a penny are under the care of the holy angels (cf. Mt. 10 29).

6. Περὶ δὲ τοῦ μὴ δεῖν μεριμνᾷν ἐνδυμάτων ἕνεκεν, ἤ βρωμάτων, περιττὸν οἶμαι τὸ γράφειν, αὐτοῦ τοῦ Σωτῆρος ἡμῶν ἐν τοῖς Εὐαγγελίοις ἀπαγορεύσαντος, ̧ Μὴ μεριμνήσητε γὰρ, φησὶ, τῇ ψυχῇ ὑμῶν τί φάγητε, ἢ τί πίητε ἢ τ́ περιβαλεῖσθε.ς  Ἐθνικῶν γὰρ [79.1208a] ἄντικρυς τοῦτο, καὶ ἀπίστων ἀθετούντων τὴν πρόνοιαν τοῦ Δεσπότου, καὶ τὸν Δημιουργὸν ἀρνουμένων· Χριστιανῶν δὲ τὸ τοιοῦτον παντλῶς ἀλλοτριον, ἅπαξ πεπιστευκότων, ὅτι καὶ τὰ πρασσόμενα δύο στρουθία τοῦ ἀσσαρίου ὑπὸ τὴν οἰκονομίαν τῶν ἁγίων ἀγγέλων ἐστί.

The demons, however, after arousing impure thoughts, go on to suggest worries of this kind, so that  ‘Jesus conveys Himself away’. because of the multitude of concepts in our mind (cf. Jn 5: 13).   The divine word can bear no fruit, being choked by our cares.

Πλήν ἐστι καὶ αὔτη συνήθεια τῶν δαιμόνων, μετὰ τοὺς ἀκαθάρτους λογισμοὺς ἐμβλ́λλειν καὶ τοὺς τῆς μερίμνης, ἵνα ἐκνεύσῃ ὁ  Ἰησοῦς ὄχλου ὄντος νοημάτων ἐν τῷ κατὰ διάνοιαν τόπῳ, καὶ ἄκαρπος γένηται ὁ λόγος ὑπὸ τῆς μερίμνης πνιγόμενος τῶν ἀκανθῶν.

Let us, then, renounce these cares, and throw them down before the Lord, being content with what we  have at the moment; and living in poverty and rags, let us day by day rid ourselves of all that fills us with self-esteem.

                [ΚΕΦΑΛ.  ϛʹ. [79.1208.b] Οὐκοῦν τοὺς ἐκ μερίμνης ἀποθέμενοι λογισμοὺς, ἐπιῤῥίψωμεν ἐπὶ Κύριον τὴν μέριμναν ἡμῶν τοῖς παροῦσιν ἀρκούμενοι, καὶ πενιχρᾷ ζωῇ χρησάμενοι, καὶ στολῇ τοὺς πατέρας τῆς κενοδοξόας μεθ' ἡμέραν ἀποδυσώμεθα.

If anyone thinks it shameful to live in rags, he should remember St. Paul, who `in cold and nakedness’ patiently awaited the `crown of righteousness’ (2 Cor. 11:27; 2 Tim. 4:8). The Apostle likened this world to a contest in an arena (cf. 1Cor 9: 24); how then can someone clothed with anxious thoughts run for `the prize of the high calling of God’ (Phil. 3: 14), or `wrestle against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world’ (Eph 6:12) ? I do not see how this is possible; for just as a runner is obstructed and weighed down by clothing, so too is the nous by anxious thoughts - if indeed the saying is true that the nous is attached to its own treasure; for it is said, `where your treasure is, there wilt your heart be also ‘ (Mt, 6:21).

Εἰ δέ τις ἀσχημονεῖν ἐπὶ πενιχρᾷ νομίζει στολῇ, βλεπέτω τὸν ἅγιον Παῦλον ἐν ψύχει, καὶ γυμνότητι, τὸν τῆς δικαιοσύνης προσδοκήσαντα στέφανον.  Ἀλλ' ἐπειδὴ θέατρον, καὶ στάδιον ὁ  Ἀπόστολος τὸν κόσμον τοῦτον ὠνόμασεν, ἴδωμεν, εἰ ἔστι δυνατὸν, μερίμνης ἐνδυσάμενον λογισμοὺς, δραμεῖν ἐπὶ τὸ βραβεῖον τἠς ἄνω κλήσεως, ἢ παλαῖσαι πρὸς τὰς ἀρχὰς καὶ τὰς ἐξουσίας, καὶ πρὸς τοὺς κοσμοκράτορας τοῦ σκότους τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου· ἐγὼ μὲν οὐκ οἶδα, καὶ ἀπ' αὐτῆς τῆς αἰσθητῆς παιδευόμενος ἱστορίας.   Ἐμποδισθήσεται γὰρ ἐκεῖνος ὁ [1208C] ἀθλῶν ὑπὸ τοῦ χιτῶνος δηλονότι, καὶ εὐκόλως περιελκυσθήσεται, καθάπερ καὶ ὁ νοῦς ὑπὸ τῶν λογισμῶν τῆς μερίμνης, εἴπερ ἀληθινὸς ὁ λέγων τῷ ἰδίῳ τὸν νοῦν προσκαρτερεῖν θησαυρῷ,  ̧  Ὅπου γάρ ἐστιν ὁ θησαυρός σου, φησὶν, ἐκεῖ ἔσται, καὶ ἡ καρδία δου.ς [Mt 6:21]



7. [Phl. 6] Sometimes thoughts are cut off, and sometimes they do the cutting off. Evil thoughts cut off good thoughts, and in turn are cut off by good thoughts. The Holy Spirit therefore notes to which thought we give priority and condemns or approves us accordingly. What I mean is something like this: the thought occurs to me to give hospitality and it is for the Lord’s sake; but when the tempter attacks, this thought is cut off and in its place he suggests giving hospitality for the sake of display.

[79.1208c]  [p.174] 7.  Τῶν λογισμῶν οἱ τέμνουσιν, οἱ δὲ τέμνονται· καὶ τέμνουσι μὲν οἱ πονηροὶ τοὺς ἀγαθοὺς, τέμνονται δὲ πάλιν ὑπὸ τῶν ἀγαθῶν οἱ πονηροὶ τὸ τοίνυν Πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον πρώτως τεθέντι προσέχει λογισμῷ, καὶ πρὸς ἐκεῖνον κρίνει ἡμᾶς, ἢ ἀποδέχεται.  Ὃ δὲ λέγω τοιοῦτόν ἐστιν.  Ἔχω τινὰ φιλοξενίας λογισμὸν, καὶ τοῦτον ἔχω διὰ τὸν Κύριον, ἀλλ' οὑτος [79.1208d]  ἐπελθόντος τοῦ πειράζοντος τέμνεται καὶ δόξης χάριν φιλοξενεῖν ὑποβάλλοντος. 

Again, the thought comes to me of giving hospitality so as to appear hospitable in the eyes of others. But this thought in its turn is cut off when a better thought comes, which leads me to practice this virtue for the Lord’s sake and not so as to gain esteem from men. [In PhK  there follows here PhK 7]

Πάλιν· ἔχω φιλοξενίας λογισμὸν πρὸς τὸ τοῖς ἀνθρώποις φανῆναι, ἀλλὰ καὶ οὗτος ἐπελθοντος κρείττονος λογισμοῦ διατέμνεται, τοῦ πρὸς τὸν Κύριον μᾶλλον ῾ῶν τὴν ἀρετὴν ἀπευθύνοντος  καὶ μὴ δι΄ ἀνθρώπους ταῦτα πράττειν ἡμᾶς ἀναγκάζοντος.

If then by our actions, now we persist in our first thoughts, although tempted by the second, we will receive only the reward due to the first: because, being men, we lack the strength in the fight against demons to constantly keep a thought uncorrupted; nor again to keep an evil [tempting-] thought untested, since we have within us the seeds of virtue. But if one of the cutting thoughts remains, it settles in place of the one that is cut, and it is according to this thought, henceforth, that man will receive the impulse that will make him act.

Αν οὖν διὰ τῶν ἔργων λοιπὸν τοῖς προτέροις ἐμμείνωμεν ὑπὸ τῶν δευτέρων πειραζόμενοι, μόνων τῶν προτέρων τεθέντων λογισμῶν ἕξομεν τοὺς μισθοὺς, διότι ἀνθρωποι ὄντες, καὶ παλαίοντες δαίμοσιν, ἀεὶ κατέχειν τὸν ὀρθὸν λογισμὸν ἄφθαρτον οὐκ ἰσχύομεν, οὐδὲ πάλιν τὸν πονηρὸν λογισμόν ἔχειν ἀπείραστον, [79.1209a] ἀρετῶν σπέρματα κεκτημένοι.  Πλὴν ἐάν τις χρονίσῃ τῶν τεμνόντων λογισμῶν ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ τοῦ πειραζομένου καθίσταται, καὶ κατ' ἐκεῖνον λοιπὸν τὸν λογισμὸν ὁ ἄνθρωπος κινούμενος ἐνεργήσει.     


(Ph 7) [79.1209a] [p.176] 8.

8. We have learned, after much observation, to recognize the difference between angelic thoughts, human thoughts, and thoughts that come from demons. Angelic thought is concerned with the true nature of things and with searching out their spiritual essence . For example, why was gold created and scattered like sand in the lower regions of the earth, to be found only with much toil and effort? And how, when found, is it washed in water and committed to the fire, and then put into the hands of craftsmen who fashion it into the candlestick of the tabernacle and the censers and the vessels (cf. Ex. 25:22-39) from which, by the grace of our Saviour, the king of Babylon no longer drinks (cf. Dan 5:2, 3)? A man such as Cleopas brings a heart burning with these mysteries (cf. Lk 24:3 2). Demonic thought, on the other hand, neither knows nor can know such things. It can only shamelessly suggest the acquisition of physical gold, looking forward to the wealth and glory that will come from this. Finally, human thought neither seeks to acquire gold nor is concerned to know what it symbolizes, but brings before the mind simply the image of gold, without passion or greed. The same principle applies to other things as well.

Τῶν ἀγγελικων λογισμῶν, καὶ τῶν ἀνθρωπίνων καὶ τῶν ἐκ δαιμόνων ταύτην τὴν διαφορὰν μετὰ πολλῆς τῆς παρατηρήσεως ἐγνώκαμεν εἰναι, ὅτι πρῶτον μὲν οἱ ἀγγελικοὶ τὰς φύσεις τῶν πραγμάτων περιεργάζονται, καὶ τοὺς πνευματικοὺς αὐτῶν ἐξιχνιάζουσι λογισμούς.  Οἷον, τίνος χάριν γεγένηται ὁ χρυσὸς, καὶ διὰ τί ψαμμώδης, καὶ κάτω πυ τοῖς μορίοις τῆς γῆς ἐγκατέσπαρται, καὶ μετὰ πολλοῦ καμάτου, καὶ πόνου εὑρίσκεται; ὅπως τε εὑρωθεὶς ὕδατι πλύνεται, καὶ πυρὶ παραδίδοται, καὶ οὕτως εἰς τεχνιτῶν ἐμβάλλεται χεῖρας, τῶν ποιούντων τῆς σκηνῆς τὴν λυχνίαν, καὶ [79.1209b] τὸ θυμιατήριον, καὶ τὰς θυΐσκας, καὶ τὰς φιάλας, ἐν αἷς οὐκέτι νυν͂ν πίνει διὰ τὴν χάριν τοῦ Σωτῆρος ἡμῶν ὁ Βαβυλώνιος βασιλεύς, Κλεόπα δὲ φέρει καρδίαν καιομέην ὑπὸ τούτων μυστηρίων.  Ὁ δὲ δαιμονιώδης λογισμὸς, ταῦτα μὲν οὔτε οἶδεν, οὔτε ἐπίσταται· μόνην δὲ τὴν κτῆσιν τοῦ αἰσθητοῦ χρυσίου ὑποβάλλει, καὶ τὴν ἐκ τούτου τρυφή́ν τε καὶ δόξαν ἐσομένην προλέγει· ὁ δὲ ἀνθρώπινος λογισμὸς, οὐδὲ τὴν κτῆσιν ἐπιζητεῖ, οὔτε τίνος περιεργάζεται σύμβολον ο ῾ χρυσὸς, ἀλλὰ μόνο εἰς τὴν διάνοιαν τοῦ χρυσοῦ τὴν μορφὴν εἰσφέρει ψιλὴν, πάθους πλεονεξίας κεχωρισμένην· ὁ δὲ αὐτὸς λόγος, καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν ἄλλων πραγμάτων ῥθήσεται, κατὰ τὸν κακόνα τοῦτον μυστικῶς γυμναζόμενος.

X(The Wandering Demon)


9. [] There is a demon known as the one who leads astray, [‘wanderer’] who especially at dawn presents [himself] to the brothers, and leads around the nous of the solitary from city to city, from house to house, from village to village, pretending at first to simply carry on [holy] conversation; [but] then recognizing those it meets and talking at greater length: and in time it happens that, little by little it incurs forgetfulness of the knowledge of God, of virtue, and of its calling.

[79.1209c] [p.180] 9.  Ἔστι δαίμων, πλάνος λεγόμενος, καὶ ὑπὸ τὴν ἕω μάλιστα τοῖς ἀδλφοῖς παρίσταται, ὅστις περιάγει τοῦ ἀναχωρητοῦ τὸν νοῦν ἀπὸ πόλεως εἰς πόλιν, καὶ ἀπὸ οἰκίας εἰς οἰκίαν, καὶ ἀπὸ κώμης εἰς κώμην, ψιλὰς δῆθεν [πρῶτον] τὰς συντυχίας ποιούμενον, καὶ γνωορίμοις τισὶ τυγχάνοντα, [καὶ λαλοῦντα] μακρότερα, καὶ τὴν οἰκείαν πρὸς τοὺς ἀπαντῶντας κατάστασιν διαφθείροντα, καὶ μακρὰν γινόμενον, κατ' ὀλίγον τῆς γνώσεως τοῦ Θεοῦ, καὶ τῆς ἀρετῆς, καὶ τοῦ ἐπαγγέλματος λήθην λαμβάνοντα.

Therefore the solitary must watch this demon, noting where he comes from and where he ends up; for this demon does not make this long circuit without purpose and at random, but because he wishes to corrupt the state of the solitary, so that his nous, overexcited by all this wandering, and intoxicated by its many meetings, may immediately fall prey to the demons of unchastity, anger or dejection - the demons that above all others destroy its inherent brightness.

Δεῖ οὖν τὸν ἀναχωροῦντα, τοῦτον τηρεῖν, πόθεν τε α
αρχεται, καὶ ποῦ καταλήγει· οὐ γὰρ εἰκ, οὐδὲ ὡς ἔτυχε μακρὸν ἐκεῖνον κύκλον ἐργάζεται, ἀλλὰ τὴν κατάστασιν τοῦ ἀναχωρητοῦ διαφθείρειν βουλόμενος, ταῦτα ποιεῖ, ἵνα ἐκκαυθεις  [79.1209d] ἐκ τούτων ὁ νοῦς, καὶ ἐκ τῶν πολλῶν συντυχιῶν μεθυσθεὶς εὐθέως τῷ τῆς πορνείας, ἢ τ͂ς ὀργῆς, ἢ τῷ τῆς λύπης δαίμονι περιπέσῃ, οἵτινες μάλιστα λυμαίνονται τῆς καταστάσεως αὐτοῦ τὴν λαμπρότητα.

But if we really want to understand the cunning of this demon, we should not be hasty in speaking to him, or tell others what is taking place, how he is compelling us to make these visits in our mind and how he is gradually driving the nous to its death -for then he will flee from us, as he cannot bear to be seen doing this; and so we shall not grasp any of the things we are anxious to learn. But, instead, we should allow him one more day, or even two, to play out his role, so that we can learn about his deceitfulness in detail; then, mentally rebuking him, we put him to flight.

̓Αλλ' ἡμεῖς, εἴπερ ἔχομεν σκοπὸν τοῦ γνῶναι σαφῶς τὴν τούτου πανουργίαν, μὴ ταχέως φθεγξώμεθα πρὸς αὐτὸν, μηδὲ δεικνύωμεν τὰ γινόμενα, πῶς κατὰ τὴν διάνοιαν τὰς συντυχίας ἐργάζεται, καὶ τίνα τρόπον κατ' ὀλίγον συνελαύνει τὸν νοῦν πρὸς τὸν θάνατον, ἐπεὶ φεύξεται ἀφ' ἡμῶν· [79.1212a] ὁρᾶσθαι γὰρ ταῦτα πράττων οὐ καταδέχεται· καὶ οὐδὲν λοιπὸν εἰσόμεθα ὧν μαθεῖν ἐσπουδάκαμεν,  Ἀλλὰ καὶ ἄλλην μίαν ἡμέραν, ἢ καὶ δευτέραν συγχωρήσωμεν αὐτοῦ τὸ σκαιώρημα, λόγῳ μετὰ ταῦτα ἐλέγξαντες αὐτὸν φυγαδεύσωμεν.

X(Analyze Your Thoughts)

[not Phk]) 

9. But since at the time of temptation the nous is clouded and does not see exactly what is happening, do as follows after the demon has withdrawn. Sit down and recall in solitude the things that have happened: where you starred and where you went, in what place you were seized by the spirit of unchastity, dejection or anger and how it all happened. Examine these things closely and commit them to memory, so that you will then be ready to expose the demon when he next approaches you. Try to become conscious of the weak spot in yourself which he hid from you, and you will not follow him again.

[79.1212a] [π.182.26] ΚΕΦΑΛ. Θ'. Ἀλλ' ἐπειδὴ κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν τοῦ πειρασμοῦ συμβαίνει, τεθολωμένον ὄντα τὸν μὴ ἀκριβῶς ἰδεῖν τὰ γεγόμενα, μετὰ τὴν ἀναχώρησιν τοῦ δαίμονος τοῦτο γινέσθω· καθεσθεὶς καθ' ἑαυτὸν, μνημόνευσον τῶν συμβεβηκότων σοι πραγμάτων, πόθεν τε ἤρξω καὶ ποῦ ἐπορεύθης, καὶ ἐν ποίω τόπῳ συνελήφθης ὑπὸ τοῦ πνεύματος τῆς πορνείας, ἢ τῆς ὀργῆς, ἢ τῆς λύπης, καὶ πῶς πάντα γέγονε τὰ γινόμενα, καὶ σαφῶς ταῦτα κατάμαθε, καὶ παράδος τῇ μνήμῇ ἵνα ἐχῃς ἐλέγχειν αὐτὸν προσιόντα, καὶ τὸν κρυπτόμενον ὑπ' αὐτοῦ τόπον καταμήνυε, καὶ οὐκ ἀκολουθήσεις αὐτὸν λοιπόν.

If you wish to enrage him, expose him at once when he reappears, and tell him just where you went first, and where next, and so on. For he becomes very angry and cannot bear the disgrace. And the proof that you spoke to him effectively is that the thoughts he suggested leave you. For he cannot remain in action when he is openly exposed. The defeat of this demon is followed by heavy sleepiness and deadness, together with a feeling of great coldness in the eyelids, countless yawnings, and heaviness in the shoulders. But if you pray intensely all this is dispersed by the Holy Spirit.

[79.1212b] 'Εἰ δὲ βούλει ποτὲ καὶ εἰς μανίαν προκαλέσασθαι, ἔλεγξον αὐτὸν εὐθὺς ἐπιστάντα καὶ τὀν πρῶτον τόπον εἰς ὃν εἰσῆλθε φανέρωσον, καὶ τὸν δεύτερον, καὶ τὸν τρίτον, πάνυγἀρ καλεπαίνει μὴ φέρων τὴν αἰσχύνην· ἀπόδειξις δὲ ἔσται τοῦ καιρίως σε φθέγξασθαι πρὸς αὐτὸν, τὸ πεφευγέναι τὸν ογισμὸν ἀπὸ σοῦ· ἀδύνατον γἀρ λοιπὸν στῆναι αὐτὸν φανερῶς ἐλεγχόμενον,  Τοῦτον δὲ ἡττηθέντα τὸν τῆς πλάνης δαίμονα διαδέχεται ὕπνος βαρύτατος, καὶ νέκρωσις μετὰ ψυχρότητος πολλης τῶν βλεφάρων, καὶ κασμοὶ ἄπειροι, καὶ ὦμοι βαρούμενοι, καὶ ναρκῶντες, ἅπερ τῇ συντόνῳ προσευχῇ διαλύσει τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον.

10(Hatred of the demons)

[79.1212c] [p.184]

10. (Ph  9) Hatred against the demons contributes greatly to our salvation and helps our growth in holiness. But we do not of ourselves have the power to nourish this hatred into a strong plant, because the pleasure - loving spirits restrict it and encourage the soul again to indulge in its old habitual loves. But this indulgence - or rather this gangrene that is so hard to cure - the Physician of souls heals by abandoning us. For He permits us to undergo some fearful suffering night and day, and then the soul returns again to its original hatred, and learns like David to say to the Lord: `I hate them with perfect hatred: I count them my enemies’ (Ps.139:22). For a man hates his enemies with perfect hatred when he sins neither in activity nor in mind - which is the first and greatest sign of apatheia.

 10. Πάνυ τὸ μῖσος τὸ κατὰ δαιμόνων ἡμιν πρὸς σωτηρίαν συμβάλλεται καὶ πρὸς τὴν ἐργασίαν τῆς ἀρετῆς ἐστιν ἐπιτήδειον· καὶ̀ τοῦτο ἐκτρέφειν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς, ὥσπερ τι γέννημα ἀγαθον οὐκ ἰσχύομεν, τῶν φιληδόνων πνευμάτων διαφθειρόντων ἀυτὸ, κὰι πρὸς φιλίαν, καὶ συνήθειαν πάλιν τὴν ψυχὴν εκκαλουμένων· ἀλλὰ ταύτην τὴν φιλ́ιαν, μᾶλλον δὲ την δυσίατον γάγραιναν ὁ ἰατρὸς τῶν ψυχῶν δι' ἐγκαταλείψεως θεραπεύει· συγχωρεῖ γάρ τι φοβερὸν παθεῖν ἡμᾶς ὑπ' αὐτῶν  νύκτωρ ἢ μεθ' ἡμέραν, καὶ πάλιν [79.1212d] ἡ ψυχὴ πρὸς τὸ ἀρχέτυπον μῖσος ἐπανατρέχει διδασκομένη πρὸς τὸν Κύριον λέγειν, κατὰ τὸν Δαβ̀ιδ, το ̧ Τέλειον μῖσος ἐμίσουν αὐτοὺς, εἰς ἐχθροὺς ἐγενοντό μοι. ς  Οὗτος γὰρ τέλειον μῖσος μισεῖ τοὺς ἐχθροὺς, ὁ μήτε κατ' ἐνέργειαν, μήτε κατὰ διάνοιαν ἁμαρτάνων· ὅπερ τῆς πρώτης, καὶ τῆς μεγίστης ἐστὶν ἀπαθείας τεκμήριον.



11. [Phk 10]  Now concerning the demon who makes the soul insensitive, what is it proper to say?  For I am afraid to write about him, how the soul departs from its own habitual state: for at the time of his approach [the soul] strips itself of reverence and the fear of God, no longer regarding sin as sin, or wickedness as wickedness; it looks on judgment and the eternal punishment of hell as mere words; it laughs at the fire which causes the earth to tremble; and, while supposedly confessing God, it has no understanding of His commandments.

[79.1212d] [p.188]  11.  Περὶ δὲ τοῦ δαίμονος, τοῦ τὴν ψυχὴν ἀναισθητεῖν ποιοῦντος, τί δεῖ λέγειν;  'Εγὼ γὰρ δέδοικα [καὶ] γράφειν περὶ αὐτοῦ, πῶς ἡ ψυχὴ τῆς οἰκείας ἐξίσταιαι καταστάσεως· παρὰ γὰρ τὸν καιρὸν τῆς ὠπιδημίας αὐτοῦ, καὶ τὸν φόβον τοῦ Θεοῦ, καὶ τὴν εὐλάβειαν [1213a] ἀποδύεται, καὶ τὴν ἁμαρτίαν, οὐχ ἁμαρτίαν εἶναι λογίζεται, καὶ τὴν παρανομίαν οὐ νομίζει παρανομίαν, κολάσεως δὲ καὶ κρίσεως αἰωνίου, ὡς ψιλοῦ ῥήματος μέμνηται, καταγελᾳ δὲ ὄντως σεισμοῦ πυρφόρου, καὶ Θεὸν μὲν δῆθεν ὁμολογεῖ, τί δὲ προσέταξεν οὐκ ἐπίσταται.

You may beat your breast as such a soul draws near to sin, but it takes no notice. You recite from the Scripture, yet it is wholly indifferent and will not hear. You point out its shame and disgrace among men, and it ignores you, like a pig that closes its eyes and charges through a fence. This demon gets into the soul by way of long-continuing thoughts of self-esteem; and unless ‘those days are shortened, no flesh will be saved’ (Mt 24 22).

τύπτεις εἰς τὰ στήθη, κινουμένης αὐτῆς πρὸς τὴν ἁμαρτίαν, καὶ αὕτη οὐκ αἰσθάνεται.  Ἀπὸ Γραφῶν διαλέγῃ, και ὅλη πεπώρωται, καὶ οὐκ ἀκούει· ὄνειδος αὐτῇ τὸ παρὰ τῶν ἀνθρώπων προσφέρεις, καὶ οὐ λογίζεται τὴν παρὰ τοῖς ἀνθρώποις αἰσχύνην, καὶ αὕτη ὅλως οὐ συνίησι, δίκην χοίρου καμμύσαντος ὀφθαλμοὺς, καὶ τὸν φραγμὸν διακόπτοντος· τοῦτον δὲ τὸν δαίμονα κενοδιξίας χρονίσαντες ἐπάγουσι λογισμοὶ, οὗ εἰ μὴ ἐκολοβώθησαν αἱ ἡμέραι, οὐκ ἂν ἐσώθη πᾶσα σάρξ.

This is one of those demons that seldom approach brethren living in a community. The reason is clear: when people round us fall into misfortune, or are afflicted by illness, or are suffering in prison, or meet sudden death, this demon is driven out; for the soul has only to experience even a little compunction or compassion and the callousness caused by the demon is dissolved. We solitaries lack these things, because we live in the wilderness and sickness is rare among us.

Καὶ γὰρ [79.1213b] τῶν σπανίως παραβαλλόντων τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς, ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ αἰτία πρόδηλος· ἐπὶ συμφοραῖς  γὰρ ἑτέρων ἢ ἐν νόσοις πιεζομένων, ἢ ἐν φυλακαῖς δυστυχούντων, ἢ αἰφνιδίοις περιπιπτόντων θανάτοις, φυγαδεύεται οὗτος, τῆς ψυχῆς κατὰ μικρὸν κατανυσσομένης, καὶ εἰς συμπάθειαν ἐρχομένης, καὶ διαλυομένου τοῦ δαιμονίου πωρώματος, ὧν ἡμεῖς ἀποροῦμεν διὰ τὴν ἔρημον, καὶ τὴν σπάνιν τῶν παρ' ἡμῖν ἀσθενούντων.

[12. not PhK.] It was to banish this demon especially that the Lord enjoined us in the Gospels to call on the sick and visit those in prison. For `I was sick,’ He says, `and you visited Me’ (Mt 25:36).  But you should know this: if an anchorite falls in with this demon, yet does not admit unchaste thoughts or leave his cell out of listlessness, this means he has received the patience and self-restraint that come from heaven, and is blessed with dispassion. Those, on the other hand, who profess to practise godliness, yet choose to have dealings with people of the world, should be on their guard against this demon. I feel ashamed to say or write more about him.

[79.1213b] ΚΕΦΑΛ. ΙΒ'. Τοῦτον τὸν δαίμονα μάλιατα φυγαδεύων ὁ Κυριος ἐν τοῖς Εὐαγγελίοις προσέταξεν ἀσθενοῦντας ὁρᾷν, [79.1213c] καὶ τοὺς ἐν φυλακῇ ἐπεσκεψασθέ με, καὶ ἐν φυλακῇ καὶ ἤλθετε  πρός με. ς  Πλὴν τοῦτο ἰστέον, εἴ τις τῶν ἀναχωρητῶν, περιπεσὼν τούτῳ τῷ δαίμονι, λογισμοὺς οὐκ ἔλαβε πορνικοὺς, ἢ τὸν οἶκον ἀκηδίας οὐ κατέλιπεν, οὗτος σωφροσύνην, καὶ ὑπομονὴν ἀπ' οὐρανῶν ἐδέξατο κατελθούσας, καὶ μακάριός συναυλίζεσθαι προαιροῦνται, φυλαττέσθωσαν τούτου τοῦ [p.192] δαίμονος.γὼ γὰρ περὶ αὐτοῦ πλέον τι λέγειν, ἢ γράφειν, καὶ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους αἰσχύνομαι.


[79.1213d] ΚΕΦΑΛ. ΙΓʹ. [p.192]

12. [POhK 11] All the demons teach the soul to love pleasure; only the demon of dejection refrains from doing this, since he corrupts the thoughts of those he enters by cutting off eve? pleasure of the soul and drying it up through dejection, for `the bones of the dejected are dried up’ (Pr 17:22 LXX). Now if this demon attacks only to a moderate degree, he makes the anchorite more resolute; for he encourages him to seek nothing worldly and to shun all pleasures. But when the demon remains for longer, he encourages the soul to give up, or forces it to run away. Even Job was tormented by this demon, and it was because of this that he said: ‘O that I might lay hands upon myself, or at least ask someone else to do this for me’ (Job 30:24. LXX).

 12. Πάντες οἱ δαίμονες φιλήδονον διδάσκουσι τὴν ψυχήν· μόνος δὲ ὁ τῆς λύπης δαίμων, τοῦτο πράττειν οὐ καταδέχεται, ἀλλὰ καὶ τῶν εἰσελθότων τοὺς λογισμοὺς διαφθείρει, πᾶσαν ἡδονὴν περικόπτων καὶ ξηραίνων αὐτὴν διὰ τῆς λύπης.  Εἴπερ ἀνδρὸς λυπηροῦ ξηρίνειαι ὀστᾶ, καὶ μετρίως μὲν πολεμῶν δόκιμον τὸν ἀναχωρητὴν ἀπεργσάζεται· πείθεν γὰρ αὐτὸν μηδὲν τῶν κοσμου τούτου προσίεσθαι, καὶ πᾶσαν ἡδονὴν περιίστασθαι, πλεῖον δὲ προσκαρτερῶν, γεννᾷ λογισμοὺς ὑπεξάγειν ἑαυτὸν τῇ ψυχῇ συμβουλεύοντας, ἢ φευγειν τῶν τόπων μακρὰν [1216a] ἀναγκάζοντας· ὅπερ λελόγισταί ποτε, καὶ πέπονθε καὶ ὁ ἅγιος  Ιὼβὑπὸ ούτου παρενοχλούμενος τοῦ δαίμονος· ̧ Εἴθε γὰρ δυναίμην, φησὶν, ἐμαυτὸν χειρώσασθαι, ἢ δεηθείς γε ἑτέρου, καὶ ποιήσει μοι τοῦτο.ς

The symbol of this demon is the viper. When used in moderation for man’s good, its poison is an antidote against that of other venomous creatures, but when taken in excess it kills whoever takes it. It was to this demon that Paul delivered the man at Corinth who had fallen into sin. That is why he quickly wrote again to the Corinthians saying: ‘Confirm your love towards him... lest perhaps he should be swallowed up with too great dejection’ (2 Cor. 2: 7-8). He knew that this spirit, in troubling men, can also bring about true repentance.

Τούτου τοῦ δαίμονος σύμβολόν ἐστιν ἡ ἐχιδνα, τὸ θηρίον, ἧς ἡ φύσις φιλανθρώπως διδομένη, τοὺς τῶν ἄλλων θηρίων ἰοὺς διαφθείρει τὸ ζῶον.  Τούτῳ τῷ δαίμονι παρέδωκεν ὁ Παῦλος τὸν ἐν Κορίνθῳ παρανομήσαντα, διὸ κὶ γράφει πάλιν σπουδαίως· ̧ Κυρώσατε, λέγων τοῖς Κορινθίοις, ἰς αὐτὸν ἀγάπην, ἵνα μή ποτε τῇ περισσοτέρᾳ λύπῃ καταποθῇ ὁ τοιοῦτος. ς  Ἀλλ' οἶδε τοῦτο θλίβον τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τὸ πνεῦμα καὶ μετανοίας αὐτοῖς ἀγαθῆς πρόξενον γίνεσθαι·

It was for this reason that St. John the Baptist gave the name `progeny of Vipers’ to those who were goaded by this spirit to seek refuge in God, saying: `Who has warned you to flee from the anger to come? Bring forth fruits, then, that testify to your repentance; and do not think that you can just say within yourselves, We have Abraham as our father’ (Mt. 3:7-9). But if a man imitates Abraham and leaves his country and kindred (cf. Gen. Iz: t), he thereby becomes stronger than this demon.

ὅθεν καὶ ὁ ἅγιος  Ἰωάννης ὁ Βαπτιστὴς, τοὺς [79.1216b] ὑπὸ τούτου κεντουμένους τοῦ δαίμονος, καὶ προσφεύγοντας τῷ Θεῷ·  ̧ Γεννήματα ἐχιδνῶν, φησὶ, τίς ὑμῖν ὑπέδειξε φυγεῖν ἀπὸ τῆς μελλούσης, καὶ μὴ δόξητε λέγειν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς, Πατέρα ἔχομεν τὸν  Ἀβραάμ· λέγω γὰρ ὑμῖν ὅτι δύναται ὁ Θεὸς ἐκ τῶν λίθων τούτων ἐγεῖραι τέκνα τῷ  Ἀβραάμ. ς  Πλὴν ᾶς ὁ τὸν  Ἀβραάμ μιμησάμενος, καὶ ἐξελθὼν ἐκ τῆς γῆς αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἐκ τῆς συγγενείας, αὐτὸς καὶ τούτου τοῦ δαίμονος γέγονεν ἰσχυρότερος.


[PhK 12][79.1216b] [p.196]

13.   He who has mastery over his thumos has mastery also over the demons. But anyone who is a slave to it is a stranger to the monastic life and to the ways of our Saviour, for as David said of the Lord: `He will teach the gentle His ways’ (Ps 25:9). The nous of the solitary is hard for the demon to catch, for it shelters in the land of gentleness. There is scarcely any other virtue which the demons fear as much as gentleness. Moses possessed this virtue, for he was called `very gentle, above all men’ (Num 12:3)  And David showed that it makes men worthy to be remembered by God when he said: ‘Lord, remember David and all his gentleness’ (Ps 132:11. LXX).

13. Εἴ τις θυμοῦ κεκράτηκεν, οὗτος δαιμόνων κεκράτηεν, εἰ δέ τις τούτῳ τῷ πάθει δεδούλωται, οὗτος [79.1216c] μοναδικοῦ βίου ἐστὶ παντελῶς ἀλλότριος, καὶ ξένος τῶν ὁδῶ τοῦ Σωτῆρος ἡμῶν· εἴπερ αὐτὸς ὁ Κύριος ἡμῶν λέγεται διδάσκειν τοῦς πραεῖς τὰς ὁδοὺς αὐτοῦ· διὸ καὶ δυσθήρατος γίνεται τῶν ἀναχωρούντων ὁ νοῦς, εἰς τὸ τῆς πραότητος φεύγων πεδίον· οὐδεμίαν γὰρ τῶν ἀρετῶν σχεδὸν οὕτω δεδοίκασιν οἱ δαίμονες, ὡς πραΰτητα· ταύτην γὰρ καὶ Μωϋσῆς ἐκεῖνος ἐκέκτητο, πραῢς παρὰ πάντας τοὺς ἀνθρώπους κληθείς.  Καὶ ὁ ἅγιος δὲ Δαβὶδ ἀξίαν ταύτην τ͂ς τοῦ Θεοῦ μνήμης ἀπεφθέγξατο εἶναι· ̧ Μνήσθητι Κύριε, λέγων, τοῦ Δαβὶδ, καὶ πάσης τῆς πραότητος αὐτοῦ.ς

And the Saviour Himself also enjoined us to imitate Him in His gentleness, saying: `Learn from Me; for I am gentle and humble in heart: and you will find rest for your souls’ (Mt 11:29). Now if a man abstains from food and drink, but becomes incensed to wrath because of evil thoughts, he is like a ship sailing the open sea with a demon for pilot. So we must keep this watchdog under careful control, training him to destroy only the wolves and not to devour the sheep, and to show the greatest gentleness towards all men.

 Ἀλλὰ καὶ αὐτὸς ῾ Σωτὴρ μιμητὰς ἡμᾶς ἐκέλευσε γενέσθαι τῆς ἐκείνοου πραότητος· ̧ Μάθετε ἀπ' ἐμοῦ, λέγων, ὅτι πρᾶός εἰμι, καὶ ταπεινὸς τῇ καρδίᾳ, καὶ εὑρήσετε ἀνάπαυσιν ταῖς ψυχαῖς ὑμῶν.ς  [79.1216d] Εἰ δέ τις βρωμάτων μὲν, καὶ πομάτων, ἀπέχοιτο, θυμὸν δὲ λογισμοῖς πονηροῖς ἐρεθίζει, οὗτος ἔοικε ποντοπορούσῃ νηῒ, καὶ ἐχούσῃ δαίμονα κυβερνήτην, διὰ προσεκτέον, ὅση δύναμις, τῷ ἡμετέρῳ κυνὶ, καὶ διδακτέον αὐτὸν, τοὺς λύκους μόνους διαφθείρειν, καὶ μὴ τὰ πρόβατα κατεσθίειν, πᾶσαν ἐνδεικνύμενον πραότητα πρὸς πάντας ἀνθρώπους.


[PhK 13] [79.1216d] [p.198]

14. ALONE among the [tempting-]thoughts, none is more abundant in matter [i.e. objects] than self-esteem; for it is to be found almost everywhere, and like some cunning traitor in a city it opens the gates to all the demons. (cf. Skem 44) 14. Μόνος τῶν λογισμῶν ὁ τῆς κενοδοξίας ἐστὶ πολύυλος, ςαὶ ὅλον σχεδὸν περιλαμβάνων τὴν οἰκουμένην, καὶ πᾶσι τοῖς δαίμοσιν ὑπανοίγων τὰς θύρας, ὥσπερ [79.1217a] τις προδότης πονηρὸς ἀγαθῆς γενόμενος πόλεως. 

So it greatly debases the nous of the solitary, filling it with many words and notions, and polluting the prayers through which he is trying to heal all the wounds of his soul. All the other demons, when defeated, combine to increase the strength of this evil thought; and through the gateway of self -esteem they all gain entry into the soul, thus making a man’s last state worse than his first (cf. Mt 12:45).

 Διὸ καὶ πάνυ ταπεινοῖ τοῦ ἀναχωροῦντος τὸν νοῦν, πολλῶν λόγων αὐτὸν καὶ πραγμάτων πληρῶν, καὶ τὰς προσευχὰς αὐτοῦ λυμαινόμενος δι' ὧν πάντα τὰ τῆς ψυχῆς αὐτοῦ τραύματα θεραπεύειν σπουδάζει.  Τοῦτον τὸν λογισμὸν συναύξουσι πάντες ἡττηθέντες οἱ δαίμονες, καὶ πάλιν δι' αὐτοῦ πάντες εἰς τὰς ψυχὰς λαμβάνουσιν εἴσοδον, ποιοῦντες ὄντῶς τὰ ἔσχατα, χείρονα τῶν πρώτων. 

Self-esteem gives rise in turn to pride, which cast down from heaven to earth the highest of the angels, the seat of God’s likeness and the crown of all beauty. So turn quickly away from pride and do not dally with it, in case you surrender your life to others and your substance to the merciless (cf. Pr 5:9). This demon is driven away by intense prayer and by not doing or saying anything that contributes to the sense of your own importance.

̓Εκ τούτου δὲ γεννᾶται τοῦ λογισμοῦ, καὶ ὁ τῆς ὑπερηφανίας ἐκεῖνος, ὁ τὸ ἀποσφράγισμα τῆς ὁμοιώσεως, καὶ τὸν στέφανον τοῦ κάλλους ἀπ' οὐρανῶν εἰς γῆν κατασείσας.  Ἀλλ' ἀποπήδησον τούτου, καὶ μὴ χρονίσῃς, ἵνα μὴ προδῶμεν ἄλλοις τὴν ζωὴν ἡμῶν, καὶ τὸν ἡμέτερον βίον ἀνελεήμοσι.  Τοῦτον δὲ τὸν δαίμονα φυγαδεύει [p.202] ἐκτενὴς προσευχὴ, [79.1217b] καὶ τὸ μηδὲν ἑκόντα ποιεῖν, τῶν συνελούντων πρὸς τὴν ἐπάρατον δόξαν.

X15(Apatheia and Vainglory)


15. [ PhK 14]. When the nous of the solitary attains some small degree of dispassion, it mounts the horse of self-esteem and immediately rides off into cities, taking its fill of the lavish praise accorded to its repute. But by God’s providence the spirit of unchastity now confronts it and shuts it up in a sty of dissipation. This is to teach it to stay in bed until it is completely recovered and not to act like disobedient patients who, before they are fully cured of their disease, start taking walks and baths and so fall sick again. Let us sit still and keep our attention fixed within ourselves, so that we advance in holiness and resist vice more strongly. Awakened in this way to spiritual knowledge, we shall acquire contemplative insight into many things; and ascending still higher, we shall receive a clearer vision of the light of our Saviour.

 15.  Ὅταν ὀλίγης ἀπαθείας τῶν ἀναχωρούντων ὁ νοῦς ἐπιλάβηται, τότε κενοδοξίας ἵππον κτησάμενος, εὐθέως ἐλαύνει κατὰ τὰς πόλεις ἄκρατον ἐκ τῆς δόξης ἐμφορούμενος ἔπαινον, ᾧ, κατ' οἰκονομίαν, τὸ πνεῦμα τῆς πορνείας ἀπαντῆσαν, καὶ εἰς ἕνα τῶν συφεῶν ἀποκλεῖσαν τοῦτον, παιδεύει αὐτὸν μηκέτι πρὸ τῆς τελείας ὑγείας καταλιμπάνειν τὴν κλίνην, μηδὲ τοὺς ἀτάκτους τῶν ἀῤῥώστων μιεῖσθαι, οἵτινες, ἔτι λείψανα τῆς ἀσθενείας ἐν ἑαυτοῖς περιφέροντες, ὁδοῖς ἑαυτοὺς, καὶ λουτροῖς ἀκαίροις ἐπιδιδόασι, καὶ τοῖς ἐξ ὑποστροφῆς νοσήμασι περιπίπτουσι.  Διόπερ καθεζόμενοι μᾶλλον προσέχωμεν ἑαυτοῖς, ὡς, προκόπτοντες μὲν ἐν ἀρετῇ,  [79.1217c] δυσκίνητοι πρὸς κακίαν γινόμεθα, ἀνακαινούμενοι δὲ ἐν τῇ γνώσει, ποικίλων προσλαμβάνομεν πλῆθος θεωρημάτων, ὑψούμενοι δὲ πάλιν κατὰ τὴν προσευχὴν φανερώτερον τὸ τοῦ Σωτῆρος ἡμῶν ἐποπτεύσομεν φῶς.

16(Sexual Immorality)

[Ph 15] [1217C] [p.204]

16. I cannot write about all the evil deeds of the demons; and I feel ashamed to speak about them at length and in detail, for fear of harming the more simple- minded among my readers. But let me tell you about the cunning of the demon of unchastity. When a man has acquired apatheia in the epithumia of his soul and shameful thoughts cool down within him, this demon at once suggests images of men and women playing with one another, and makes the solitary a spectator of shameful acts and gestures.

 16   Πάσας μὲν τὰς κακουργίας τῶν δαιμόνων γράφειν οὐ δύναμαι, καὶ τὰς κακοτεχνίας αὐτῶν καταλέγειν αἰσχύνομαι, δεδοικὼς ων ἐντευξομένων τοὺς ἁπλουστέρους.  πλὴν δὲ τοῦ πνεύματος τῆς πορνείας, ἄκουε πανουργίαν.  Ὅταν τις τοῦ ἐπιθυμητικοῦ μέρους κτήσηται ἀπάθειαν, καὶ οἱ αἰσχροὶ λογισμοὶ λοιπὸν ὑπόψυχροι γένωνται, τὸ τηνικαῦτα εἰσάγει [79.1217d] ἄνδρας τε, καὶ γυναῖκας παίζοντας μετ' ἀλλήλων, καὶ αἰσχρῶν πραγμάτων, καὶ σχημάτων τὸν ἀναχωρητὴν καθίστησι θεατήν.

But this temptation need not be permanent; For intense prayer, a very frugal diet, together with vigils and the development of spiritual contemplations, drive it away like a light cloud. There are times when this cunning demon even touches the flesh, inflaming it to uncontrolled desire; and it devises endless other tricks which need not be described.

̓Αλλ' οὗτος ὁ πειρασμὸς οὐκ ἔστι τῶν χρονιζόντων· προσευχὴ γὰρ σύντονος, καὶ δίαιτα στενωτάτη μετὰ ἀγρυπνίας καὶ γυμνασίας θεωρημάτων πνευματικῶν ὥσπερ νέφος αὐτὸν ἄνυδρον ἐπελαύνει.  Ἔστι δὲ ὅτε καὶ τῶν σαρκῶν ἐφάπτεται, πρὸς τὴν ἄλογον πύρωσιν αὐτὰς ἐκμοχλεύων, καὶ ἄλλα δέ τινα μυρία προσμηχανᾶται ὁ παμπόνηρος οὗτος, ἅπερ οὐκ ἀναγκαῖον δημοσιεῦσαι, καὶ γραφῇ παραδοῦναι.

Against such thoughts the boiling of thumos is also quite effective  when it is directed against the demon, he dreads this thumos more than anything when it is troubled about the [tempting-]thoughts and destroys its mental concepts (noemata).

 Συβάλλεται δὲ σφόδρα πρὸς τοὺς λογισμοὺς καὶ ζέσις θυμου κατὰ τοῦ δαίμονος κινηθεῖσα, ὅνπερ θυμὸν μάλιστα δέδοικεν ἐπὶ τοῖς λογισμοῖς ταρασσόμενον, καὶ διαφθείροντα, αὐτοῦ τὰ [79.1220a] νοήματα·

And this is [the meaning] of the [text]: Be angry, and do not sin’ (Ps. 4:5). It is useful to apply to the soul this medicine [of anger] in temptations.

[p.206 l.20] καὶ τοῦτό ἐστι τὸ, ̧ ὀργίζεσθε, καὶ μὴ ἁμαρτάνετε ς, [p.208] χρήσιμον φάρμακον ἐν τοῖς πειρασμοῖς τῇ ψυχῆ προσαγόμενον. [l.22]

The demon of anger employs tactics resembling those of the demon of unchastity. For he suggests images of our parents, friends or kinsmen being gratuitously insulted; and in this way he excites our thumos, making us say or do something vicious to those who appear in our minds. We must be on our guard against these fantasies and expel them quickly from our mind, for if we dally with them, they will prove a blazing firebrand to us during prayer. People prone to anger are specially liable to fall into these temptations; and if they do, then they are far from pure prayer and from the knowledge of our Saviour Jesus Christ.

Μιμεῖται δὲ καὶ ὁ τῆς ὀργῆς τοῦτον τὸν δαίμονα, καὶ πλάττει, καὶ αὐτός τινας τῶν γεγεννηκότων, ἢ φίλων, ἢ συγγενῶν, ἢ οἰκείων ὑβριζομένους, καὶ τυπτομένους ὑπο ἀναξίων, καὶ τῶν ἀνχωρούντων ἀναινεῖ τὸν θυμὸν, ὥστε φθέγξασθαί τι πονηρὸν ἢ ποιῆσαι πρὸς τοὺς φαινομένους κατὰ διάνοιαν, οἷς οὐ προσέχειν ἀναγκαῖον, καὶ ταχέως ἐξαρπάζειν ἀπὸ τῶν τοιούτων εἰδώλων τὸν καιρὸν τῆς προσευχῆς, ὥσπερ δαλλὸς καπνιζόμενος.  Τούτοις δὲ τοῖς πειρασμοῖς οἱ θυμώδεις περιπίπτουσι, καὶ μάλιοτα οἱ ῥᾳδίως πρὸς τὰς ὀργὰς ἐξαπτόμενοι, οἵτινες μακράν [79.1220b] ε ἰσι καθαρᾳς προσευχῆς, καὶ τῆς γνῶσεως τοῦ Σωτῆρος ἡμῶν  Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ.

17(Shepherd of an Inner World)

[Ph 16] [79,1220b] ΚΕΦΑΛ.ΙΖ´. [p.208]

17. THE concepts of this present world - these the Lord gave to man, like sheep to a good shepherd: for it is written, He has placed the world in his heart; (Eccl. 3:11)  yoking to him indignation and desire for [his] support, so that with the first he may drive away the concepts of wolves, while with desire he may lovingly tend the sheep, assailed as he often is by the rain and winds.

 17. Τὰ νοήματα τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου ὁ Κύριος καθάπερ [p.210] πρόβατά τινα τῷ ἀγαθῷ ποιμένι τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ παρέδωκε· ̧ Κὰι γὰρ, φησί, σὺν τὸν αἰῶνα ἔδωκεν ἐν καρδίᾳ ἀυτοῦ ς,  συζεύξας αὐτῷ θυμὸν κὰι επιθυμίαν πρὸς βοήθειαν, ἵνα, διὰ μὲν τοῦ θυμου, φευγαδεύῃ τὰ τῶν λύκων νοήματα, διὰ δε τῆς ἐπιθυμίας στέργῃ τὰ πρόβατα, καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν ὑετῶν καὶ ἀνέμων πολλάκις βαλλόμενος· 

[On the light of the nous and its possible sources, including contemplation of beings (and worlds): cf. KG 1.35, 1.74; 1.81, 2.29; 3.44, 3.52, 5.15; Sch.258 on Prov. 23.22 ; Prak. 64; Gnost. 45Prayer 75; Thoughts/Peri.Log. 39, 40, 42; Skem. 2, 42325, 27; Letter 39.5; Antiret. 6.16. “Creation of worlds, KG 5.81, 5.12 (cf. KG 5.41 5.42)]

[God] also gave him pasture so that he may shepherd the sheep, as well as a verdant place and refreshing water (cf. Ps. 23: 2), [the] Psalter and a harp (kithara), a rod and a staff; so that from these sheep he is fed and clothed and gathers provender.  For it is written, Does anyone feed a flock and not drink its milk? (l Cor. 9:7).

ἔδωκε πρὸς τούτοις καὶ νομὸν, ὅπως ποιμαίνῃ τὰ πρόβατα, καὶ τόπον χλόης, καὶ ὕδωρ ἀναπαύσεως καὶ ψαλτήριον καὶ κιθάραν καὶ ῥάβδον καὶ βακτηρίαν, ἵν' ἐκ ταύτης τῆς ποίμνης καὶ τραφῇ καὶ ἐνδύσηται καὶ χόρτον ὀρεινὸν συναγάγῃ·  ̧ Τίς γὰρ, φησὶ, ποιμαίνει ποίμνην, καὶ ἐκ τοῦ γάλακτος τῆς ποίμνης οὐκ ἐσθίει; ς

It is therefore proper for the anchorite to guard this flock at night and by day, so that the concepts are neither caught by wild beasts nor fall into thieves’ hands: if this should happen in the wooded valley he must immediately snatch [it] from the mouth of the lion or the bear (cf. 1 Sam.: 7: 35).

Δεῖ οὖν τὸν ἀναχωροῦντα φυλάττειν νύκτωρ, καὶ μεθ´ η῾με´ραν τοῦτο τὸ ποίμνιον, μήτι τῶν νοημάτων γένηται θηριάλωτον, ἢ λῃσταῖς περιπέσῃ, εἰ δὲ ἄρα τι τοιοῦτο συμβαίη κατὰ τὴν νάπην, εὐθέως ἐξαρπάζειν ἐκ τοῦ στόματος τοῦ λέοντος ἢ τῆς ἄρκτου.

 It is thus that the thought of a brother is caught by wild beasts - if it pastures what is within us with with hatred: with regard to a woman, if we turn aside to shameful desire; with regard to gold and silver, if we settle down with greed.  And the concepts of the holy gifts [of God are caught by wild beasts] if we mentally graze on vainglory: and the same happens in the case of other concepts if they are plundered by the passions.

Γίνεται δὲ τὸ νόημα τὸ περὶ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ θηριάλωτον, εἰ μετὰ μίσους νέμοι τὸ ἐν ἡμῖν, καὶ τὸ περὶ τῆς γυναικὸς, εἰ μετ' αἰσχρᾶς ἐπιθυμίας στρέφοιτο παρ' ἡμῖν, καὶ τὸ τοῦ ἀργυρίου, καὶ τοῦ χρυσίου, εἰ μετὰ πλεονεξίας αὐλίζοιτο.  Καὶ τὰ νοήματα τῶν ἁγίων χαρισμάτων, [79,1220d] εἰ μετὰ κενοδοξίας κατὰ διάνοιαν βόσκοιτο· καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν ἄλλων δὲ νοημάτων ὡσαύτως συμβήσεται, κλεπτομένων τοῖς πάθεσιν.

   It is fitting not only to protect this [flock] by day, but also to guard [it] by keeping vigil at night.  For it happens that by fantasizing shamefully and wickedly one may lose what is one’s own; and this is what was said by holy Jacob: I did not bring you a sheep caught by wild beasts; from my own [resources] I made good the thefts by day and the thefts by night, and I was burned with heat by day, and with frost by night, and sleep departed from my eyes. (Gen. 31: 39-40.lxx)

                [79,1220d] ΚΕΦΑΛ.ΙΗ´. Οὐ μόνον δὲ ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ δεῖ ταῦτα τηρεῖν, ἀλλὰ καὶ νύκτωρ ἀγρυπνοῦντας φυλάττειν.  Συμβαίνει γὰρ καὶ φανταζόμενον αἰσχρῶς, καὶ πονηρῶς, ἀπολέσαι τὸ ἴδιον· καὶ τοῦτό ἐστι τὸ ὑπὸ τοῦ ἁγίου λεγόμενον 'Ιακώβ· ̧ Οὐκ ἐνήνοχα σοι πρόβατον θηριάλωτον, απ´ ε᾿μαυτοῦ ἀπετίννουν κλέμματα ἡμέρας, καὶ κλέμματα [79.1221a] νυκτὸς, καὶ ἐγενόμην συγκαιόμενος τῷ καύσωνι τῆς ἡμέρας, καὶ τῷ παγετῷ τῆς νυκτὸς, καὶ ἀφίστατο ὁ ὕπνος ἀπὸ τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν μου; ς

 And if, weary from our toil, a certain acedia  overtakes us we should climb up a little onto the rock of knowledge and converse with the Psalter, (cf. Ps 48:5)  plucking with the virtues the strings of knowledge: let us again tend our sheep as they pasture below Mount Sinai, so that the God of our fathers may also call to us out of the bush (cf. Exod. 3:1-6) and grant us the logoi of the signs and the wonders. (cf. Exod. 7:9, 11:9-10)

[p.212.17:32] Εἰ δέ τίς ἐκ τοῦ καμάτου καὶ ἀκηδία ἡμῖν προσγένηται, μικρὸν ἀναδραμόντες ἐπὶ τὴν τῆς γνώσεως πέτραν τῷ ψαλτηρίῳ προσ­ομιλήσωμεν, πλήσσοντες διὰ τῶν ἀρετῶν τῆς γνώσεως τὰς χορδὰς· βοσκήσωμεν δὲ πάλιν ὑπὸ τὸ Σιναῖον ὄρος τὰ πρόβατα, ἵνα ὁ θεὸς τῶν πατέρων ἡμῶν καὶ ἡμᾶς ἐκ τῆς βάτου [p.214.17:38-39] καλέσῃ, καὶ τοὺς λόγους τῶν σημείων, καὶ τῶν τεράτων καὶ ἡμῖν χαρίσηται.

X(Different Types of Demons)

[79.1224B]  ΚΕΦΑΛ. ΚΑ' [p.214.]

18.  OF the unclean demons, some tempt man in so far as he is man, while others disturb him in so far as he is a non-rational animal. The first, when they approach us, suggest to us notions of self-esteem, pride, envy or censoriousness, notions by which non-rational animals are not affected; whereas the second, when they approach, arouse thumos and epithumia (desire) in a manner contrary to nature. For these passions are common to us and to animals, and lie concealed beneath our rational and spiritual nature. Hence the Holy Spirit says of the thoughts that come to men in so far as they are men: ‘I have said, you are gods, and all of you are children of the most High. But you shall die as men, and fall as one of the princes’ (Ps 82:6-7).

18.  Τῶν ἀκαθάρτων δαιμόνων, οἱ μὲν τὸν ἄνθρωπον, ὡς ἄνθρωπον ἐκπειράζουσιν, οἱ δὲ τὸν ἀνθρωππον, ὡς ζῶον ἄλογον ἐκταράσσουσι, καὶ οἱ μὲν πρῶτοι παρβάλλοντες, κενοδοξίας, ἢ ὑπερηφανίας, ἢ φθόνου, ἠκατηγορίας ἡμῖν ἐμβάλλουσι νοήματα, ἅπερ οὐδενὸς ἅπτεται τῶν ἀλογων· οἱ δὲ δεύτεροι, προσεγγίζοντες, θυμὸν, ἢ ἐπιθυμίαν [79.1224c] παρὰ φύσιν κινοῦσι.  Ταῦτα γὰρ τὰ πάθη κοινὰ ἡμῶν, καὶ τῶν ἀλόγων ζώων τυγχάνουσιν, ὑπὸ τῆς λογικῆς καλυπτόμενα φύσεως.  Διὸ λέγει καὶ τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον, πρὸς μὲν τοῖς ἀνθρωπίνοις περιπίπτοντας λογισμοῖς,  ̧γὼ εἶπα· Θεοί ἐστε, καὶ οἱοὶ Ὑψίστου πάντες· ὑμεῖς δὲ ὡς ἄνθρωποι ἀποθνήσκετε, αὶ ὡς εἷς τῶν ἀρχόντων πίπτετε.ς

But what does He say of the thoughts which stir in men non-rationally ? `Do not be as the horse and mule, which have no understanding: whose mouth must be controlled with bit and bridle in case they attack you’ (Ps 32:9). Now if `the soul that sins shall die’ (Ezek. 18 :4), it is clear that in so far as we die as men we are buried by men, but in so far as we are slain or fall as non-rational animals, we are devoured by vultures and ravens whose young `cry’ to the Lord (Ps. 147:9) and `roll themselves in blood’ (Job 39:30. LXX). `He that has ears to hear, let him hear’ (Mt 11:15).

Πρὸς δὲ τοὺς κινουμένους ἀλόγως, τί φησι;  ̧ Μὴ γίνεσθε ὡς ἵππος καὶ ἡμίονος, οἷς οὐκ ἔστι σύνεσις, ἐν κημῷ καὶ χαλινῷ τὰς σιαγόνας αὐτῶν ἀγξαι, τῶν μὴ ἐγγιζόντων πρὸς σέ.ς Ἡ δὲ ψυχὴ ἡ ἁμαρτάνουσα, αὕτη ἀποθανεῖται.  Πρόδηλον, ὅτι οἱ μὲν ἄνθρωποι ὡς ἄνθρωποι ἀποθνήσκοντες, ὑπὸ ἀνθρώπων ταφήσονται, οἱ δὲ ὡς ἄλογοι θαντούμενοι, ἤτοι πίπτοντες, ὑπὸ γυπῶν, ἢ κοράκων βρωθήσονται, ὧν οἱ νεοσοὶ, οἱ [79.1224d] μὲν ἐπικαλοῦνται τὸν ύριον, οἱ δὲ φύρονται ἐν αἵμασιν. Ὁ ἔχων ὦτα ἀκούειν, ἀκουέτω.

X19(Methods of Combat)

[Ph 20 - NB PhK here inserts 19 = PG KA.(21); t
[79.1221b]  ΚΕΦΑΛ. ΙΘ ' 19. [p.216]

19. WHEN one of the enemies draws near to wound you, and you wish to turn back, as it is written (cf. Ps 37:15), his sword into his own heart, then do as we say: distinguish within yourself the hurled [tempting-] thought [into its parts]:

what it is,
of what
[external] concerns is it composed,
and what in it especially afflicts the nous.

 Ὅταν τῶν ἐχθ͂ρῶν τρώσῃ σέ τις παραβαλὼν, καὶ βούλει τὴν ῥομφαίαν αὐτοῦ στρέψαι, κατὰ τὸ γεγραμμένον, ἐπὶ τὴν καρδίαν αὐτοῦ ποίησον οὕτως, ὡς λέγομεν.  Δίελε κατὰ σαυτὸν τὸν ὑπ' αὐτοῦ βληθέντα λογισμὸν,

ὅστις ποτέ εστι,
καὶ ἐκ πόσων πραγμάτων συνέστηκε,
καὶ ποῖον τοῦτό ἐστι μάλιστα τὸ θλίβον
[79.1221c] τὸν νοῦν.

Let us say that this happens: when the [tempting-] thought of avarice is discharged at you you should distinguish between:

[1] the nous which has received it,
[2] the idea of gold,
[3] the gold itself,
[4] and the passion of avarice.

Ο δὲ λέγω, τοιοῦτόν ἐστιν· Ἔστω πεμφθεὶς ὁ τῆς φιλαργυρίας ὑπ' αὐτου λογισμὸς, τοῦτον δίελε εἴς τε

τὸν ὑποδεξάμενον αὐτὸν νοῦν,
καὶ εἰς τὸ νόημα τοῦ χρυσίου,
καὶ εἰς αὐτὸν τὸν χρυσὸν,
καὶ εἰς τὸ φιλάργυρον πάθος·

And then ask in which of these lies the sin:

[1] Is it the nous?
     But how
[can that be]? It is the image of God.
[2] Is it the idea of gold? But who possessing a nous would say that?
[3] Then is gold itself the sin ?
     But why was it created ?

καὶ λοιπὸν ἐρώτα τί τούτων ἐστὶν ἁμαρτία,

πότερον ὁ νοῦς;
καὶ πῶς; ἔστιν εἰκὼν θεοῦ.
'Αλλὰ τὸ νόημα τοῦ χρυσοῦ;
καὶ τοῦτο τίς ὰν εἰποι νοῦν ἕχων ποτέ;
ἀλλ' αὐτὸς ὁ χρυσός ἐστιν ἁμαρτία;
καὶ τίνος χάριν γεγένηται;

      [4]It follows, therefore, that the cause of the sin is the fourth, which is neither a naturally subsisting [external] concern, nor the idea of an [external] concern, but a pleasure which hates humankind, born of free will, forcing the nous to misuse God’s creatures.  It is this [pleasure] that the law of God commands us to circumcise. (Cf. KG 4.12)

ἕπεται τοίνυν [τῆς ἁμαρτ́ιας εἶναι τὸ αἴτιον τὸ τέταρτον·] [2][4] ὅπερ οὐκ ἔστι μὲν πρᾶγμα ὑφεστὼς κατ' οὐσίαν, οὐδὲ νόημα πράγματος, οὐδὲ νοῦς πάλιν ἀσώματος, ἀλλ' ἡδονή τις μισάνθρωπος, ἐκ τοῦ αὐτεξουσίου τικτομένη, καὶ κακῶς κεχρῆσθαι, τοῖς τοῦ Θεου῀κτίσμασι τὸν νοῦν ἀναγκάζουσα, ἣν καὶ περιτέμνειν ὁ τοῦ Θεοῦ νόμος [79.1221d] πεπίστευται.

And as you closely examine these things the [tempting-] thought will be destroyed, analyzed into its proper contemplation; and the demon will flee from you as your mind is equipped by this knowledge for the [spiritual] heights.

Καὶ ταῦτά σου διερευνωμένου, φθαρήσεται μὲν ὁ λογισμὸς εἰς τὴν ἰδίαν ἀναλυόμενος θεωρίαν, φεύξεται δὲ ἀπὸ σοῦ τὸ δαιμόνιον, τῆς διανοίας σου ὑπὸ ταύτης τῆς γνώσεως εἰς ὕψος ἀρθείσης.

But if you wish, before using his own sword you may desire first to use your sling against him. Then cast a stone from your shepherd’s fleece (cf. 1Sam 17) and seek the contemplation of this:

[79.1221δ]  ΚΕΦΑΛ. Κʹ. [p.220 19:23] Εἰ δὲ βούλη χρήσασθαι μὲν [3][5] τῇ ἐκείνου ῥομφαίᾳ, ἐπιποθεῖς δὲ πρῶτον διὰ τῆς σῆς σφενδόνης τοῦτον χειρώσασθαι. Ἔκβαλλε καὶ σὺ λίθον ἐκ τοῦ ποιμενικοῦ σου κωδίου, [4][6] καὶ τούτου ζήτει τὴν θεωρίαν.

Now how is it that angels and demons approach our world, but we do not approach their worlds?  For, we are not able to unite the angels more [closely] to God, nor could we plan [a way] to make the demons more impure.  (Letter 57.2; KG 3.78) Πῶς ἄγγελοι μὲν, καὶ δαίμονες τῷ ἡμετέρω παραβάλλουσι [79.1224a]  κόσμῳ, ἡμεῖς δὲ τοῖς αὐτῶν κόσμοις οὐ παραβάλλομεν· οὔτε γὰρ ἀγγέλους Θεῷ συνάπτειν πλέον δυνάμεθα, οὔτε δαίμονας ἀκαθάρτους μᾶλλον ποιεῖν προαιρούμεθα. 
And how was Lucifer, the morning star, cast down to the earth (cf Is 14:12), ‘making the deep boil like a brazen cauldron’ (Job 41: 31. LXX), disturbing all by his wickedness and seeking to rule over all?

 Και πῶς ὁ Ἐωσφόρος ὁ πρωῒ ἀνατέλλων εἰς τὴν γῆν κατεῤῥίφη, καὶ ἥγηται μὲν τὴν θάλασσαν ὡς ἐξάλειπτρον, τὸν δὲ Τάρταρον τῆς ἀβύσσου ὥσπερ αἰχμάλωτον, ἀναζεῖ δὲ τὴν ἄβυσσον ὥσπερ χαλκίον, πάντας ἐκταράσσων διὰ τῆς κακίας αὐτοῦ, καὶ πάντων ἄρχειν βουλόμενος;

The contemplation of these [external] matters seriously wounds the demon and drives away all his troops. But this comes to pass only for those who have to some degree been purified and have seen something of the logoi of beings.   For the impure cannot see the contemplation of these [things], and even if they have been taught by others how to outwit the enemy they will fail because of the great clouds of dust and the turmoil aroused by their passions during the battle. For all the troops of the foreigners must be made quiet, so only  Goliath can face our David.

Τούτων γὰρ τῶν πραγμάτων ἡ θεωρία πάνυ τιτρώσκει τὸν δαίμονα, καὶ πᾶσαν αὐτοῦ τὴν παρεμβολὴν φυγαδεύει. Ἀλλὰ ταῦτα μὲν [5][7] τῶν ἠρέμα κεκαθαρμένων μόνων [6][8] συμβαίνει, καὶ βλεπόντων ποσῶς τοὺς λόγους [p.222 19:40] τῶν γεγονότων.  Οἱ δὲ ἀκάθαρτοι τὴν θεωρίαν τούτων οὐκ ἴσασιν, οὐδὲ εἰ [7][9] μαθόντες παῤ ἑτέρων [79.1224b] κατεπᾴδοιεν ἀκουσθήσονται, πολλοῦ κονιορτοῦ, καὶ θορύβου διὰ τὰ πάθη συνισταμένου κατὰ τὸν πόλεμον. Δεῖ γὰρ πάντως τὴν παρεμβολὴν τῶν ἀλλοφύλων μικρὸν ἠρεμῆσαι, ἵνα μόνον ὁ Γολιὰθ ἀπαντήσῃ τῷ ἡμετέρῳ Δαβίδ.

Let us then in the battle act thus, and utilize both close examination and this [second] method against all unclean [tempting-] thoughts.

Ὡσαύτως δὲ καὶ τῇ διαιρέσει, καὶ τῷ εἴδει τούτῳ τοῦ πολέμου χρησώμεθα καὶ ἐπὶ πάντων ἀκαθάρτων λογισμῶν.

20(Two Explanations of Quick Victory Over Thoughts)

[1223d]  ΚΕΦΑΛ. ΚΒ' [p.222] [Ph 21]

20. WHENEVER unclean thoughts have been driven off quickly, we should try to find out why this has happened. Did the enemy fail to overpower us because there was no possibility of the thought becoming action ? Or was it because of the degree of dispassion we have attained? For example, if a solitary imagines himself entrusted with the spiritual rule of a city, he does not dwell on this thought for long because clearly it cannot be realized in practice.

Ὅταν τινὲς τῶν ἀκαθαρτων λογισμῶν ταχέως φυγαδευθῶσιν, ζητήσωμεν τὴν αἰτίαν πόθεν τοῦτο συμβέβηκε· πότερον διὰ τὴν σπάνιν τοῦ πράγματος, τοῦ δυσπόριστον εἰναι τὴν προσοῦσαν ἡμῖ ἀπάθειαν οὐκ ἰσχυσαν καθ' ἡμῶν οἱ ἐχθροί; Οἷον, εἴ τις τῶν ἀναχωρούντων ἐνθυμηθείη ὑπὸ δαίμονος, ψτῆς πρώτης πόλεως πνευματικὴν κυβέρνησιν [79.1225a] πιστευθῆναι, οὗτος δῆλον, ὅτι οὐ χρονίσει λογισμὸν τοῦτον φανταζόμενος, καὶ ἡ αἰτία ἐκ τῶν λεγομένω γίνεται γνώριμος·

But if someone does become the spiritual guide of a city and yet remains unaffected, that means he is blessed with dispassion. The same criterion can be applied to other thoughts.  We need to know these things in order to estimate our commitment and strength, and to perceive whether we have crossed the Jordan and are near the palm -trees, or are still in the wilderness and harassed by the enemy.

εἰ δέ τις πόλεως, καὶ τῆς τυχούσης γίνεται, καὶ ὁμοίως λογίζεται, οὗτος μακάριος τῆς ἀπαθείας ἐστίν. Ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν ἄλλων λογισμῶν εὑρωθήσεται ὁ τοιοῦτός τρόπος ἐξεταζόμενος.  Ταῦτα δὲ ἀναγκαῖον εἰδέναι πρὸς τὴν ἡμετέραν προθυμίαν, καὶ δύναμιν, ἵνα εἴδωμεν, πότερον ῆ̀ τὸν Ἰορδάνην παρήλθομεν, καὶ ἐγγύς ἐσμεν τῆς πόλεως τῶν Φοινίκων, ἢ ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ διάγομεν, καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν ἀλλοφύλων τυπτόμεθα.

X21(Avarice Follows Vainglory and Anger)


21. THE demon of avarice, it seems to me, is extraordinarily complex and is baffling in his deceits. Often, when frustrated by the strictness of our renunciation, he immediately pretends to be a steward and a lover of the poor; he urges us to prepare a welcome for strangers who have not yet arrived or to send provisions to absent brethren. He makes us mentally visit prisons in the city and ransom those on sale as slaves. He suggests that we should attach ourselves to wealthy women, and advises us to be obsequious to others who have a full purse. And so, after deceiving the soul, little by little he engulfs it in avaricious thoughts and then hands it over to the demon of self-esteem.

[p.226] 21. Πάνυ γὰρ ποικίλος μοι φαίνεται τῆς φιλαργυρίας ὁ δαίμων, καὶ πρὸς ἀπάτην εὐμήχανος, ὃς πολλάκις στενωθεὶς ὑπὸ τῆς ἄκρας ἀποταγῆς, τὸν οἰκονόμον εὐθὺς, καὶ φιλόπτωχον ὑποκρίνεται, καὶ τοὺς μηδέπω παρόντας [79.1225b] ὑποδέχεται ξένους γνησιώτερον, καὶ ἄλλοις λειπομένοις ἀποστέλλει διακονίαν, καὶ δεσμωτήρια πόλεως ἐπισκέπτεται, καὶ τοὺς πιπασκομένους δῆθεν ἐξαγοράζει, γυναιξί τε κολλᾶται πλουσίαις, καὶ ἄλλους πάλιν ἀποτάξασθαι νουθετεῖ βαλάντιον ἀδρὸν κεκτημένους, καὶ οὕτως ἐξαπατήσας κατὰ μικρὸν τὴν ψυχὴν, τῆς φιλαργυρίας αὐτὴν λογισμοῖς ὑποβάλλει, καὶ τῷ τῆς κενοδοξίας παραδίδωσι δαίμονι.

[23][not Ph] The latter calls up in our imagination crowds of admirers who praise the Lord for the works of mercy we have performed; he makes us picture people talking to one another about how we deserve to be ordained (cf. Ant 7.3, Thoughts 28), and he suggests to us that the present priest is bound to die before long.  So our wretched nous, entangled by these thoughts, attacks anyone who (as it imagines) opposes the idea of our ordination, while on those who support the idea it lavishes gifts and flattery. Some of our critics we bring in our mind’s eye before the judges and demand their expulsion from the city.

[79.1225c] ΚΕΦΑΛ. ΚΓ''  Ὡς πλῆθος εἰσάγει τῶν δοξαζόντων ἐπὶ ταῖς οἰκονομίαις ταύταις τὸν Κύριον, καί τινας κατ' ὀλίγον [79.1225c] περὶ ἱερωσύνης συλλαλοῦντας προβάλλων λοιπὸν προμαντεύεται ταχὴν θάνατον τοῦ ὄντος ἱερέως, καὶ ὡς οὐκ ἃν ἐκφύγῃ μυρία ποιήσας προστίθησι, καὶ οὕτως ὁ παλαίπωρος νοῦς ἐνδεθεὶς τούτοις τοῖς λογισμοῖς, τοῖς μὲν μὴ κατεξαμένοις τῶν ἀνθρώπων διαμάχεται, τοῖς δὲ τοῦτο καταδεξαμὲνοις, ἑτοίμως δῶρα χαρίζεται, καὶ τῆς εὐγνωμοσύνης αὐτοὺς ἀποδέχεται· τινὰς δὲ διστασιάζοντας, τοῖς δικαστασαῖς παραδίδωσι, καὶ τῆς πόλεως ἐξορίζεσθαι παραγγέλλει·

As these thoughts circle in our mind, the demon of pride suddenly appears, filling our cell with lightning and visions of terror and trying to make us mad. But let us call down destruction upon all such thoughts and thankfully live in poverty .`For we brought nothing into the world, and it is certain that we can take nothing out of it. Having food and raiment, let us be content with them’ (1Tim 6:7-8), remembering the words of St Paul: `Avarice is the root of all evil’ (1Tim 6:10).

τούτων δὲ λοιπὸν ἔνδον ὄντων, καὶ στρεφομένων τῶν λογισμῶν, εὐθὺς καὶ ὁ τῆς ὑπερηφανίας ἐφίσταται δαίμων, ἀστραπὰς συνεχεῖς κατὰ τὸν ἀέρα τῆς κέλλης τυπῶν, καὶ δράκοντας πτερωτοὺς ἐπιπέμπων, καὶ τὸ τελευταῖον κακὸν, στέρησιν φρενῶν ἐργαζόμενον, ἀλλ' ἡμεῖς τούτοις τοῖς λογισμοῖς [79.1225d]  ἀπώλειαν ἐπευξάμενοι, μετ' εὐχαριστίας τῇ πενίᾳ συζήσωμεν, ̧ Οὐδὲν γὰρ εἰηνέγκαμεν εἰς τὸν κόσμον, οὐδὲ ἐξενεγκεῖν τι δῆλον ὅτι δυνάμεθα· ἔχοντες δὲ τροφὰς, καὶ σκεπάσματα, τούτοις ἀρκεσθησόμεθα, ς μεμνημένοι καὶ Παύλου, ῥίζαν πάντων τῶν κακῶν τὴν φιλαργυρίαν εἰπόντος.

22(The Disastrous Effect of Persistent Evil Thoughts)

[p.230] [Ph 22.]

22. ALL the impure thoughts that persist in us because of our passions bring the nous down to ruin and perdition. Just as the idea of bread persists in a hungry man because of his hunger, and the idea of water in a thirsty man because of his thirst, so ideas of material things and of the shameful thoughts that follow a surfeit of food and drink persist in us because of the passions.

22. Πάντες οἱ ἀκάθαρτοι λογισμοὶ διὰ τὰ πάθη χρονίζοντες ἐν ἡμῖν, κατάγουσι τὸν νοῦν εἰς ὄλεθρον, καὶ ἀπώλειαν· ὥσπερ γὰρ τὸ νόημα τοῦ ἄρτου χρονίζει ἐν τῷ πεινῶντι διὰ τὴν πεῖναν, καὶ τὸ νόημα τοῦ ὕδατος ἐν τῷ διψῶντι διὰ τὴν δίψαν, οὕτω καὶ τὰ νοήματα τῶν κτημάτων, καὶ τῶν χρημάτων, χρονίζει διὰ τὴν πλεονεξίαν, καὶ τὰ νοήματα τῶν βρωμάτων, καὶ τῶν [79.1228a] τικτομένων αἰσρῶν λογισμῶμ ἐκ τῶν βρωμάτων, χρονίζει διὰ τὰ πάθη.

The same is true about thoughts of self-esteem and other ideas. It is not possible for an nous choked by such ideas to appear before God and receive the crown of righteousness. It is through being dragged down by such thoughts that the wretched nous, like the man in the Gospels, declines the invitation to the supper of the knowledge of God (cf. Lk 14:18); and the man who was bound hand and foot and cast into outer darkness (cf. Mt. 22:13) was clothed in a garment woven of these thoughts, and so was judged by the Lord, who had invited him, not to be worthy of the wedding feast. For the true wedding garment is the apatheia of the deiform soul which has renounced worldly desires.

̓Αλλὰ καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν τῆς κενοδοξίας λογισῶν, καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν ἄλλων λογισμῶν ὁμοίως φανερωθήσεται.  Οὐκ ἔστι δὲ νοῦν πνιγόμενν ὑπὸ τοιούτων παραστῆναι Θεῷ, καὶ τὸν τῆς δικαιοσύνης ἀναδήσασθαι στέφανον. ᾿κ τούτων γὰρ τῶν λογισμῶν κατασπώμενος καὶ ἐκεῖνος ὁ ἐν τοῖς Εὐαγγελίοις τρισάθλιος νοῦς, τὸ τῆς Χριστοῦ γνώσεως ἄριστον παρῃτήσατο· καὶ πάλιν ὁ δεσμούμενος χεῖρας, καὶ πόδας, καὶ εἰς τὸ ἐξώτερον σκότος βαλλόμενος ἐκ τούτων τῶν λογισμῶν καθυφασμένον εἶχε τὸ ἐνδυμα, ὅνπερ οὐκ ἄξιον τῶν τοιούτων γάμων ὁ καλέσας απεφήνατο εἰναι· διὸ ἔνδυμά ἐστι γαμικὸν απάθεια ψυχῆς λογικῆς κοσμικὰς ἀρνησαμένης ἐπιθυμίας.

In the texts On Prayer  it is explained why dwelling on ideas of sensory objects destroys true knowledge of God.

Τίς δὲ ἡ αἰτία τοῦ τὰ νοήματα τῶν αἰσθητῶν πραγμάτων, [79.1228b] χρονίζοντα διαφθείρειν τὴν γνῶσιν εἴρηται ἐν τοῖς πρι προσευχῆς κεφαλαίοις.

23The Dangers of Wrong-minded Solitude


23. A solitary should never withdraw into solitude [burdened] with anger or gloominess, nor flee from the brethren while perplexed by these [tempting-]thoughts. For madness can arise from such passions as these: when the heart shifts from one [contemplative] insight to another, from this to that, from still another [insight] to yet another one, it [thus] tumbles by stages into the pit of amnesia. 23.  Μηδεὶς τῶν ἀναχωρούντων μετ' ὀργης ἢ λύπης ἀναχωρείτω, μηδὲ φευγέτω τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς ὑπὸ τῶν τοιούτων λογισμῶν ἐνοχλούμενος.  Γίνονται γὰρ καὶ ἐκστάσεις καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν τοιούτων παθῶν τῆς καρδίας, ἀπὸ νοήματος εἰς νόημα, καὶ ἀπὸ τούτου ἐφ' ἕτερον, καὶ  απ' ἐκείνου ἐπ' ἄλλο, κατὰ μικρὸν ἐμπιπτούσης εἰς πάραθρον λήθης. 
However, we have known many brothers who fell victim to this shipwreck but were brought back again to human life through the tears and prayers of the other [brethren]. Πολλοὺς γὰρ ἔγνωμεν τῶν ἀδελφῶν περιπεσόντας τούτῷ τῷ ναυαγιῳ, οὓς οἱ λεπτοὶ μετὰ δακρύων καὶ προσευχῆς, αὖθις εἰς τὸν ἀνθρώπινον ἐπανήγαγον βίον. 
But there are others who drifted unawares into a fixed amnesia and have lost the strength to maintain their former state; and to this day we, the humble, behold our shipwrecked brethren. Τινὲς δὲ καὶ ἀνεπάνακτον λήθην λαθόντες, οὐκ ἔτι ἴσχυσαν καταλαβεῖν τὴν πρώτην κατάστασιν, καὶ μέχρι τῆς σήμερον ἡμεῖς οἱ ταπεινοὶ βλέπομεν τὰ τῶν ἀδελφῶν ἡμῶν ναυάγια·
This particular calamity chiefly befalls one as a consequence of the [tempting-] thought of pride. τοῦτο δὲ τὸ πάθος ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πλεῖστον ἀπὸ τῶν τῆς ὑπερηφανίας συμβαίνει λογισμῶν.
When someone withdraws into solitude while in this state [of pride]: first, he perceives the air of his cell burning; then nocturnal flashes of lightning illuminate the walls; voices are [next heard], both of those giving chase and of their victims, while ethereal forms of horse-drawn chariots appear; [finally,] Ethiopians fill the house, and chaos ensues.  And [at last], overwhelmed by terror he descends into madness, succumbing to megalomania; and through fear he forgets his [merely] human state.  Ὅταν δέ τις ἀναχωρεῖ τοιαύτην ἔχων κατάστασιν, πρῶτον μὲν ὁρᾷ τὸν τῆς κέλλης ἀέρα διάπυρον, καὶ ἀστραπὰς τινὰς νύκτωρ ἐκλαμπρούσας περὶ τοὺς τοίχους· ἔπειτα φωνὰς διωκόντων καὶ διωκομένων, καὶ ἅρματα σύν ἵπποις κατὰ τὸν ἀέρα τυπούμενα, καὶ τὸν οἶκον ὅλον πεπληρωμένον Αἰθιόπων καὶ ταραχῆς.  Καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς ὑπερβαλλούσης δειλίας ἐκστάσει λοιπὸν περιπίπτει καὶ μετέωρος γίνεται, καὶ τῆς ἀνθρωπίνης ἀπὸ τοῦ φόβου ἐπιλανθάνεται καταστάσεως. 
This is why it [especially] behooves us to undertake the solitary life [only] with great humility and gentleness.  And we should console the soul of this afflicted person with spiritual words, saying to him the words of holy David: Διὸ ἀνάγκη μετὰ πολλῆς ταπεινοφροσύνης ἀναχωρεῖ καὶ πραΰτητος, καὶ λόγοις πνευματικοῖς παρακαλεῖν τὴν ψυχὴν τούτου καὶ τὰ τοὺ ἁγίου Δαυὶδ φθέγγεσθαι πρὸς αὐτὴν· ̧

Bless the Lord,  my soul,

never forget all his rewards,

who has compassion on your misdeeds,

who heals all your diseases,

who redeems your life from corruption,

who crowns you with mercies and compassion. (Ps. 102: 2-4).

Εὐλόγει ἡ ψυχή μου τὸν Κύριον, καὶ μὴ ἐπιλανθάνου πάσας τὰς ἀνταποδόσεις αὐτοῦ·

τὸν εὐιλατεύοντα πάσαις ταῖς ἀνομίαις σου, τὸν ἰώμενον πάσας τὰς νόσους σου·

τὸν λυτρούμενον ἐκ φθορᾶς τὴν ζωήν σου, τὸν στεφανοῦντά σε ἐν ἐλέει καὶ οἰκτιρμοῖςς. [Ps 102.2-4] 

These, then, are the type of words you should speak to this person, like a mother at festival seeking diligently for her child out of fear that some evil-doer seize him and carry him away. 

   [p48] Ταῦτα καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα φθέγγου πρὸς αὐτὴν· καθάπερ μήτηρ ἐν πανηγύρει τὸ ἴδιον παιδίον ἐπιζητοῦσα πυκνότερον, μὴ τις αὐτὸ τῶν κακούργων ἁρπάσας ἀπέλθῃ·

But above all else we should, through earnest prayer, constantly invite him back to the Lord. μάλιστα δὲ διὰ συντόνου προσευχῆς ἀεὶ καλεῖ τὴν ψυχὴν πρὸς τὸν Κύριον· -

24(The Impossibility of Simultaneously Receiving Two Thoughts)


 24.   The demons do not all tempt us, nor do they simultaneously instill their [tempting-]thoughts, because the mind is not naturally able to receive  the concepts (noemata) of two sensible objects at the same moment.  For we have said, in chapter 17, that no impure thought arises in us without a sensible object. 24. Οὐ πάντες ἅμα πειράζουσιν ἡμᾶς οἱ δαίμονες, οὐδ' ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ χρόνῳ λογισμοὺς ἡμῖν ἐμβάλλουσι· διὰ τὸ μὴ πεφυκέναι τὸν νοῦν κατὰ τὸν ὐτὸν καιρὸν δύο πραγμάτων αἰσθητῶν δέχεσθαι τὰ νοήματα.  Εἴπομεν γὰρ, ἐν τῷ ἐπτακαιδεκάτῳ κεφαλαίῳ, χωρὶς πράγματος αἰσθητοῦ μὴ ἐπισυμβαίνειν ἡμῖν ἀκάθαρτον λογισμόν. 
If, because of its very rapid movement, our nous links thoughts to each other, we should not however believe that they are all formed  at the same time, Εἰ δὲ ὀξύτατος ὢν, κατὰ τὴν κίνησιν ἡμῶν ὁ νοῦς ἀλλήλοις συνάπτει τοὺς λογισμοὺς, οὐ παρὰ τοῦτο δεῖ καὶ νομίζειν ἐ τῷ αὐτῷ χρόνῳ πάντας συνίστασθαι. 
The potters wheel does something similar: it binds two pebbles to each other, attached to diametrically opposite ends of the wheel, and this because of the great speed of its movement.

 Τοιοῦτον γάρ τοι ποιεῖ καὶ ὁ τοῦ κεραμέως τροχὸς, συνάπτων δύο ψηφίδας ἀλλήλαις, πεπηγυίας ἐν τοῖς πέρασι μιᾶς τῆς ἐν τῷ τροχῷ διαμέτρου διὰ πολλὴν ὀξύτητα τῆς φρᾶς.   

You can also form within yourself your father's face and test whether another face occurs while it remains or if the second face is formed after the first disappears. Ἔξεστι δέ [15] σοι καὶ μορφώσαντι ἐν σεαυτῷ τοῦ πατρός σου τὸ πρόσωπον δοκιμάσαι,  ποτερον τούτου μένοντος [φο 161ῃ] ἐπισυμβαίνει καὶ ἕτερον πρόσωπον. 
If it were possible at the same time to receive both the concept of gold and the concept of a person we remember with bitterness, we would necessarily encounter at the same time both the demon of avarice and on of bitterness - which is impossible since, as I said, the nous cannot receive at the same time both the representation of gold and that of the one who grieved us. Εἰ γὰρ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ χρόνῳ δυνατὸν ἦν καὶ χρυσοῦ δέξασθαι νόημα καὶ τοῦ λελυπηκότος τὸ νόημα, πάντως ἂν καὶ συνέβῃ κατὰ τὸν αὐτὸν καιρὸν καὶ τῷ τῆς φιλαργυρίας καὶ τῷ τῆς μνησικακίας περιπεσεῖν ἡμᾶς δαίμονι· ὅπερ τῶν ἀδυνάτων ἐστὶ, διὰ τὸ μὴ δύνασθαι τὸν νοῦν, ὥσπερ ἔφην, ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ καιρῷ καὶ τὸ τοῦ χρυσοῦ καὶ τὸ τοῦ λελυπηκότος δέξασθαι νόημα. 
It is thus necessary, in the times of temptations, to try to transfer the nous from an impure [tempting-]thought to another concept, and from this to yet another, and thus escape from this wicked taskmaster. If the nous does not transition and does not let go of the object it is overwhelmed by passion; it then risks moving towards sin in action. Such a nous truly needs purification, vigil and prayer. Δεῖ τοίνυν ἐν τοῖς καιροῖς τῶν πειρασμῶν πειρᾶσθαι μεταφέρειν τὸν νοῦν ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀκαθάρτου λογισμοῦ ἐφ’ ἕτερον νόημα καὶ ἀπὸ τούτου ἐπ’ ἄλλο, καὶ οὕτω διαφεύγειν τὸν κακὸν ἐκεῖνον ἐργοδιώκτην· εἰ δὲ μὴ μεταβαίνει ὁ νοῦς περιεχόμενος τοῦ πράγματος, τῷ πάθει βεβάπτισται·καὶ λοιπὸν κινδυνεύει πρὸς τὴν κατ’ ἐνέργειαν ἁμαρτίαν ὁδεύων· καὶ πολλῆς ὁ τοιοῦτος ὄντως δεῖται καθάρσεως καὶ ἀγρυπνίας καὶ προσευχῆς.

25(The Appearance of Our Body and its Role in Tempting-Thoughts)


25. Whatever persons have contemplated something of what is within nature  from [external] objects have offered proofs from what they have contemplated.  My own proof is mostly the heart of my reader, especially if he is intelligent and experienced in monastic life. 25.  Ὅσοι τῶν ἀνθρώπων τινὰ τῶν ἐν ταῖς φύσεσιν ἐθεώρησαν ἐκ τῶν πραγμάτων, καὶ τὰς ἀποδείξεις ἐκ τῶν θεωρηθέντων παρέσχοντο· ἐμὴ δὲ ἀπόδειξις ἐν τοῖς πλείοσιν ἡ τοῦ ἀναγινώσκοντός ἐστι καρδία, καὶ τοῦτο εἰ συνετὴ εἴη καὶ τοῦ μοναδικοῦ βίου πεπειραμένη.
 I say this because of the object of natural contemplation that is now proposed to us and is confirmed by the reader through what occurs within his mind. We must start with the proposal that the nous naturally receives concepts of all objects that can be sensed and their corresponding imprint  through the instrument that is our body  Τοῦτο δὲ λελάληκα διὰ τὸ νῦν προκείμενον ἡμῖν θεώρημα φυσικὸν ἐκ τῶν κατὰ διάνοιαν γινομένων ὑπὸ τοῦ ἀναγινώσκοντος βεβαιούμενον. Ἀρκτέον δὲ ἐντεῦθεν τοῦ λόγου ὅπως ὁ νοῦς πάντων τῶν αἰσθητῶν πραγμάτων πέφυκε δέχεσθαι τὰ νοήματα καὶ τυποῦσθαι κατ’ αὐτὰ διὰ τοῦ ὀργανικοῦ σώματος τούτου·
Whatever may be the form of the object, such will necessarily also be the image the nous receives; thus the concepts of the objects are called copies since they preserve the same form as them. ὁποία γὰρ ἂν εἴη τοῦ πράγματος ἡ μορφή, τοιαύτην ἀνάγκη καὶ τὸν νοῦν δέξασθαι τὴν εἰκόνα· ὅθεν καὶ ὁμοιώματα λέγεται τὰ νοήματα τῶν πραγμάτων τῷ τὴν αὐτὴν ἐκείνοις διασῴζειν μορφήν·
So just as the nous receives the concepts of all the objects that can be sensed, so it also receives those of its own organism—for this too may be sensed—the exception, of course, being its own face, since it is incapable of forming this within itself, never having seen it.  ὥσπερ οὖν πάντων ὁ νοῦς τῶν αἰσθητῶν πραγμάτων δέχεται τὰ νοήματα, οὕτω καὶ τοῦ ἰδίου ὀργάνου—αἰσθητὸν γὰρ καὶ τοῦτο—, χωρὶς δὲ πάντως τῆς ὄψεως· ταύτην γὰρ ἐν ἑαυτῷ μορφῶσαι ἀδυνατεῖ, μηδέποτε θεασάμενος.
And with this figure our mind does all interiorly: namely, it mentally sits and walks, gives and receives.  And all that it wishes it does and says, thanks to the quickness of the concepts: for it sometimes retains the figure of its own body and offers its hand to take something it has been given, or it may release this figure reclothing it quickly in the form of its neighbor, as if giving it something with its own hands.   Καὶ μετὰ τούτου λοιπὸν ἔνδον τοῦ σχήματος ὁ νοῦς ἡμῶν πάντα πράττει καὶ καθέζεται καὶ βαδίζει καὶ δίδωσι καὶ λαμβάνει κατὰ διάνοιαν· καὶ ταῦτα ποιεῖ καὶ λέγει ὅσα καὶ βούλεται τῷ τάχει τῶν νοημάτων, ποτὲ μὲν τοῦ ἰδίου σώματος ἀναλαμβάνων τὸ σχῆμα καὶ τὴν χεῖρα ἐκτείνων ἐπὶ τὸ δέξασθαί τι τῶν διδομένων, ποτὲ δὲ τοῦτ’ ἀποβαλὼν τὸ σχῆμα καὶ τὴν τοῦ πλησίον ἐν τάχει μορφὴν ἐνδυσάμενος ὡς ἂν διδούς τι ταῖς ἰδίαις χερσίν·
Without forms of this kind, the nous cannot do anything, since it is both incorporeal and deprived of all such movement[s] ἄνευ δὲ τῶν τοιούτων μορφῶν οὐκ ἂν ποιήσοι τι νοῦς, ὢν καὶ ἀσώματος καὶ πάσης κινήσεως τοιαύτης ἐστερημένος.
It is therefore necessary that the anchorite keep watch over his nous at the time of temptations, because he will seize the figure of his own body when the demon presents himself, and interiorly become involved in a quarrel with a brother or unite himself to a woman. Δεῖ οὖν τὸν ἀναχωροῦντα τηρεῖν τὸν ἴδιον νοῦν κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν τῶν πειρασμῶν· μέλλει γὰρ ἁρπάζειν εὐθὺς ἐπίσταντος τοῦ δαίμονος σώματος τοῦ ἰδίου τὸ σχῆμα καὶ συμπλέκειν ἔνδον πρὸς μάχην τῷ ἀδελφῷ ἢ ἅπτεσθαι γυναικός·
This is one that Christ in the Gospels had named ‘adulterer,’ because such a man was commiting already adultery in his heart with a woman of his neighbor.  And without this figure, the nous could never commit adultery, since it is incorporeal and unable to approach a sensible object without concepts of this sort; and this is its transgression.   τοιοῦτον γὰρ καὶ τὸν μοιχὸν ἐν τοῖς Εὐαγγελίοις ὠνόμασεν ὁ Χριστὸς ἤδη μοιχεύοντα ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ τὴν τοῦ πλησίον γυναῖκα· χωρὶς δὲ τούτου τοῦ σχήματος οὐκ ἂν νοῦς μοιχεύσοι ποτέ, ἀσώματος ὢν καὶ ἄνευ τοιούτων νοημάτων ἐγγίσαι πράγματι αἰσθητῷ μὴ δυνάμενος· καὶ ταῦτά ἐστι τὰ παραπτώματα.
So take heed to yourself concerning how the nous clothes itself in the form of its own body except for the face, while at the same time mentally modeling the neighbor whole and complete, since it had previously grasped and seen that [person]  Πλὴν πρόσεχε σεαυτῷ πῶς ἄνευ τοῦ προσώπου τοῦ ἰδίου σώματος ὁ νοῦς ἐνδύεται τὴν μορφήν, τὸν δὲ πλησίον πάλιν ὅλον κατὰ διάνοιαν ἐκτυποῖ, ἐπειδὴ τοιοῦτον ὅλον προλαβὼν καὶ ἑώρακεν.
But it is impossible to observe these things during temptations, concerning how it they occur and are accomplished so quickly in the mind, unless the Lord rebukes the wind and the sea, to create a great calm, and leads the sailor to the land towards which he hastened (cf. Mt 8.26). Ἀλλὰ ταῦτα ἐν τοῖς πειρασμοῖς ἀδύνατον ὀφθῆναι, πῶς τε γίνεται καὶ οὕτω ταχέως ἐπιτελεῖται κατὰ διάνοιαν, μὴ τοῦ κυρίου ἐπιτιμῶντος τῷ ἀνέμῳ καὶ τῇ θαλάσσῃ καὶ ποιοῦντος γαλήνην μεγάλην καὶ ἀπάγοντος τὸν πλέοντα ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν ἐφ’ ἣν ἔσπευδε.
It is thus necessary that the anchorite pay heed to himself in fashion ‘lest there be a hidden word of lawlessness in his heart’ (Deut 15:9), because at the time of temptations the nous will seize the form of its body when the demon imposes itself..  Δεῖ οὖν τὸν ἀναχωροῦντα προσέχειν ἑαυτῷ «μήποτε γένηται ῥῆμα κρυπτὸν ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτοῦ ἀνόμημα»· μέλλει γὰρ ὁ νοῦς κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν τῶν πειρασμῶν, ἐπιστάντος τοῦ δαίμονος, ἁρπάζειν τοῦ σώματος τοῦ ἰδίου τὸ σχῆμα.
Moved by this contemplation, we have explained the logos (inner meaning) of the logismōn (tempting-thought). Ἐκ ταύτης δὲ τῆς θεωρίας κινηθέντες, καὶ τὸν τοῦ ἀκαθάρτου λογισμοῦ παρεθήκαμεν λόγον·
The demonic [tempting-]thought is thus the image of the person perceptible by the senses created mentally - [and] imperfectly- with which which the nous, moved by passion, speaks or acts lawlessly in secret, with the phantoms it successively forms.   λογισμὸς γὰρ δαιμονιώδης ἐστὶν εἰκὼν τοῦ αἰσθητοῦ ἀνθρώπου συνισταμένη κατὰ διάνοιαν, ἀτελής, μεθ’ ἧς ὁ νοῦς κινούμενος ἐμπαθῶς λέγει τι ἢ πράττει ἀνόμως ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ πρὸς τὸ μορφούμενον ἐκ διαδοχῆς εἴδωλον ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ.

26(How to Acquire the Knowledge of Discernment)


26. If any of the hermits wishes to receive from the Lord the knowledge of discernment (diakrisis), he should first work eagerly at the commandments that are at hand [in his power], not omitting anything.  And so at the time of prayer he should request knowledge from God, who gives generously to all without reproaching; but let him ask without doubting (Jas 1:5), not thrown about by waves of doubt (cf. Mt. 8:24) , and it will be given him (Jas 1:5). 26. Εἴ τις βούλοιτο τῶν ἀναχωρητῶν γνῶσιν διακρίσεως παρὰ Κυρίου λαβεῖν, τὰς ἐν χερσὶ πρῶτον ἐντολὰς κατεργαζέσθω προθύμως, μηδὲν παραλείπων.  Καὶ οὕτω κατὰ τὸν καὶρον τῆς προσευχῆς αἰτείτω γνῶσιν παρὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ, τοῦ διδόντος πασιν ἁπλῶς καὶ μὴ ὀνειδίζοντος· [cf.. Μτ. 8·24] αἰτείτω δὲ μηδὲν διακριόμενος, μηδὲ ὑπὸ κυμάτων ἀπιστιας βαλλόμενος, καὶ δοθήσεται αὐτῷ. 
For it is not possible to receive knowledge of even more matters if one has been neglectful of those matters already known Οὐκ ἐστι πλειόνων πραγμάτων γνῶσιν λαβεῖν ἀελοῦντα τῶν ἐγνωσμένων, ἵνα μή τις πραγμάτων γνῶσιν λαβεῖν ἀμελοῦντα τῶν ἐγνωσμένων,
otherwise, having transgressed greatly one would be answerable for even more sins.  ἵνα ή τις πολλὰ παραβαίνων, πλειόνων ἁμαρτημάτων ὑπεύθυνος γένηται. 

And it is a blessed thing to serve the knowledge of God, for it is truly dangerous not to do what [such knowledge] advises, and it is blessed to do all that it teaches.

Καὶ μακάριος δουλεῦσαι γνώσει Θεοῦ, ἐπικίνδυνον γὰρ ὄντως μὴ ποιοῦντα τὰ ὑπ' αὐτῆς προστασσόμενα· μακάριον δὲ εἰ πράττοι πάντα τὰ ὑπ' αὐτης διδασκόμενα. 

PERI. LOG. 26.15-17


The nous [wanders in] circles when it is impassioned (empathēs) and becomes difficult to restrain when it reflects [within itself] on matters that produce pleasures. Κυκλεύι γὰρ ὁ νοῦς ἐμπαθὴς ὢν καὶ δυσκάθεκτος γίνεται, τὰς ποιητικὰς τῶν ἡδονῶν ὕλας ἐπισκεπτόμενος. 
But it ceases to wander when, having attained apatheia, it meets the incorporeal [beings], who fulfill its spiritual desires (epithumias) [=KG 1.85]  Ἵσταται δ̀ τῆς πλάνης ἀπαθὴς γεγονὼς καὶ τοῖς ἀσωμάτοις περιτυχῶν τοῖς ἀποπληροῦσι τὰς πνευματικὰς ἐπιθυμίας αὐτῷ. 
PERI. LOG. 26.19-25  
HOWEVER, it is impossible to receive knowledge without having made the first, second, and third renunciation[s]. Οὐκ ἔστι δὲ κτήσασθαι γνῶσιν, μὴ τὴν πρώτην ἀπόταξιν καὶ δευτέραν καὶ τρίτην ἀποταξάμενον·

The first renunciation is to voluntarily leave all worldly things for the knowledge of God; [=KG 1.78]

καὶ πρώτην ἀπόταξις, κατάλειψις κοσμικῶν πραγμάτων ἑκούσιους τῆς τοῦ Θεοῦ γνώσεως ἕνεκεν·

the second is the casting aside of evil which occurs through the grace of Christ our Savior and the zeal of the human person; [=KG 1.79]

δευτέρα δὲ ἀπόθεσις κακίας χάριτι τοῦ Σωτῆρος ἡμῶν Χριστοῦ καὶ σπουδῇ τῇ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου προσγενομένῃ·

the third renunciation is separation from ignorance concerning those things that are naturally manifested to people in accordance with their state[=KG 1.80]

 τρίτη δὲ ἀπόταξις χωρισμὸς ἀγνοίας ἐστὶ τῶν πεφυκότων ἐμφανίζεσθαι τοῖς ἀνθρώποις κατ' ἀναλογίαν τῆς καταστάσεως· -


27(Dreams Trouble the Passible Part of the Soul)


 27. This is how the anchorites are tempted by demons during the day and run into various [tempting-]thoughts; but at night while asleep they fight with winged asps, are surrounded by carnivorous wild beasts, encircled by snakes, and cast down from high mountains. And even after awakening they are sometimes again encircled by the same wild animals and see their cell burning and filled with smoke. 27. Οὕτω μὲν οἱ ἀναχωροῦντες μεθ' ἡμέραν ὑπὸ δαιμόνων πειράζονται, καὶ ποικίλοις περιπίπτουσι λογισμοῖς· νυκτωρ δὲ πάλιν καθ' ὕπνον ἀσπίσι μάχονται πτερωταῖς, καὶ ὑπὸ θηρίων σαρκοβόρων κυκλοῦνται, καὶ ὑπὸ ὄφεων ζώννυνται, καὶ ἀπὸ ὑψηλῶν ὀρέων κατακριμνίζονται.   Ἔστι  δ' ὅτε καὶ διυπνισθέντες ὑπὸ τῶν αὐτῶν αὖθις  κυκλοῦνται θηρίων καὶ τὴν κέλλαν διάπυρον καὶ καπνιζομένην ὁρῶσιν. 

And when they do not succumb in to these fantasies nor fall down in cowardice, they then see the demons suddenly changed into women behaving shamefully and indecently, wanting  to play shameful games.

  Καὶ ὅταν μὴ ἐνδῶσι πρὸς ταύτας τὰς φαντάσιας, μὴτη ρἰς δειλίαν προπέσωσιν, εὐθέως πάλιν εἰς γυναῖκας ὁρῶσι μεταβαλλομένους τοὺς δαίμονας, θρυπτομ́νας ἀσχήμως καὶ παίζειν ἐθελούσας αἰσχρῶς·-

[22] The demons think up all these things, wishing to arouse the thumos or epithumia so as to wage war against the anchorites.

 ΧΧ̄ΙΙ. Ταῦτα δὲ πάντα ἐπινοοῦσι, θυμὸν ἢ ἐπιθυμίαν συνταράξαι βουλόμενοι, ὅπως ὁ πρὸς τοὺς ἀναχωρητὰς γένηται πόλεμος. 

For the [irascible] faculty of thumas is very quickly tempted on the next day when it has been troubled during the previous night, and the desiring faculty easily accepts thoughts of sexual immorality when it has previously been agitated in fantasies during sleep. Πάνυ γὰρ ὀξέως ἐν τῇ ἐπιούσῃ πειράζεται θυμὸς νύκτωρ προταραχθεὶς, καὶ δέχεται ῥαδίως ἐπιθυμία λογισμοὺς πορνικοὺς ἐν ταῖς καθ' ὕπνον φαντασίαις προκινηθεῖσα. 
They urge on these fantasies, as I have said, to prepare the path for the next day or by planning to humiliate as much as possible during the night those they have agitated during the preceding day. Ταῦτας δὲ τὰς φαντασίας ἐπάγουσιν ἑαυτοῖς, ὥσπερ ἔφην, ὁδοποιοῦντς εἰς τὴν ἑξῆς, ἢ προταραχθέντας αὐτοὺς τῇ προτέρᾳ· νύκτωρ ἐπὶ πλεῖστον ταπεινῶσαι βουλόμενοι
And those of the brethren who are inclined to wrath and thumos are more likely to succumb to shameful fantasies, as well as those who take their fill of bread and water . καὶ τοῖς φοβεροῖς φάσμασι μᾶλλον οἱ ὀργίλοι τῶν ἀδελφῶν περιπίπτουσι καὶ θυμώδεις ταῖς δὲ αἰσχραῖς φαντασίαις οἱ ἀρτου [φο 162ῃ] πλείονος καὶ ὕδατος ἐμορούμενοι.

But is proper for solitaries “to fast and pray, so that they do not enter into temptation”  (cf..Mt 26·41; Mk 14·38; Lk 22·40) and to keep the heart completely guarded (cf..Prov 4.23), quieting the thumos with gentleness and psalms, and quenching epithumia with hunger and thirst.

[SC,p.250.22-26] λλὰ δεῖ οὖν τοὺς ἀναχωροῦντας ἀγρυπνεῖν καὶ προσεύχεσθαι ἵνα μὴ εἰσέλθωσιν εἰς πειρασμὸν [cf..Μτ 26·41; Μκ 14·38; Λκ 22·40] καὶ πάσῃ φυλακῇ τηρεῖν τὴν καρδίαν, [cf. Προῃ. 4·23] πραΰτητι μὲν καὶ ψαλμοῖς τὸν θυμὸ καταπαύοντας, λιμῷ δὲ καὶ δίψῃ τὴν ἐπιθυμίαν μαραίνοντας.

Against these kinds of fantasies good deeds and mercy are especially effective, and this is what the wise Solomon taught clearly in Proverbs by : Πάνυ ὲ συβάλλται πρὸς τὰς τοιαῦτας φαντασίας εὐποιΐα καὶ ἒλεος· καὶ τοῦτο διδάσκει σαφῶς, ἐν ταῖς παροιμίαις, ὁ σοφὸς Σολομῶν· 

If you rest, he says, you will not fear; if you sleep you will slumber sweetly. And you will not fear alarm coming upon you nor approaching attacks of the ungodly; for the Lord will be over all your ways and he will establish your foot so you will not be shaken.

Ἐὰν γὰρ κάθῃ, φησὶν, ἄφοβος ἔσῃ, ἐὰν δὲ καθεύδῃς ἡδέως ὑπνώσεις· καὶ οὐ φοβηθήσῃ πτόησιν ἐπελθοῦσαν, οὐδὲ ὁρμὰς ἀσεβῶν ἐπερχομένας· ὁ γὰρ Κύριν ἔσται ἐπὶ πασῶν ὁδῶν σου, καὶ ἐρείσει σὸν πόδα ἵνα μὴ σαλευθῇς·

do not say “Go away and come back, I will give you something tomorrow”, for you do not know what the next day will bring. (Prov.3: 24-8)

̧  μὴ ἀπελθὼν ἐπάνηκε, καὶ αὔριον δώσω· οὐ γὰρ οἶδας τί τέξεται ἡ ἐπιοῦσα ς·-[Προῃ 3·24-28]

28(The Dreams of Vainglory and Sadness)


28. When the demons are unable to trouble the irascible or desiring faculty by night, they then shape dreams of vainglory and draw the soul down into the depths of [tempting-]thoughts.  28.  Ὅταν θυμὸν ἢ ἐπιθυμίαν νύκτωρ συνταράξαι μὴ δυνηθῶσιν οἱ δαίμονες, τὸ τηνικαῦτα κενοδοξίας ἐνύπνια πλὰττουσι, καὶ εἰς βάραθρον λογισμῶν κατάγουσι τὴν ψυχήν.
These, then, are their types of dreams they [send]:  Often a person sees themselves censuring demons, healing certain bodily afflictions, or dressed in the clothes of a shepherd and caring for a flock. And on coming awake they immediately conceive a fantasy of priesthood, and then spend the whole day reflecting on the matters that entails (cf. Ant 7.3, Thoughts 21)   Ἔστι δὲ αὐτῶν τὰ ἐνύπνια ὡς ἐν τύπῳ εἰπεῖν τοιαῦτα· πολλάκις ἑαυτόν τις ἑώρακεν  ἐπιτιμῶντα δαίμοσι καὶ πάθη τινὰ σωματικὰ θεραπεύοντα, ἢ σχῆμα ποιμαντικὸν περικείμενον καὶ νέμοντα ποίμνιον· καὶ διεγερθεὶς εὐθὺς ἱερωσύνης φαντασίαν λαμβάνει, καὶ τὰ ἐν ταύτῃ λοιπὸν πράγματα διαλογίζεται πανημέριον·
Or as if one destined to receive the charism of healings, they see beforehand the wonders that would occur and how, drawn by their words, people would come from afar.  ἢ ὡς μέλλοντος αὐτῷ δίδοσθαι χαρίσματος ἰαμάτων καὶ τὰ γινόμενα λοιπὸν σημεῖα προβλέπει καὶ ὅσοι ἐκ τῆς ὑπερορίας πρὸς αὐτὸν, ὑπὸ τῆς φήμης ἐλαυνόμενοι, παραγίνονται. 
And then they often throw anchorites down into  inconsolable sorrow by showing them family members who are ill or in danger on land or sea. Or at other times they prophesy in dreams to the brothers themselves the shipwrecks of the monastic life, casting down from the heights of ladders those who have ascended; them and then leaving them blind and feeling their way along the walls of a house. Πολλάκις δὲ εἰς λύπην ἀπαρηγόρητον τοὺς ἀναχωροῦντας ἐμβάλλουσι, δεικνύντες αὐτοῖς τινας τῶν ἰδίων νοσοῦντας κατὰ γῆν ἢ κατὰ θάλασσαν κινδυνεύοντας.  Ἔστι δὲ ὅτε καὶ αὐτοῖς τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς προμαντεύονται δι' ἐνυπνίων τοῦ μοναδικοῦ βίου ναυάγια, ἀπὸ ὑψηλῶν κλιμάκων ἀναβάντας αὐτοὺς καταστρέφοντες· καὶ τυφλοὺς πάλιν ποιοῦντες, ψηλαφῶντας τοὺς τοίχους. 
And they perform ten thousand other spectacles, using the rush of wind to indicate the arrival of demons or wild beasts, or telling certain tales in order to make us us neglect the hours of the synaxis. One must pay no heed to them, but rather expose them with a sober thought when they do these things to trick and misdirect souls. Καὶ ἄλλα τινὰ μυρία τερατεύονται· ἤχοις τε τῶν ἀνέμωων συναποχρώενοι πρὸς ἐπιδημίαν δαιμόνων, ἢ ἀγρίων θηρίων· ἠ διηγήματα τινὰ διηγούμενοι πρὸς τὸ παραδραμεῖν τὰς τῶν συνάξεων ὥρας.  Οἷς οὐ δεῖ προσέχειν, ἀλλὰ νήφοντι τῷ λογισμῳ διελέγχειν αὐτοὺς πρὸς ἀπάτην καὶ πλάνην τῶν ψυχῶν ταῦτα ποιοῦντας. 

Angelic Dreams


The dreams that come from angels are not like this, but rather [:]

Τὰ γὰρ ἐνύπνια τῶν ἀγγέλων οὔκ ἐστι τοιαῦτα, ἀλλὰ

contain great peace of soul;

πολλὴν γαλήνην ἔχοντα τῆς ψυχῆς

and inexpressible joy;

καὶ χαρὰν ἀνεκλάλητον

and suppression of impassioned [tempting-]thoughts by day;

καὶ στέρησιν μεθ' ἡμέραν λογισμῶν ἐμπαθῶν

pure prayer;

καὶ προσευχὴν καθαρὰν,

and certain logoi of beings

καί τινας καὶ λόγους τῶν γεγονότων

which slowly arise with the Lord[’s help]

ἡμέρα ὑπὸ Κυρίου προκύπτοντας,

and reveal the wisdom of the Lord

 καὶ τὴν τοῦ Κυρίου σοφίαν ἀποκαλύπτοντας·

X(Dreams Enable Monks to Diagnose the State of the Soul)


29. IF one of the hermits is not disturbed by fantasies during sleep [or] by terrifying or lustful visions, but instead is angered by the shameful fantasies tempting him in dreams, and strikes at them, and also while [in dreams imagines] touching women’s bodies as if to heal them - for the demons depict this too - if he then experiences no heat but rather counsels some of them concerning chastity, truly blessed is he for such a level of apatheia!

 29. Εἴ τις τῶν ἀναχωρούντων ἐν ταῖς καθ' ὕπνον φανασίαις ἐπι τοῖς φοβεροῖς ἢ πορνικοῖς μὴ ἐκταράσσοιτο φάσμασιν, ἀλλὰ καὶ ὀργίζοιτο ἐπὶ ταῖς αἰσχρῶς ἴουσαις {σιξ} αὐτῷ, καὶ τ' ἅπτοι {̣} ταύτας καὶ ἐφαπτόμενος πάλιν γυναικείων σωμάτων ἕνεκεν θεραπείας.  Δεικνύουσι γὰρ καὶ οὕτως οἱ δαίμονες, μὴ ἐκθερμαίνοιτο· τινὰς δὲ αὐτῶν μᾶλλον καὶ νουθετοίη περὶ σωφροσύνης.  Οὗτος ὄντως μακάριος τῆς τοιαύτης ἀπαθείας ἐστί. 

FOR the soul that has succeeded in asceticism (praktike) with God’s help and is [thus] released from the body, attains those places of knowledge where the wing of apatheia give it rest: then it will receive also the wings of that holy Dove and will take flight through the contemplation of all the ages and will find rest in the knowledge of the adorable Trinity. (KG 2.4 & 2.6)

Ψυχὴ γὰρ πρακτικὴν σὺν Θεῷ κατορθώσας καὶ λυθεῖσα τοῦ σώματος, ἐν ἐκείνοις γίνεται τοῖς τῆς γνώσεως τόποις, ἐν οἷς ἂν αὐτὴν τὸ τῆς ἀπαθείας πτερὸν καταπαύσῃ, ἀφ' ὧν λοιπὸν λήψεται καὶ τὰς πτέρυγας τῆς ἁγίας ἐκείνης περιστεράς· καὶ μετασθήσεται διὰ τῆς θεωρίας πάντων των αἰώνων, καὶ καταπαύσει εἰς τὴν γνῶσιν τῆς προσκυνητῆς Τριάδος·-

30(The Thoughts which are Obstacles to Good Deeds and Those which Pervert Them)


30. Of the unclean [tempting-]thoughts, some are beheld on the road of virtue, others by the side of the road. 30. Τῶν ἀκαθάρτν λογισμῶν οἱ μὲν θεωροῦνται ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ τῆς ἀρετῆς· οἱ δὲ παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν. 
And on the one hand, those that hinder the performance of the Lord’s commands are found by the side of the road.  Καὶ ὅσοι μὲν τὰς ἐντολὰς τοῦ Θεοῦ γενέσθαι κωλύουσιν, οὗτοι παρὰ τ̀ν ὁδὸν διατρίβουσιν·
While on the other hand, those that do not persuade that they not be performed, but rather advise that they be done in order to be seen by people, all of these are beheld on the road: they corrupt our goal or the manner in which the command must be performed . ὃσοι δ' αὖ πάλιν μὴ γενέσθαι μὲν αὐτὰς οὐ πείθουσι, γινομένας δὲ πρὸς τὸ φανῆναι τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ὑποβάλλουσι γίνεσθαι, οὗτοι πάντες ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ θεωροῦνται τὸν σκοπὸν ἡμῶν ἢ τὸν τρόπον καθ' ὃν δεῖ γνέσθαι τὴν ἐντολὴν διαφθείροντες.
Thus the one performing the commandment must do it for the Lord and perform the deed joyfully, for Let one who acts mercifully it is said  do so with joy (Rom. 12: 8). Ὅθεν ἀνάγκη τὸν ποιοῦντα τὴν ἐντολὴν, διὰ τὸν Κύριον ποιεῖν, καὶ ἱλαρῶς αὐτὴν κτεργάζεσθαι·  ̧  Ὁ γὰρ ἐλεῶν, εἶπεν, ἐν ἱλαρότητι ς. [Ρομ 12·8]
For what advantage is there if I divest myself of the [tempting-]thought of greediness by doing good and the [tempting-]thought of gluttony by abstinence, but clothe myself with other [tempting-]thoughts of vainglory or murmurings? Τί γὰρ ὄφελος ἐὰν ἐκδύσωμαι τὸν τῆς πλεονεξίας λογισμὸν δι' εὐποιΐας, καὶ τὸν τῆς γαστριμαργίας δι' ἐγκρατείας· ἄλλους δὲ κενοδοξίας ἢ γογγυσμῶν ἐπενδύσωμαι λογισμούς;   .
In any case, at the time of prayer I will also suffer from them whatever whatever happened to me during those first thoughts; namely deprivation of the light surrounding the nous during the time of prayer. Πάντως τοῦτό που πείσομαι κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν τῆς προσευχῆς καὶ ὑπὸ τούτων·  ὅπερ ἄν μοι καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν πρώτων ἐκείνων συνέβῃ λογισμῶν, τὸ ἐκπεσεῖν του φωτὸς τοῦ κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν τῆς προσευχῆς τὸν νοῦν περιλάμποντος

With regard to these [tempting-]thoughts the blessed David also wrote: On that road where I was going they hid a trap for me (Ps 141.4); and again, They set a stumbling block for me around the path (Ps. 139: 6). The word “around” seems to me to signify “near the path”.

       Περὶ τούτων δὲ τῶν λογισμῶν καὶ ὁ μακάριος γράφει Δαυίδ· ̧  Ἐν ὁδῷ ταύτῃ ᾗ ἐπορευόμην ἔκρυψαν παγίδα μοι.ς  [Πσ 141·4] Καὶ πάλιν· ̧ Σχοινία διέτειναν παγίδα τοῖς ποσί μου· ἐχόμενα τρίβου σκάνδαλον ἔθεντό μοι. ς [Πσ 139·6]  τὸ γάρ ἐχόμενα, τὸ ἐγγὺς τῆς τρίβου σημαίνειν μοι φαίνεται·-

c31Various Types of Thoughts and What Opposes Them

 [40.1240α] ΞΕ'. [SC,p.260]

 31.THERE are three thoughts [logismoi] opposed to the demonic thought [logismoi] that  cut it off when it lingers in the nous: [1] angelic [thought]; [2]  that which arises from our free choice when it inclines to what is better; and [3] that which is provided by human nature, according to which gentiles love their own children and show honor to their parents.

31. Τῷ δαιμονιώδει λογισμῷ τρεῖς ἀντίκεινται λογισμοὶ, τέμνοντες αὐτὸν ἐν τῇ διανοιᾳ χρονίζοντα, ὄ τε ἀγγελικὸς, καὶ ὁ ἐκ τῆς ἡμετέρας προαιρέσεως ῥεπούσης ἐπὶ τὸ κρεῖττον, καὶ ὁ ἐκ τῆς ἀνθρωπίνης ἀναδιδόμενος φύσεως, καθ' ὃν κινούμενοι καὶ ἐθνικοὶ ἀγαπῶσι τὰ ἴδια τέκνα, καὶ τοὺς ἑαυτῶν τιμῶσι γονεῖς. 

But there are only two thoughts opposed to the good thoughts:   the demonic thoughts and that which proceeds from our free choice when it inclines toward what is worse. Τῷ δὲ ἀγαθῷ λογισμῷ δύο μόνον ἀντίκεινται λογισμοὶ, ὅ τε δαιμονιώδης, καὶ ὁ ἐκ τῆς ἡμετέρας προαιρέσεως ἀποκλινούσης ἐπὶ τὸ χεῖρον.

No evil [tempting-] thought originates from [our] nature, for we were not created evil in the beginning, if indeed the Lord sowed good seed in his own field (cf.Mt.13:24). For the fact that we are capable of something, does not necessarily mean that we we also have the power to do it: since although we are able to cease existing, we do not possess the power of non-existence, if indeed powers are qualities and non-existence is not a quality.

 Ἐκ δὲ τῆς φύσεως οὐδεὶς ἐξέρχεται λογισμὸς πονηρός.   [SC,p.262]  Οὐ γὰρ ἀπαρχῆς γεγόναμεν πονηροὶ, εἴπερ καλὸν σπέρμα ἔσπειρεν ὁ Κύριος ἐν τῷ ἰδίῳ ἀγρῷ.  Οὐ γὰρ εἴ τινος δεκτικοί ἐσμεν, τούτου πάντως καὶ τὴν δύναμιν ἔχομεν· ἐπεὶ καὶ μὴ εἶαι δυνάμενοι, τοῦ μὴ ὄντος οὐκ ἔχομεν δύναμιν, εἴπερ αἱ δυνάμεις [40.1240β] ποιότητές εἰσι, τὸ δὲ μὴ ὂν οὐκ ἔστι ποιότης. 

There was [a time] when evil did not exist, and there will be [a time] when it no longer exists: for the seeds of virtue are indestructible. And I am convinced by that rich man who was condemned to hell, and who felt compassion for his brothers (Luke 16:19-31). For to have pity is a very beautiful seed of virtue.
Ην γὰρ ὅτε οὐκ ἧν κακία, καὶ ἔσται ὅτε οὐκ ἔσται.  Ἀνεξάλειπτα γὰρ τὰ σπέρματα τῆς ἀρετῆς·  πείθει δέ με καὶ ὁ πλούσιος ἐκεῖνος ἐν τοῖς Εὐαγγελίοις, κατὰ τὸν ᾅδην κρινόμενος, καὶ οἰκτείρων τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς, τὸ δὲ ἐλεεῖν, σπέρμα τυγχάνει τὸ κάλλιστον τῆς ἀρετῆς.

In Keph Gnost Evagrius divides this favorite theme into two kephalaia,, KG 1.39 and 1.40.  There, as here, he describes the capacity to exist and to change as “seeds of virtue” that were “implanted” within us from our beginning (cf. Praktikos 57; Gnostikos 44 and 45). In addition to four texts in which he discusses this concept in more detail (see note on KG 1.40)  the metaphor of “seeds of virtue” recurs frequently in the Scholia on Psalms: Sch.21 on Ps.36.25;  Sch.3 on Ps.125.5sch.3 on Ps.135.6; sch.4 on Ps.136.7; sch.3 on Ps.147.3. [cf. KG 1.24] cf Sch 62 in Prov 5:14


32vigilantly oppose what excites irritability


32.  [Very like somatic effects described in Antirrheticus ] If anyone longs to achieve pure prayer and to bring God a nous without [tempting-]thoughts, let them control their irascibility and take heed of the [tempting-]thoughts begotten from it, 32.  [SC,p.262] Εἴ τις καθαρς φίεται προσευχς κα νον νευ λογισμν προσάγειν θε, κρατείτω θυμο κα τος κ τούτου γεννωμένους τηρείτω λογισμούς,
that is to say arising from suspicion, hatred, and memory of injury, [for] these especially blind the nous and which destroy its heavenly state. λέγω δὴ τος ξ πονοίας κα μίσους κα μνησικακίας πισυμβαίνοντας, οτινες μάλιστα τυφλοσι τν νον κα τν οράνιον ατο κατάστασιν διαφθείρουσι·
Thus did Saint  Paul counsel us, saying, lift holy hands to the Lord without anger or quarrels (1Tim.2.8). But an evil habit remains among those who observe renunciation [of the world]: they fight with their neighbors, often taking legal action against them over wealth or possessions that should be shared with the poor. τοῦτο γρ μν κα γιος Παλος παρνεσεν· «παίρειν, φησί, πρς κύριον σίους χερας χωρς ργς κα διαλογισμν.» λλ κακ συνήθεια τος ποτασσομένοις παρηκολούθησε κα μετ τν οκείων πολλάκις δικαζόμενοι μάχονται χρημάτων νεκεν κτημάτων φειλόντων χορηγηθναι τος πένησιν·
These according to our thought are the despised playthings of demons, and they make the monastic way of life [even] more narrow for themselves, for they enkindle their irascibility over wealth and then rush to quench it with riches, like one who pierces his eyes with a needle in order to then apply eye-ointment. οὗτοι κατ τν μέτερον λόγον π δαιμόνων μπαίζονται κα στενοτέραν ατος τν δν το μοναδικο βίου κατασκευάζουσι, θυμν πρ χρημάτων νάπτοντες κα αθις χρήμασι κατασβέσαι σπουδάζοντες, ς ε τις περόν τος φθαλμος νυσσεν, να κολλύριον βάλ·
Our Lord has commanded us to sell our possessions and give them to the poor (cf Mat.19.21), but certainly not by fighting and legal action. For a servant of the Lord must not be fighting’ (2Tim 2.24),  rather, to one who wishes to go to court with him over his tunic he should also add his cloak (Mat 5.40); πωλῆσαι γρ τ πάρχοντα κα δοναι πτωχος κύριος μν προσέταξεν, λλ’ ο μέντοι μετ μάχης κα δίκης· «Δολον γρ κυρίου ο δε μάχεσθαι», λλ κα τ θέλοντι πρ το χιτνος ατ δικάσασθαι [Μτ 5·40] χρὴ προσθεναι κα τ μάτιον
and to the one who strikes him on the right cheek he should also offer the other (Matt. 5:39); and he should thus hasten, not to return with wealth, but rather that he not die for giving in to [tempting-]thoughts of brooding over injury, if indeed the paths of those who brood over injury lead to death according to the wise Solomon (Prov 12.28). κα τ απίσαντι τν δεξιν σιαγόνα παραθεναι κα τν τέραν κα σπουδάσαι λοιπν οχ πως λαβν πέλθ τ χρήματα, λλ’ πως μ μνησικακίας λογισμος περιπεσν ποθάν, επερ «δο μνησικάκων ες θάνατον» γουσι κατ τν σοφν Σολομντα.

But anyone who clings to such wealth ought to know that he has grabbed the food and shelter of the blind, the lame, and the lepers, and he will have to owe an explanation to the Lord on the day of judgment.

  Πλν στω πς κατέχων τοιατα χρήματα τι τυφλν κα χωλν κα λεπρν ρπασε τροφς κα τν σκέπην κα λόγον φείλει τ κυρί ν μέρ κρίσεως.

33XDemonic Activities Concerning Those Who Read

[40 1240β Νο 66·  Ξϛ'] 

33. It is those of the unclean demons that are always seated ahead of those who practice their spiritual reading, rejoicing to snatch away their nous, taking many opportunities from these Sacred Scriptures accusing them with evil [tempting-]thoughts. 33 . Εἰσί τινες τῶν ἀκαθάρτων δαίμονες, οἴτινες ἀεὶ τοῖς ἀναγινώσκουσι προκαθέζονται, καὶ τὸν νοῦν αὐτῶν ἁρπάζειν ἐπιχειροῦσι, πολλάκις καὶ ἀπ' αὐτῶν τῶν θείων Γραφῶν λαμβάνοντες ἀφορμὰς, καὶ εἰς λογισνοὺς πονηροὺς καταλήγοντες·

It even attains to causing them to yawn in an abnormal manner and plunges them into a sleep very different from ordinary sleep. some of the brethren have imagined that it is a response to something indescribable [but] according to nature.

 ἔστι δ' ὅτε καὶ παρὰ τὴν συνήθειαν χασμᾶσθαι καταναγκάζοντες, καὶ ὔπνον βαρύτατον ἐπιβάλλοντες, πολὺ τοῦ συνήθους ἀλλότριον· ὡς μέν τινες τῶν ἀδελφῶν ἐφαντάσθησαν, κατα φυσικὴν ἀντίθεσιν ἄῤῥητον·

However, I have often observed and here is what I have understood:  they touch the eyelids and all the head, and cool it through contact with their own bodies; because the bodies of demons are extremely cold and similar to ice. (KG 6.25, cf.KG 2.51; KG 1.68; )

οὕτω δὲ ἐγὼ παρατηρήσας πολλάκις, κατέμαθον· ἐφαπτόμενοι τῶν βλεφάρων καὶ ὅλης τῆς κεφαλῆς, καὶ ταύτην τῷ οἰκείῳ σώματι καταψύχοντες· ψυχρὰ γὰρ λίαν τὰ τῶν δαιμόνων σώματα, καὶ κρυστάλλῳ παρεμφερῆ·

from which it follows that we feel our heads pulled as by a cupping instrument with crepitation [=grinding in bone fractures]. ὅθεν καὶ ὡς ὑπὸ σικύας αἰσθανόμεθα τῆς κεφαλῆς ἑλκομένης μετὰ τρισμοῦ.
Now, this they do in order to draw to themselves the heat of the cranium, in such a way that the eyelids lower under the humid cold, and fall on the pupils of eyes.  Τοῦτο δὲ ποιοῦσιν, ἱνα τὴν ἐναποκειμένην τῳ κρανίῳ θερμότητα πρὸς ἑαυτοὺς ἐπισπώμενοι, ὑπὸ τῆς ὑγρότητος λοιπὸν καὶ ψυχρότητος χαλασθέντα τὰ βλέφαρα, περιῤῥυῇ ταῖς κόραις τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν.
I have often then felt the eyelids, and I have found them frozen as ice, while the face was all deathly and stiffened. Πολλάκις γοῦν ψηλαφήσας, κατέλαβον δίκην κρυσάλλου πεπηγότα τὰ βλέφαρα, τὴν δὲ ὄψιν νενεκρωμένην ὅλην καὶ φρίσσουσαν.

But physical sleep naturally warms the bodies and reddens the faces of the healthy, as experience herself can teach. The [demons, on the other hand,] induce protracted yawning contrary to nature, shrinking themselves so as to touch the inside of the mouth.

Καίτοι ὁ φυσικς πνος θερμαίνειν μν τ σώματα πέφυκε κα τν γιαινόντων τς ψεις νθηρς περγάζεσθαι, ς στι κα π’ ατς τς πείρας μαθεν· τς δ παρ φύσιν κα διατεταμένας χάσμας ποιοσι λεπτύνοντες αυτος κα τν νδον το στόματος φαπτόμενοι.

But while I have often experienced it, I have not understood this matter even to this day; although I have heard Blessed Macarius describe it to me and suggest as proof that those who yawn sign the mouth [with the cross] according to an ancient and ineffable tradition. We are subjected to all these things because we do not pay heed with vigilance to the reading nor do we remember that we read the holy words of the living God.

̓λλ τοτο μν γ μέχρι τς σήμερον οκ νόησα, καίτοι πολλάκις ατ πεπονθώς· το δ γίου Μακαρίου κουσα τοτό μοι λελαληκότος κα ες πόδειξιν φέροντος τ σφραγίζειν τος χασμωμένους τ στόμα κατ ρχαίαν παράδοσιν ρρητον. Τατα δ πάντα πάσχομεν δι τ μ προσέχειν νηφόντως μς τ ναγνώσει μηδ μεμνσθαι τι λόγια για θεο ζντος ναγινώσκομεν.

34Successive Demonic temptations


34. Since there are also relays among the demons, when the first has weakened in combat and can no longer set in motion the passion that is precious to him, we have observed the [following] successions; and this is what we have discovered. 34. Ἐπειδὴ δὲ γίνονται καὶ διαδοχαὶ τῶν δαιμόνων, τοῦπρώτου κατὰ τὸν πόλεμον ἀσθενήσαντος, καὶ τὸ προσφιλὲς αὐτῷ πάθος κινῆσαι μὴ δυναμένου, ταύτας παρατηρήσαντες, εὑρίσκομεν οὕτως·
When [tempting-]thoughts of a certain passion have been rare for a long time, and then suddenly that passion boils up and is set in motion without having given it any opportunity through our negligence, then we know that a more dangerous demon than the first has succeeded him, and carefully noting the place of the one who fled, has filled it with his own wickedness. ταν πάθους τινς ν χρόν πολλ σπανίσωσι λογισμο κα γένηται αφνίδιος τούτου ζέσις κα κίνησις, μν μηδεμίαν φορμν δεδωκότων ξ μελείας, τότε γινώσκομεν τι χαλεπώτερος μς το προτέρου διεδέξατο δαίμων κα τν τόπον το πεφευγότος οτος τηρν τ οκεί πονηρί προσανεπλήρωσεν.

But he fully understands our soul, engaging it in a warfare much more violent than usual, and has switched from the thoughts of yesterday and the day before without any intervening external cause.

λλ κα οτος τς ψυχς μν πάνυ συνίησι ατν πολλ σφοδρότερον παρ τν συνήθειαν πολεμούμενος κα τν χθς κα τρίτην μέραν λογισμν θρόως κπεπτωκώς, μηδεμις ξωθεν παρεμπεσούσης προφάσεως.

Thus when the nous beholds these things, let it flee to the Lord, so that after having received the helmet of salvation, put on the breastplate of justice, drawn the sword of the spirit, and lifted the shield of faith (Eph 6.14, 16-17), [the nous] is to say, looking upwards with tears towards its own [inward] heaven: “Lord,” Christ, “the power of my salvation, incline your ear unto me; hurry to deliver me; become for me a Protector-God and a place of refuge to save me (Ps 30.3). Φευγέτω τοίνυν ὁ νος τατα θεώμενος πρς τν κύριον, τν περι- κεφαλαίαν το σωτηρίου δεξάμενος κα τν θώρακα τς δικαιοσύνης νδυσάμενος κα τν μάχαιραν σπασάμενος το πνεύματος κα τν θυρεν κουφίσας τς πίστεως, λεγέτω ες τν οκεον μετ δακρύων ορανν ναβλέψας· «Κύριε» Χριστέ, «δύναμις τς σωτηρίας μου», «κλνον πρός με τ ος σου, τάχυνον το ξελέσθαι με, γενο μοι ες θεν περασπιστν κα ες τόπον καταφυγς το σσαί με.»


 Above all, let him polish his sword (cf. Ps 7.13)with fasts and vigils, because for seven whole days he will be in the throes of battle and exposed to the fiery missiles of the evil one (Eph 6.16); [but] after the seventh day he will know that [this demon] has gradually become like the one he succeeded, and that he remains from now on for a whole year, more often wounded than wounding, until the arrival of his successor, if it is true that, according to Job, for a determined time, we fall under their control and our houses are ransacked by the ungodly. (cf. Job 12.5).

Μάλιστα δ νηστείαις κα γρυπνίαις στιλβωσάτω τν μάχαιραν· ν πτ γρ λαις μέραις θλιβήσεται πολεμούμενος κα βαλλόμενος τος πεπυρωμένοις βέλεσι το πονηρο, κα μετ τν βδόμην γνώσεται ατν μοιον κατ’ λίγον τ διαδεχθέντι γενόμενον κα παραμένοντα λοιπν ν λ νιαυτ, τ πολλ τιτρωσκόμενον μλλον περ τιτρώσκοντα, μέχρις ν κα τοτον διαδεχόμενος παραγένηται, εγε χρόνον τακτν κατ τν Ἰὼβ πίπτομεν π’ ατος κα ο οκοι μν κπορθονται π νόμων.


35(The Temptation to excessive asceticism)


35. When after many and frequent struggles the demon of gluttony does not have the strength to destroy the abstinence deeply imprinted within us, then he casts into the nous a desire for the strictest asceticism; and after this he introduces him to Daniel’s companions, their life of poverty and vegetarianism* (cf. Dan 1.12, 16). [79.1229β]  35. [SC,p.272]   Ὅταν ὁ τῆς γαστριμαργίας πολλὰ καὶ πολλάκις ἀγωνισάμενος δαίμων μὴ ἰσχύσῃ διαθεῖραι τὴν τετυπωμένην ἐγκράτειαν, τότε εἰς ἐπιθυμίαν ἀσκήσεως ἀκροτάτης ἐμβάλλει τὸν νοῦν, ἐξ ὧν καὶ τὰ περὶ τὸν Δανιὴλ εἰς μέσον φέρει, τὴν πενιχρὰν ἐκείνην ζωὴν, καὶ τὰ σπέρματα,

* vegetarianism:(spermata/σπέρματα)  literally the seeds, or the grains, or the legumes, i.e. that presumably comprised their diet

He brings to mind other anchorites who have always lived this way or who have begun to do so, and compels him to imitate them. καί τινν ἅλλων ἀναχωρητῶν μνημονεύει βεβιωκότων διὰ παντὸς οὕτως, ἢ ἀρξαμένων, καὶ τούτων μιμητὴν γενέσθαι [79.1229ξ] καταναγκάζει·
In this way by pursuing an abstinence that is unbalanced he is kept from attaining what is well-balanced, the body being incapable due to its weakness; and thus [the demon] blesses in words while cursing in his heart (cf. Ps 61.5); ἵνα τὴν ἅμετρον διώκων ἐγκράτειαν, ἀποτύχῃ καὶ τῆς συμμετρίας τοῦ σώματος μὴ ἐπαρκέσαντος διὰ καταρώμενος τῇ καρδίᾳ·
In my opinion it is not right to obey [the demon] nor to abstain from bread, oil and water. For the brothers have experimented with this diet and [determined it to be] the best, as long as long as it does not result in satiety and is taken [only] once a day. ᾧ μὴ πείθεσθαι δίκαιον τούτους νομίζω, μηδὲ ἀπέχεσθαι ἄρτου, καὶ ἐλαιου, καὶ ὕδατος.  Ταύτην γὰρ τὴν δίαιταν πάνυ καλλίστην οἱ ἀδελφοὶ πεπειράκασι, καὶ τοῦτο οὐ πρὸς κόρον καὶ ἅπαξ εἰς τὴν ἡμέραν. 
Indeed, I would be astonished if one satiated with bread and water could receive the crown of the apatheia; for I do not consider apatheia to be that which prevents sins in action (this is called abstinence), but rather that which cuts off passionate [tempting-]thoughts in the mind,  which Saint Paul called the spiritual circumcision of the hidden Jew (cf. Rom 2.29) [cf KG 4.12, 6.66]. If one is discouraged by my words, let us remember the Apostle, the chosen vessel (cf. Acts 9.15), who completed his course (cf. 2Tim 4.7). in hunger and thirst (2Cor 11.27). Θαυμάζω γὰρ εἴ τις, ἄρτου καὶ ὕδατος κορεννύμενος, δυνήσεται τὸν τῆς ἀπαθείας ὑποδέξασθαι στέφανον.  Ἀπάθειαν δὲ λέγω, οὐ τὴν κατάλυσιν τῆς κατ̓ ἐνέργειαν ἁμαρτίας, αὕτη γὰρ ἐγκράτεια λέγεται, ἀλλὰ τὴν ατὰ διάνοιαν τοὺς ἐμπαθεῖς λογισμοὺς περικοπτουσαν, ἥντινα καὶ πνυματικὴν περιτομὴν τοῦ κρυπτοῦ  Ἰουδαίου ὁ ἅγιος Παῦλος ὠνόμασεν.  Εἰ δὲ [79.1229d] ἀθυμεῖ τις ἐπὶ τοῖς λεχθθεῖσι, μνημονευσάτω τοῦ σκεύους τῆς ἐκλογῆς,  Ἀποστόλου, ἐν λιμῷ καὶ δίψει τὸν δρόμον τελέσαντος. 
The demon of Acedia also imitates this demon: he suggests to the hardened ascetic an absolute withdrawal and invites him to compete with John the Baptist and with Antony, the first of the anchorites, so that, not unable to endure this prolonged and inhuman retreat, he flees shamefully, abandoning the place, the demon then boasting: I prevailed against him (Ps. 12: 5). Μιμεῖται δὲ καὶ ὁ της ἀληθείας ἀντίπαλος ὁ τῆς ἀκηδίας δαίμων τοῦτον τὸν δαίμονα, ἀκροτάτην ἀναχώρησιν τῷ καρτερικῷ ὑποβάλλων, εἰς ζῆλον προσκαλούμενος  Ἰωάννου τοῦ Βαπτιστοῦ, καὶ τῆς ἀπαρχῆς τῶν ἀναχωρητῶν  Ἀντωνίου, ἵνα, μὴ βαστάσας τὴν χρονίαν, καὶ ἀάνθρωπον ἀναχώρησιν, φύγῃ μετ' αἰσχύνης, τὸν τόπον καταλιπὼν, καὶ αὐτὸς λοιπὸν καυχώμενος εἴπῃ, ̧  Ἴσχυσα πρὸς αὐτόν.

36The Matter of Thoughts


36. Impure [tempting-]thoughts absorb many substances in order to grow and extend themselves to many objects. And indeed [it is as if] they mentally cross the expanse of the seas and do not shrink from long journeys, so strong is the ardor of passion.

 [79.1232α]  36. [SC,p.276]  Οἱ μὲν ἀκάθαρτοι λογισμοὶ εἰς αὔξησιν ὕλας εἰςδέχονται, καὶ πολλοῖς συμπαρεκτείνονται πράγμασι· καὶ γὰρ πελάγη κατὰ διάνοιαν περῶσι μεγάλα, καὶ μακρὰς ὁδοὺς ὁδεύειν οὐ παραιτοῦνται διὰ πολλὴν τοῦ πάθους θερμότητα·

But [impure [tempting-]thoughts] that are somewhat purified are much more restricted in objects; and because of the weakness of the passion, they cannot extend to a multitude of objects. οἱ δὲ ὁπωσοῦν κεκαθαρμένοι, στενώτεροι τούτων μᾶλλόν εἰσι, συμπαρεκτείνεσθαι πράγμασι μὴ δυνάμενοι διὰ τὴν τοῦ πάθους ἀσθένειαν,
That is why they are drawn, instead, into a movement contrary to nature; according to wise Solomon, “they wander outside for a while” (Prov. 7: 12). and collect straw for their illegal brick making, because they no longer receive straw (cf  Ex 5.7-12’). ὅθεν καὶ παρὰ φύσιν μᾶλλον κινοῦνται, καὶ κατὰ τὸν σοφὸν Σολομῶντα, χρόνον τινὰ ἔξω ῥέμβοντες, καὶ καλάμην συνάγουσιν εἰς τὴν παράνομον πλινθουργίαν,
You must therefore be vigilant in keeping your heart (Prov 4. 23), in order to escape like a gazelle from nets and like a bird from a snare (Prov 6.5). ἵνα σώζωνται ὥσπερ δορκὰς ἐκ βρόχων, καὶ ὥσπερ ὄρνεον ἐκ παγίδος.

 For it is easier to purify an unclean soul than to restore a purified and wounded soul to health again: the demon of the sadness does not allow this, but constantly leaps onto the pupils of the eyes and presents the image of sin at the time of prayer.

 Ῥᾷον γὰρ ἀκάθαρτον καθάραι ψυχὴν, ἢ καθαρθεῖσαν, καὶ πάλιν [79.1232β] θραυματισθεῖσαν εἰς ὑγείαν αὖθις ἀνακαλέσασθαι, τοῦ δαίμονος τῆς λύπης μὴ συγχωροῦντος, ἀλλ' ἀεὶ ταῖς κόραις κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν τῆς προσευχῆς τὸ τῆς ἁμαρτίας προσφέροντος εἴδωλον.




 37. THE demons do not know our hearts, as some people suppose. Only the Lord is “knower of  the heart:” (cf Acts 1.24 & 15.8) namely, He who also understands “the nous  of men” (Job 7.20); and “who fashioned their hearts by himself” (Ps 32.15). But either from words that are produced, or from some movements of the body, [the demons] come to know many of the heart’s movements.

 [79.1232β]  27. [π.280]  Οὐκ ἐπίστανταιι τὰς καρδίας ἡμῶν οἱ δαίμονες, ὥς τινες τῶν ἀθρώπων νομίζουσι· καὶ γὰρ μόνος ἐστὶ καρδιογνώστης, ὁ ἐπιστάμενος τὸν νοῦν τῶν ἀνθρώπν, καὶ πλάσας κατὰ μόνας τὰς καρδίας αὐτῶν· ἐκ δὲ τοῦ προφορικοῦ λόγου, καὶ τῶν τοιῶνδε κινημάτων τοῦ σώματος, τὰ πολλὰ τῶν ἐν τῇ καρδιᾳ κινημάτων γινώσκουσιν.

I once wanted to make this clear, but our holy priest prevented me, saying that it was not appropriate to publish such things and make them fall on the ears of the layman, since it is said that according to the law whoever has relations with a menstruating woman is guilty (cf Lv 15.19-24) Ἅπερ ἐγὼ νῦν ἐβουλόμην δηλῶσαι σαφῶς, ἐπέσχε δέ με ὁ ἅγοις ἱερεὺς, ἀνάξιον [79.1232ξ] τὰ τοιαῦτα δημοσιεύεσθαι, καὶ ὁ τῷ ἐφέδρῳ συγγινόμενος, κατὰ τὸν νόμον, ὑπεύθυνος γίνεται. 
However, it is by such signs that they recognize what is hidden in the heart and draw from it the starting point to attack us. Πλὴν ὅτι ἐκ τῶν τοιούτων συμβόλων ἐπιγινώσκουσι τὰ ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ κρυπτόμενα, καὶ τὰςἀφορμὰς ἐκ τούτων λαμβάνουσι καθ' ἡμῶν,

Suppose that in conversation we have denounced those who have spoken evil of us; from these words, the demons conclude that we have an absence of love for those people, and they use it as a chance to introduce into us evil thoughts against them; having accepted these, we fall under the yoke of the demon of resentment, who thereupon constantly incites us to vengeful thoughts against them.

πολλάκις γοῦν τινας κακολογήσαντας ἠλέγξαμεν, οὐκ ἀγαπητικῷς ἔχοντες πρὸς αὐτοὺς, διὸ καὶ τῷ τῆς μνησικακίας περιπεπτώκαμεν δαίμονι, καὶ λογισμοὺς πονηροὺς εὐθὺς εἰλήφαμεν κατ' αὐτῶν, οὕς τε πρότερον ἔγνωμεν ἡμῖν ἐπισυμβάντας. 

Therefore the Holy Spirit rightly denounces us, saying: ‘Thou didst sit and speak against thy brother, and didst scandalise thy mother’s son’ (Ps. 49.20), that is, you opened the door to thoughts of resentment, and confused your mind during prayer, constantly imagining the face of your enemy, and thus having him as a god; for what the mind constantly looks upon during prayer should rightly be acknowledged as its god

Διόπερ καλῶς ἡμῖν ἐγκαλεῖ καὶ τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ ἄγιον· ̧ Καθήμενος κατὰ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ σου κατελάλεις, καὶ κατὰ τοῦ υἱοῦ τῆς μητρός σου ἐτίθεις σκάνδαλον, καὶ τῶν τῆς [79.1232δ] μνησικακίας λογισμῶν ἤνοιγες θύραν, καὶ τὸν νοῦν κατὰ καιρὸν τῆς προσευχῆς ἐξετάρασσες, τοῦ ἐχθροῦ σου τὸ πρόσωπον ἀεὶ φανταζόμενος, καὶ τοῦτον εοποιῶν· ὃ γὰρ βλέπει πάντως ὁ νοῦς προσευχόμενος, τοῦτο καὶ Θεὸν ἄξιον ὁμολογεῖν.  

So let us avoid this disease of malicious talk, let us have no evil memory against anyone, nor make faces at the memory of a brother. For evil demons eagerly watch our every movement and leave nothing unexplored that could be used against us, whether our sitting, or our getting up, our standing, our walk, our words or our look. They are always curious, devising ‘deceits all the day’ (Ps. 27. 12) in order, during prayer, to put to shame the humble mind and to extinguish its blessed light.

̓Αλλὰ φύγωμεν, ἀγαπητοὶ, τῆς κακηγορίας τὴν νόσον, μηδενός ποτε κακῶς μνημονεύσωμεν, μηδὲ τὰς ὄψεις διαστρέφωμεν ἐπὶ μνήμῃ τοῦ πησίον.  Πάντα γὰρ τὰ σχήματα οἱ πονηροὶ περιεργσάζονται δαίμονες, καὶ οὐδὲν τῶν καθ' ἡμω̈ν καταλιμπάνουσιν ἀνεξέταστον, οὐκ ανάκλισιν, οὐ καθέδραν οὐ στάσιν, οὐ λόγον, οὐ πάροδον, ου βλέμμα, πάντα περιεργάζονται, πάντα κινοῦσιν, ὅλιν τὴν ἡμέραν καθ' ἡμῶν δολιότητα [79.1233α]  μελετῶσιν, ἵνα τὸν ταπεινὸν κατα τὸν καιρὸν τῆς προσευχῆς συκοφαντήσωσι νοῦν, καὶ τὸ μακάριον οὐτοῦ κατασβέσωσι φῶς.

Observe what Saint Paul says to Titus: “and in your teaching show integrity, gravity, and sound speech that cannot be censured, so that an opponent may be put to shame, having nothing evil to say of us.” (Titus 2:7-8). While the blessed David also prayed, saying: “deliver me from falsely-accusing men” (Ps 119:34). “Men” is a name that can also apply to the demons on account of reasoning nature.  For the Savior also says in the Gospels that an evil “man” has sown in us the weeds of vices. (cf Mt 13:25)

 Ὁρᾷς καὶ ὁ ἄγιος Παῦλος τί φησι τῷ Τίτῳ; ̧ν τῇ διασκαλίᾳ , ἄφθορον λόγον ὑγιῆ, ἀκατάγνωστον, ἵνα ὁ ἐξ ἐναντίας ἐντραπῇ, μηδὲν ἔχων λέγειν περὶ ἡμῶν φαῦλον· ς ὁ δὲ μακάριος Δαβὶδ καὶ προσεύχεται λέγων·  ̧ῦσαί με ἀπὸ συκοφαντίας ἀνθρώπων, ς ἀνθρώπουσ καὶ τοὺς δαίμονας ὀνομάζων διὰ τὸ τῆς φύσεως λογικόν· ἀλλὰ καὶ ὁ Σωτὴρ ἐν τοῖς Εὐαγγελιοις, ἐχθρὸν ἅνθρωπον εἶπε τὸν σπείραντα ἡμῖν τὰ τῆς κακίας ζιζάνια.῾ξφ Μτ 13·25̓

X38.Two Kinds of Death and Resurrection


38. OUR reasoning nature, having been put to death by vice, is raised by Christ through the contemplation of all the ages. And his Father raises the soul which has died the death of Christ by means of the knowledge He gives of Himself.  And this is what was meant by Paul: If we have died with Christ, we believe that we shall also live with Him. (Rom 6.8 ? 2Tim 1.11?).

 ͅ 38. [π.284] Φύσιν μὲν λογικὴν ὑπὸ κακίας θανατωθεῖσαν ἐγείρει Χριστὸς διὰ τῆς θεωρίας πάντων τῶν αἰώνων· ὁ δὲ τούτου πατὴρ την ἀποθανοῦσαν ψυχὴν τὸν θάνατον τοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐγείρει διὰ τῆς γνώσεως τῆς ἑαυτοῦ· καὶ τοῦτό ἐστι τὸ [π.286] ὑπὸ τοῦ [79.1221β] ἀποστόλου λεγόμενον, τὸ, ̧ εἰ συνάπεθανομεν τῷ Χριστῷ, πιστεύομεν, ὅτι καὶ συζήσομεν αὐτῷ.ς

XThe Vision of  the Place of God


39. (Phk.18.) WHEN the nous  has stripped off the old man and put on [that which comes] from grace, (cf Col 3:9-10)  then it will see its own state at the time of prayer, like a sapphire or the color of heaven, which Scripture calls the place of God that was seen by the elders under Mount Sinai (cf. Exod. 24:10).

On the light of the nous and its possible origins: cf. KG 1.35, 1.74; 1.81, 2.29; 3.44, 3.52, 5.15;  Sch.258 on Prov. 23.22 ; Prak. 64; Gnost. 45Prayer 75; Thoughts/Peri.Log. 17, 40, 42; Skem. 2, 42325, 27; Letter 39.5; Antiret. 6.16.]

 ͅ 39.  Ὅταν ὁ νοῦς τὸν παλαιὸν ἄνθρωπον  ἀποδυσάμενος τὸν ἐκ χάριτος ἐνδύσηται, τότε καὶ τὴν ἑαυτοῦ κατάστασιν ὄψεται κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν τῆς προσευχῆς, σαπφείρῳ ἢ οὐρανίῳ χρώματι παρεμφερῆ, ἥτινα καὶ τόπον Θεοῦ ἡ γραφὴ ὀνομάζει ὑπὸ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων ὀφθέντα ὑπὸ τοῦ ὄρους Σινᾶ.

X40.Successive Sheddings


40. THE nous cannot see the place of God within itself unless it is lifted up above all the concepts [noemata] of [external] objects.  But it will not be lifted up unless it strips off the passions enchaining it through concepts [noemata] of sensory objects.  And while it puts away passions through the virtues, the [more] subtle [tempting-]thoughts [are laid aside] through spiritual contemplations; and these, in turn [are laid aside] when there appears to it that light which at the time of prayer shapes [within it] a model of the place of God.

On the light of the nous and its possible origins: cf. KG 1.35, 1.74; 1.81, 2.29; 3.44, 3.52, 5.15 Sch.258 on Prov. 23.22 ; Prak. 64; Gnost. 45Prayer 75; Thoughts/Peri.Log. 17, 39, 42; Skem. 2, 42325, 27; Letter 39.5; Antiret. 6.16.]

 40. [π.288] Οὐκ ἂν ἴδοι ὁ νοῦς τὸν τοῦ τόπον ἐν ἑαυτῷ, μὴ πάντων τῶν ἐν τοῖς πράγμασιν ̧νοημάτωνς ὑψηλότερος, μὴ τὰ πάθη ἀπεκδυσάμενος τὰ συνδεσμοῦντα αὐτὸν διὰ τῶν νοημάτων τοῖς πράγμασι τοῖς αἰσθητοῖς.  Καὶ τὰ μὲν πάθη ἀποθήσεται [π.290] διὰ τῶν ἀρετῶν, τοὺς δὲ ψιλοὺς λογισμοὺς διὰ τῆς πνευματικῆς θεωρίας, καὶ ταύτην πάλιν ἐπιφανέτος αὐτῷ τοῦ φωτὸς ἐκείνου τοῦ κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν τῆς προσευχῆς ἐκτυποῦντος τὸν τόπον τὸν τοῦ θεοῦ.

41.Representions which Leave an Imprint, and those which do not


41. THOUGHTS are of [two] kinds: one sort stamp their imprint on our mind [hegemonikon], [thus] shaping it; while the other provide only knowledge , neither stamping an imprint on the nous, nor shaping it. Thus the verse, In the beginning was the Word and the Word was with God (Jn 10:1)  deposits [with]in the heart a concept [noema] but without shaping it.  On the other hand,  the phrase took bread shapes the nous ; and [the phrase] broke it  (Mt. 26.26) also shapes the nous. 41. [π.290]Τῶν νοημάτων τ μν  τυπο τ γεμονικν μν κα σχηματίζει, τ δ γνσιν παρέχει μόνον μ τυποντα τν νον μηδ σχηματίζοντα· τ γρ «ν ρχ ν λόγος κα λόγος ν πρς τν θεν» ναποτίθεται μέν τι νόημα τ καρδί, ο μν σχηματίζει ατν οδ τυπο· κα τ μν «λαβν ρτον» σχηματίζει τν νον, τ δ «κλασε» πάλιν τυπο τν νον·
The text, I saw the Lord seated upon a throne, elevated and sublime (Is 60.1) stamp an imprint on the nous ; with the exception of, I saw the Lord. τ δ «εδον τν κύριον καθήμενον π θρόνου ψηλο κα πηρμένου» τυπο τν νον χωρς το «εδον τν κύριον»·

  For while the phrase seems to stamp an imprint on the nous, the meaning of it does not. For through his prophetic eye [Isaiah] saw reasoning nature raised up by ascetic[al practice], receiving into itself the knowledge of God. For [scripture] says, God is seated where He is known  (Pr 110.16) ; and thus the pure nous is said to be a throne of God.

  κα τ μν ητν δοκε τυπον τν νον, τ δ σημαινόμενον ο τυπο· ώρακε γρ προφητικ φθαλμ τν φύσιν τν λογικν ψωθεσαν δι πρακτικς κα δεξαμένην ν αυτ τν γνσιν τν το θεο· κε γρ λέγεται καθέζεσθαι θες νθα γινώσκεται· δι κα θρόνος λέγεται θεο νος καθαρός·

And [similarly] a woman is a throne of dishonor (); which is to say the soul that hates justice (), the soul’s dishonor being vice and ignorance. For this reason the concept [noema] of God is not one that stamps an imprint on the nous; but is, instead, one of the concepts [nomata] that do not stamp an imprint on the nous. And thus it is necessary that one who prays cuts himself off from all [concepts] that stamp an imprint on the nous. λέγεται καὶ «θρόνος τιμίας γυνή», ντ το ψυχή, «μισοσα δίκαια»· τιμία δ ψυχς κακία κα γνωσία. Τ τοίνυν νόημα το θεο οκ ν τος νοήμασιν ερεθήσεται τος τυποσι τν νον, λλ’ ν νοήμασι τος μ τυποσι· διόπερ τν προσευχόμενον δε παντάπασι χωρίζεσθαι τν νοημάτων τν τυπούντων τν νον.
And so investigate whether what pertains to corporeal [beings] and their [tempting-]thoughts (logismoi) also applies in the case of incorporeal [beings] and their logoi ;  for the nous is stamped with an imprint in one way when it beholds a nous, and it manages differently when it behold its logos. From this we know how spiritual knowledge puts aside the nous whose concepts stamp an imprint upon it, placing before it [instead] the non-imprinting concept of God. For the concept of God does not belong to those that stamp an imprint - for God has no body -  [it belongs,] rather to those that do not stamp an imprint. Καὶ ζητήσεις επερ ς χει π τν σωμάτων κα τν λόγων ατν, οτως χει κα π τν σωμάτων κα τν λόγων ατν· κα λλως μν τυπωθήσεται νος ρν νον, κα λλως διατεθήσεται ρν τν λόγον ατο· ντεθεν δ γινώσκομεν πς γνσις πνευματικ φίστησι τν νον τν νοημάτων τν τυπούντων ατόν, τύπωτον δ ατν παρίστησι τ θε, διότι τ το θεο νόημα οκ ν τος τυποσι τν νον νοήμασίν στιν—ο γάρ στι σμα θεός—, λλ’ ν τος μ τυποσι.

Again, in regard to contemplations that do not stamp an imprint on the nous, one sort signifies the essence and the other the logoi  of incorporeal [beings].  But the case is different for corporeal than for incorporeal [beings]: for  among corporeal [beings] one kind stamp an imprint, while the other does not.  But [in regard to God] neither concept  noema [i.e., of essence or logoi] stamp an imprint on the nous.

 Πάλιν τν θεωρημάτων τν μ τυπούντων τν νον, τ μν οσίαν σημαίνει σωμάτων, τ δ τος λόγους ατν· κα οχ ς π τν σωμάτων συμβαίνει, οτω κα π τν σωμάτων· π μν γρ τν σωμάτων, τ μν τύπου τν νον, τ δ οκ τύπου· νταθα δ οδέ- τερον νόημα τν νον τυπο.  

42.The Eyes of the Soul


42. DIABOLICAL  thoughts blind the left eye of the soul,  that which is given over to the contemplation of created beings. Concepts that stamp our chief mental faculty and clothe it [in a form] disturb the right eye which, at the time of the prayer, contemplates the blessed light of the Holy Trinity:  it is with this eye also that the betrothed has ravished the heart of the Betrothed in the Song of Songs (Cant 4:3).

On the light of the nous and its possible sources: cf. KG 1.35, 1.74; 1.81, 2.29; 3.44, 3.52, 5.15Sch.258 on Prov 23.22 ; On Prayer 74 & 75.; Thoughts/Peri.Log. 17, 39, 40; Skem 2, 42325, 27; Letter 39.6.

 42. [π.55] [π.296] Οἱ μὲν δαιμονιώδεις λογισμοὶ τὸν εὐώνυμον ὀφθαλμὸν τῆς ψυχῆς ἐκτυφλοῦσι, τὸν ἐπιβάλλοντα τῇ θεωρίᾳ τῶν γεγνονοτων· τὰ δὲ νοήματα τὰ τυποῦντα τὸ ἡγεμονικὸν ἡμῶν καὶ σχηματίζοντα, τὸν δεξιὸν ὀφθαλμὸν ἐκθολοῖ τὸν θεωροῦντα κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν τῆς προσευχῆς τὸ μακάριον φῶς τῆς ἁγίας Τριάδος, δι' οὗ ὀφθαλμοῦ καὶ τὸν νυμφίον αὐτον ἐκαρδίωσεν ο168] ἡ νύμφη ἐν τοῖς ᾀσμασι τῶν ᾀσμάτων
Cf. Cant 4.9]

43Final Exhortation

[p.298]. ΠΓ 79. 1228Β λ. 13-21. [p.55]

 43.  IF you long for pure prayer, keep guard over your irascibility; and if you desire temperance, control your stomach and do not satiate your belly even with bread and water. Be vigilant in prayer and put all memory of injury far away from you. Let the words of the Holy Spirit never cease with you; and use the virtues as your hands to knock at the doors of Scripture. Then apatheia of heart will arise within you, and during prayer you will see your nous shine like a star.

 43.  πιθυμν καθαρς προσευχς διατήρησον θυμν κα γαπν σωφροσύνην κράτησον γαστρός· μ δς ρτον σ κοιλί ες κόρον κα ν δατι κθλιβε ατήν· γρύπνει ν προσευχ κα μνησικακίαν μακρν ποίησον π σο· λόγοι πνεύματος γίου μ κλειπέτωσάν σε κα θύραν γραφς κροε χερσν ρετν· τότε νατελε σοι καρδίας πάθεια κα νον στεροειδ ψει ν προσευχ.


[79.1228β]  ΚΕΦΑΛ. ΚΔ (App,1.)

 24. [Ph 23] AS we stated at the beginning, there are three chief groups of demons opposing us in the practice of the ascetic life, and after them follows the whole army of the enemy. These three groups fight in the front line, and with impure thoughts seduce our souls into wrongdoing. They are the demons set over the appetites of gluttony, those who suggest to us avaricious thoughts, and those who incite us to seek esteem in the eyes of men.

  Τν ντικειμένων δαιμόνων τ πρακτικ τρες εσι πρωτοστάται, ος πεται πσα παρεμβολ τν λλοφύλων, οτινες πρτοι κατ τν πόλεμον στανται κα τς ψυχς δι τν καθάρτων λογισμν κκαλονται πρς τν κακίαν, ο τς τς γαστριμαργίας ρέξεις πεπιστευμένοι κα ο τν φιλαργυρίαν μν ποβάλλοντες κα ο πρς τν τν νθρώπων δόξαν μς κκαλούμενοι.


[1] ENGLISH EDITIONS USED:  “Texts on Discrimination in respect of Passions and Thoughts”, The Philokalia, the Complete Text, v.1   tr& ed. Palmer et. al. ( Faber & Faber, 1979), pp. 38-52 and ‘Abba Evagrius the Monk:  7. On Various Evil Thoughts’ in Early Fathers from the Philokalia , tr. by Kadloubovsky and Palmer (Faber & Faber, 1954) pp. 117-124.

GREEK TEXT: Critical Edition in Évagre le Pontique Sur Les Pensées, ed. P. Géhin, Claire Guillaumont and A. Guillaumont, SC 438, (Paris: Cerf, 1998) pp. 148-301.  Versions used in this edition include: PG 79, 1200-1233 (=Suarès (1673);  PG 40 1240-1244; Filokali/a I, Athens 1957 pp. 44-57; Chapters from Longer Recension (ch. 23-44) according to reconstruction of Muyldermans, “À Travers la Tradition Manuscrite d’ Èvagre le Pontique,” Bibliothèque du Muséon 3 (Louvain, 1933) 39-60.  Note ch. 44 = Macarius Hom 25 in 50 Spir Hom.s.






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