Canons on the
Sacrament of Penance


 Weyden, Seven-Sacrament Altar, 1450





(Cann. 959 - 997)






Can. 959 In the sacrament of penance the faithful who confess their sins to a legitimate minister, are sorry for them, and intend to reform themselves obtain from God through the absolution imparted by the same minister forgiveness for the sins they have committed after baptism and, at the same, time are reconciled with the Church which they have wounded by sinning.

Can. 959 - In sacramento paenitentiae fideles peccata legitimo ministro confitentes, de iisdem contriti atque propositum sese emendandi habentes, per absolutionem ab eodem ministro impertitam, veniam peccatorum quae post baptismum commiserint a Deo obtinent, simulque reconciliantur cum Ecclesia, quam peccando vulneraverunt.

   1918 Code: can. 870. In the sacrament of penance sins committed after baptism are forgiven the faithful who are rightly disposed, by the judicial absolution of a legitimate minister.

Can. 870. In poenitentiae sacramento, per iudicialem absolutionem a legitimo ministro impertitam, fideli rite disposito remittuntur peccata post baptismum commissa.












Can. 960 Individual and integral confession and absolution constitute the only ordinary means by which a member of the faithful conscious of grave sin is reconciled with God and the Church. Only physical or moral impossibility excuses from confession of this type; in such a case reconciliation can be obtained by other means.

Can. 960 - Individualis et integra confessio atque absolutio unicum constituunt modum ordinarium, quo fidelis peccati gravis sibi conscius cum Deo et Ecclesia reconciliatur; solummodo impossibilitas physica vel moralis ab huiusmodi confessione excusat, quo in casu aliis quoque modis reconciliatio haberi potest.



Can. 961    §1. Absolution cannot be imparted in a general manner to many penitents at once without previous individual confession unless:

Can. 961 - § 1.  Absolutio pluribus insimul paenitentibus sine praevia individuali confessione, generali modo impertiri non potest, nisi: 

   1° danger of death is imminent and there is insufficient time for the priest or priests to hear the confessions of the individual penitents;

1_ immineat periculum mortis et tempus non suppetat sacerdoti vel sacerdotibus ad audiendas singulorum paenitentium confessiones;

   2° there is grave necessity, that is, when in view of the number of penitents, there are not enough confessors available to hear the confessions of individuals properly within a suitable period of time in such a way that the penitents are forced to be deprived for a long while of sacramental grace or holy communion through no fault of their own. Sufficient necessity is not considered to exist when confessors cannot be present due only to the large number of penitents such as can occur on some great feast or pilgrimage.

2_ adsit gravis necessitas, videlicet quando, attento paenitentium numero, confessariorum copia praesto non est ad rite audiendas singulorum confessiones intra congruum tempus, ita ut paenitentes, sine propria culpa, gratia sacramentali aut sacra communione diu carere cogantur; necessitas vero non censetur sufficiens, cum confessarii praesto esse non possunt, ratione solius magni concursus paenitentium, qualis haberi potest in magna aliqua festivitate aut peregrinatione. 

   §2. It belongs to the diocesan bishop to judge whether the conditions required according to the norm of §1, n. 2 are present. He can determine the cases of such necessity, attentive to the criteria agreed upon with the other members of the conference of bishops.

§ 2.  Iudicium ferre an dentur condiciones ad normam § 1, n. 2 requisitae, pertinet ad Episcopum dioecesanum, qui, attentis criteriis cum ceteris membris Episcoporum conferentiae concordatis, casus talis necessitatis determinare potest.



Can. 962    §1. For a member of the Christian faithful validly to receive sacramental absolution given to many at one time, it is required not only that the person is properly disposed but also at the same time intends to confess within a suitable period of time each grave sin which at the present time cannot be so confessed.

Can. 962 - § 1.  Ut christifidelis sacramentali absolutione una simul pluribus data valide fruatur, requiritur non tantum ut sit apte dispositus, sed ut insimul sibi proponat singillatim debito tempore confiteri peccata gravia, quae in praesens ita confiteri nequit. 

   §2. Insofar as it can be done even on the occasion of the reception of general absolution, the Christian faithful are to be instructed about the requirements of the norm of    §1. An exhortation that each person take care to make an act of contrition is to precede general absolution even in the case of danger of death, if there is time.

§ 2.  Christifideles, quantum fieri potest etiam occasione absolutionis generalis recipiendae, de requisitis ad normam § 1 edoceantur et absolutioni generali, in casu quoque periculi mortis, si tempus suppetat, praemittatur exhortatio ut actum contritionis quisque elicere curet.



Can. 963 Without prejudice to the obligation mentioned in  can. 989, a person whose grave sins are remitted by general absolution is to approach individual confession as soon as possible, given the opportunity, before receiving another general absolution, unless a just cause intervenes.

Can. 963 - Firma manente obligatione de qua in can. 989, is cui generali absolutione gravia peccata remittuntur, ad confessionem individualem quam primum, occasione data, accedat, antequam aliam recipiat absolutionem generalem, nisi iusta causa interveniat.



Can. 964    §1. The proper place to hear sacramental confessions is a church or oratory.

Can. 964 - § 1.  Ad sacramentales confessiones excipiendas locus proprius est ecclesia aut oratorium. 

   §2. The conference of bishops is to establish norms regarding the confessional; it is to take care, however, that there are always confessionals with a fixed grate between the penitent and the confessor in an open place so that the faithful who wish to can use them freely.

§ 2.  Ad sedem confessionalem quod attinet, normae ab Episcoporum conferentia statuantur, cauto tamen ut semper habeantur in loco patenti sedes confessionales crate fixa inter paenitentem et confessarium instructae, quibus libere uti possint fideles, qui id desiderent. 

   §3. Confessions are not to be heard outside a confessional without a just cause.

§ 3.  Confessiones extra sedem confessionalem ne excipiantur, nisi iusta de causa.











Can. 965 A priest alone is the minister of the sacrament of penance.

Can. 965 - Minister sacramenti paenitentiae est solus sacerdos.



Can. 966    §1. The valid absolution of sins requires that the minister have, in addition to the power of orders, the faculty of exercising it for the faithful to whom he imparts absolution.

Can. 966 - § 1.  Ad validam peccatorum absolutionem requiritur ut minister, praeterquam potestate ordinis, facultate gaudeat eandem in fideles, quibus absolutionem impertitur, exercendi. 

   §2. A priest can be given this faculty either by the law itself or by a grant made by the competent authority according to the norm of can. 969.

§ 2.  Hac facultate donari potest sacerdos, sive ipso iure sive concessione ab auctoritate competenti facta ad normam can. 969.



Can. 967    §1. In addition to the Roman Pontiff, cardinals have the faculty of hearing the confessions of the Christian faithful everywhere in the world by the law itself. Bishops likewise have this faculty and use it licitly everywhere unless the diocesan bishop has denied it in a particular case.

Can. 967 - § 1.  Praeter Romamum Pontificem, facultate christifidelium ubique terrarum confessiones excipiendi ipso iure gaudent Cardinales itemque Episcopi, qui eadem et licite ubique utuntur, nisi Episcopus dioecesanus in casu particulari renuerit.

   §2. Those who possess the faculty of hearing confessions habitually whether by virtue of office or by virtue of the grant of an ordinary of the place of incardination or of the place in which they have a domicile can exercise that faculty everywhere unless the local ordinary has denied it in a particular case, without prejudice to the prescripts of can. 974, §§2 and 3.

§ 2.  Qui facultate confessiones habitualiter excipiendi gaudent sive vi officii sive vi concessionis Ordinarii loci incardinationis aut loci in quo domicilium habent, eadem facultatem ubique exercere possunt, nisi loci Ordinarius in casu particulari renuerit, firmis praescriptis can. 974, §§  2 et 3.

   §3. Those who are provided with the faculty of hearing confessions by reason of office or grant of a competent superior according to the norm of cann. 968, §2 and 969,    §2 possess the same faculty everywhere by the law itself as regards members and others living day and night in the house of the institute or society; they also use the faculty licitly unless some major superior has denied it in a particular case as regards his own subjects.

§ 3.  Ipso iure eadem facultate ubique potiuntur erga sodales aliosque in domo instituti aut societatis diu noctuque degentes, qui vi officii aut concessionis Superioris competentis ad normam cann. 968, § 2 et 969, § 2 facultate confessiones excipiendi sunt instructi; qui quidem eadem et licite utuntur, nisi aliquis Superior maior quoad proprios subditos in casu particulari renuerit.



Can. 968    §1. In virtue of office, a local ordinary, canon penitentiary, a pastor, and those who take the place of a pastor possess the faculty of hearing confessions, each within his jurisdiction.

Can. 968 - § 1.  Vi officii pro sua quisque dicione facultate ad confessiones excipiendas gaudent loci Ordinarius, canonicus paenitentiarius, itemque parochus aliique qui loco parochi sunt. 

   §2. In virtue of their office, superiors of religious institutes or societies of apostolic life that are clerical and of pontifical right, who have executive power of governance according to the norm of their constitutions, possess the faculty of hearing the confessions of their subjects and of others living day and night in the house, without prejudice to the prescript of can. 630,  §4.

§ 2.  Vi officii facultate gaudent confessiones excipiendi suorum subditorum aliorumque, in domo diu noctuque degentium, Superiores instituti religiosi aut societatis vitae apostolicae, si sint clericales iuris pontificii, ad normam constitutionum potestate regiminis exsecutiva fruentes, firmo tamen praescripto can. 630, § 4.



Can. 969    §1. The local ordinary alone is competent to confer upon any presbyters whatsoever the faculty to hear the confessions of any of the faithful. Presbyters who are members of religious institutes, however, are not to use the faculty without at least the presumed permission of their superior.

Can. 969 - § 1.  Solus loci Ordinarius competens est qui facultatem ad confessiones quorumlibet fidelium excipiendas conferat presbyteris quibuslibet; presbyteri autem qui sodales sunt institutorum religiosorum, eadem ne utantur sine licentia saltem praesumpta sui Superioris. 

   §2. The superior of a religious institute or society of apostolic life mentioned in can. 968,    §2 is competent to confer upon any presbyters whatsoever the faculty to hear the confessions of their subjects and of others living day and night in the house.

§ 2.  Superior instituti religiosi aut societatis vitae apostolicae, de quo in can. 968, § 2, competens est qui facultatem ad excipiendas confessiones suorum subditorum aliorumque in domo diu noctuque degentium presbyteris quibuslibet conferat.



Can. 970 The faculty to hear confessions is not to be granted except to presbyters who are found to be suitable through an examination or whose suitability is otherwise evident.

Can. 970 - Facultas ad confessiones excipiendas ne concedatur nisi presbyteris qui idonei per examen reperti fuerint, aut de eorum idoneitate aliunde constet.



Can. 971 The local ordinary is not to grant the faculty of hearing confessions habitually to a presbyter, even one having a domicile or quasi-domicile in his jurisdiction, unless he has first heard the ordinary of the same presbyter insofar as possible.

Can. 971 - Facultatem ad excipiendas habitualiter confessiones loci Ordinarius presbytero, etsi domicilium vel quasi-domicilium in sua dicione habenti, ne concedat, nisi prius, quantum fieri potest, audito eiusdem presbyteri Ordinario.



Can. 972 The competent authority mentioned in can. 969 can grant the faculty to hear confessions for either an indefinite or a definite period of time.

Can. 972 - Facultas ad confessiones excipiendas a competenti auctoritate, de qua in can. 969, concedi potest ad tempus sive indeterminatum sive determinatum.



Can. 973 The faculty to hear confessions habitually is to be granted in writing.

Can. 973 - Facultas ad confessiones habitualiter excipiendas scripto concedatur.



Can. 974    §1. The local ordinary and the competent superior are not to revoke the faculty to hear confessions habitually except for a grave cause.

Can. 974 - § 1.  Loci Ordinarius, itemque Superior competens, facultatem ad confessiones excipiendas habitualiter concessam ne revocet nisi gravem ob causam. 

   §2. When the faculty to hear confessions has been revoked by the local ordinary who granted it as mentioned in can. 967, §2, a presbyter loses the faculty everywhere. If some other local ordinary has revoked the faculty, the presbyter loses it only in the territory of the one who revokes it.

§ 2.  Revocata facultate ad confessiones excipiendas a loci Ordinario qui eam concessit, de quo in can. 967, § 2, presbyter eandem facultatem ubique amittit; revocata eadem facultate ab alio loci Ordinario, eandem amittit tantum in territorio revocantis. 

   §3. Any local ordinary who has revoked the faculty of some presbyter to hear confessions is to inform the proper ordinary of incardination of the presbyter or, if he is a member of a religious institute, his competent superior.

§ 3.  Quilibet loci Ordinarius qui alicui presbytero revocaverit facultatem ad confessiones excipiendas, certiorem reddat Ordinarium qui ratione incardinationis est presbyteri proprius, aut, si agatur de sodali instituti religiosi, eiusdem competentem Superiorem. 

   §4. If the proper major superior of a presbyter has revoked the faculty to hear confessions, the presbyter loses the faulty to hear the confessions of members of the institute everywhere. If some other competent superior has revoked the faculty, however, the presbyter loses it only with regard to the subjects in the jurisdiction of that superior.

§ 4.  Revocata facultate ad confessiones excipiendas a proprio Superiore maiore, facultatem ad excipiendas confessiones ubique erga sodales instituti amittit presbyter; revocata autem eadem facultate ab alio Superiore competenti, eandem amittit erga solos in eiusdem dicione subditos.







Can. 975 Besides by revocation, the faculty mentioned in can. 967,  §2 ceases by loss of office, excardination, or loss of domicile.

Can. 975 - Praeterquam revocatione, facultas de qua in can. 967, § 2 cessat amissione officii vel excardinatione aut amissione domicilii.







Can. 976 Even though a priest lacks the faculty to hear confessions, he absolves validly and licitly any penitents whatsoever in danger of death from any censures and sins, even if an approved priest is present.

Can. 976 - Quilibet sacerdos, licet ad confessiones excipiendas facultate careat, quoslibet paenitentes in periculo mortis versantes valide et licite absolvit a quibusvis censuris et peccatis, etiamsi praesens sit sacerdos approbatus.







Can. 977 The absolution of an accomplice in a sin against the sixth commandment of the Decalogue is invalid except in danger of death.

[see can 1378: the confessor incurs a latae sententiae excommunication reserved to the Holy See]

Can. 977 - Absolutio complicis in peccato contra sextum Decalogi praeceptum invalida est, praeterquam in periculo mortis.







Can. 978    §1. In hearing confessions the priest is to remember that he is equally a judge and a physician and has been established by God as a minister of divine justice and mercy, so that he has regard for the divine honor and the salvation of souls.

Can. 978 - § 1.  Meminerit sacerdos in audiendis confessionibus se iudicis pariter et medici personam sustinere ac divinae iustitiae simul et misericordiae ministrum a Deo constitutum esse, ut honori divino et animarum saluti consulat.

   §2. In administering the sacrament, the confessor as a minister of the Church is to adhere faithfully to the doctrine of the magisterium and the norms issued by competent authority.

§ 2.  Confessarius, utpote minister Ecclesiae, in administrando sacramento, doctrinae Magisterii et normis a competenti auctoritate latis fideliter adhaereat.







Can. 979 In posing questions, the priest is to proceed with prudence and discretion, attentive to the condition and age of the penitent, and is to refrain from asking the name of an accomplice.

Can. 979 - Sacerdos in quaestionibus ponendis cum prudentia et discretione procedat, attenta quidem condicione et aetate paenitentis, abstineatque a nomine complicis inquirendo.

   1918 Code: can. 888 §2. He is to avoid entirely any inquiry concerning the name of the penitent's accomplice, pressing anyone with prying or useless questions, above all those concerned with the sixth commandment, and especially imprudent questions addressed to young persons about matters of which they are ignorant.

888 § 2. Caveat omnino ne complicis nomen inquirat, ne curiosis aut inutilibus quaestionibus, maxime circa sextum Decalogi praeceptum, quemquam detineat, et praesertim ne iuniores de iis quae ignorant imprudenter interroget.



Can. 980 If the confessor has no doubt about the disposition of the penitent, and the penitent seeks absolution, absolution is to be neither refused nor deferred.

Can. 980 - Si confessario dubium non est de paenitentis dispositione et hic absolutionem petat, absolutio ne denegetur nec differatur.



Can. 981 The confessor is to impose salutary and suitable penances in accord with the quality and number of sins, taking into account the condition of the penitent. The penitent is obliged to fulfill these personally.

Can. 981 - Pro qualitate et numero peccatorum, habita tamen ratione paenitentis condicionis, salutares et convenientes satisfactiones confessarius iniungat; quas paenitens per se ipse implendi obligatione tenetur.



Can. 982 Whoever confesses to have denounced falsely an innocent confessor to ecclesiastical authority concerning the crime of solicitation to sin against the sixth commandment of the Decalogue is not to be absolved unless the person has first formally retracted the false denunciation and is prepared to repair damages if there are any.

Can. 982 - Qui confitetur se falso confessarium innocentem apud auctoritatem ecclesiasticam denuntiasse de crimine sollicitationis ad peccatum contra sextum Decalogi praeceptum, ne absolvatur nisi prius falsam denuntiationem formaliter retractaverit et paratus sit ad damna, si quae habeantur, reparanda.



Can. 983    §1. The sacramental seal is inviolable; therefore it is absolutely forbidden for a confessor to betray (prodere) in any way a penitent in words or in any manner and for any reason.

Can. 983 - § 1.  Sacramentale sigillum inviolabile est; quare nefas est confessario verbis vel alio quovis et quavis modo de causa aliquatenus prodere paenitentem. 

   §2. The interpreter, if there is one, and all others who in any way have knowledge of sins from confession are also obliged to observe secrecy.

§ 2.  Obligatione secretum servandi tenentur quoque interpres, si detur, necnon omnes alii ad quos ex confessione notitia peccatorum quoquo modo pervenerit.



Can. 984    §1. A confessor is prohibited completely from using knowledge acquired from confession to the detriment of the penitent even when any danger of revelation is excluded.

Can. 984 - § 1.  Omnino confessario prohibetur scientiae ex confessione acquisitae usus cum paenitentis gravamine, etiam quovis revelationis periculo excluso. 

   §2. A person who has been placed in authority cannot use in any manner for external governance the knowledge about sins which he has received in confession at any time.

§ 2.  Qui in auctoritate est constitutus, notitia quam de peccatis in confessione quovis tempore excepta habuerit, ad exteriorem gubernationem nullo modo uti potest.



Can. 985 The director of novices and his associate and the rector of a seminary or other institute of education are not to hear the sacramental confessions of their students residing in the same house unless the students freely request it in particular cases.

Can. 985 - Magister novitiorum eiusque socius, rector seminarii aliusve instituti educationis sacramentales confessiones suorum alumnorum in eadem domo commorantium ne audiant, nisi alumni in casibus particularibus sponte id petant.



Can. 986    §1. All to whom the care of souls has been entrusted in virtue of some function are obliged to make provision so that the confessions of the faithful entrusted to them are heard when they reasonably seek to be heard and that they have the opportunity to approach individual confession on days and at times established for their convenience.

Can. 986 - § 1.  Omnis cui animarum cura vi muneris est demandata, obligatione tenetur providendi ut audiantur confessiones fidelium sibi commissorum, qui rationabiliter audiri petant, utque iisdem opportunitas praebeatur ad confessionem individualem, diebus ac horis in eorum commodum statutis, accedendi. 

   §2. In urgent necessity, any confessor is obliged to hear the confessions of the Christian faithful, and in danger of death, any priest is so obliged.

§ 2.  Urgente necessitate, quilibet confessarius obligatione tenetur confessiones christifidelium excipiendi, et in periculo mortis quilibet sacerdos.











Can. 987 To receive the salvific remedy of the sacrament of penance, a member of the Christian faithful must be disposed in such a way that, rejecting sins committed and having a purpose of amendment, the person is turned back to God.

Can. 987 - Christifidelis, ut sacramenti paenitentiae remedium percipiat salutiferum, ita dispositus sit oportet ut, peccata quae commiserit repudians et propositum sese emendandi habens, ad Deum convertatur.



Can. 988    §1. A member of the Christian faithful is obliged to confess in kind and number all grave sins committed after baptism and not yet remitted directly through the keys of the Church nor acknowledged in individual confession, of which the person has knowledge after diligent examination of conscience.

Can. 988 - § 1.  Christifidelis obligatione tenetur in specie et numero confitendi omnia peccata gravia post baptismum perpetrata et nondum per claves Ecclesiae directe remissa neque in confessione individuali accusata, quorum post diligentem sui discussionem conscientiam habeat. 

   §2. It is recommended to the Christian faithful that they also confess venial sins.

§ 2.  Commendatur christifidelibus ut etiam peccata venialia confiteantur.



Can. 989 After having reached the age of discretion, each member of the faithful is obliged to confess faithfully his or her grave sins at least once a year.

Can. 989 - Omnis fidelis, postquam ad annos discretionis pervenerit, obligatione tenetur peccata sua gravia, saltem semel in anno, fideliter confitendi.



Can. 990 No one is prohibited from confessing through an interpreter as long as abuses and scandals are avoided and without prejudice to the prescript of can. 983, §2.

Can. 990 - Nemo prohibetur quominus per interpretem confiteatur, vitatis quidem abusibus et scandalis atque firmo praescripto can. 983, § 2.



Can. 991 Every member of the Christian faithful is free to confess sins to a legitimately approved confessor of his or her choice, even to one of another rite.

Can. 991 - Cuivis christifideli integrum est confessario legitime approbato etiam alius ritus, cui maluerit, peccata confiteri.











Can. 992 An indulgence is the remission before God of temporal punishment for sins whose guilt is already forgiven, which a properly disposed member of the Christian faithful gains under certain and defined conditions by the assistance of the Church which as minister of redemption dispenses and applies authoritatively the treasury of the satisfactions of Christ and the saints.

Can. 992 - Indulgentia est remissio coram Deo poenae temporalis pro peccatis, ad culpam quod attinet iam deletis, quam christifidelis, apte dispositus et certis ac definitis condicionibus, consequitur ope Ecclesiae quae, ut ministra redemptionis, thesaurum satisfactionum Christi et Sanctorum auctoritative dispensat et applicat.



Can. 993 An indulgence is partial or plenary insofar as it partially or totally frees from the temporal punishment due to sins.

Can. 993 - Indulgentia est partialis aut plenaria, prout a poena temporali pro peccatis debita liberat ex parte aut ex toto.



Can. 994 Any member of the faithful can gain partial or plenary indulgences for oneself or apply them to the dead by way of suffrage.

Can. 994 - Quivis fidelis potest indulgentias sive partiales sive plenarias, aut sibi ipsi lucrari, aut defunctis applicare ad modum suffragii.



Can. 995    §1. In addition to the supreme authority of the Church, only those to whom this power is acknowledged in the law or granted by the Roman Pontiff can bestow indulgences.

Can. 995 - § 1.  Praeter supremam Ecclesiae auctoritatem ii tantum possunt indulgentias elargiri, quibus haec potestas iure agnoscitur aut a Romano Pontifice conceditur. 

   §2. No authority below the Roman Pontiff can entrust the power of granting indulgences to others unless the Apostolic See has given this expressly to the person.

§ 2.  Nulla auctoritas infra Romanum Pontificem potest potestatem concedendi indulgentias aliis committere, nisi id ei a Sede Apostolica expresse fuerit indultum.



Can. 996    §1. To be capable of gaining indulgences, a person must be baptized, not excommunicated, and in the state of grace at least at the end of the prescribed works.

Can. 996 - § 1.  Ut quis capax sit lucrandi indulgentias debet esse baptizatus, non excommunicatus, in statu gratiae saltem in fine operum praescriptorum. 

   §2. To gain indulgences, however, a capable subject must have at least the general intention of acquiring them and must fulfill the enjoined works in the established time and the proper method, according to the tenor of the grant.

§ 2.  Ut vero subiectum capax eas lucretur, habere debet intentionem saltem generalem eas acquirendi et opera iniuncta implere statuto tempore ac debito modo, secundum concessionis tenorem.



Can. 997 As regards the granting and use of indulgences, the other prescripts contained in the special laws of the Church must also be observed.

Can. 997 - Ad indulgentiarum concessionem et usum quod attinet, servanda sunt insuper cetera praescripta quae in peculiaribus Ecclesiae legibus continentur.





prō-do , dĭdi, dĭtum, 3 (archaic produit for prodiderit, = porro dederit, porticum sartam tectamque habeto, prodito, Lex Censor. ap. Fest. p. 229, 17 Mόll.;

I. pres. part. abl. sing. prodente, Cic. Tusc. 2, 13, 31), v. a.

I. To give, put, or bring forth (class.; “syn. edo, profero, promo): prodit fumoso con dita vina cado,” Ov. F. 5, 518: “suspiria pectore,” id. M. 1, 656: “hydraulam et choraulam,” to show, Suet. Ner. 54: “exemplum tur pe,” to give a bad example, Vell. 2, 119, 4: “perniciosum exemplum,” Cic. Fl. 11, 25: “prodendi exempli causā,” of setting an example, Liv. 1, 11, 7

B. In partic.

1. To bring forth, bear, produce (poet.): parvā prodite patriā, Att. ap. App. de Deo Socr. p. 55: “quae tam festa dies ut cesset prodere furem, Perfidiam, fraudes,” Juv. 13, 23

2. To put forth in writing, i. e. to publish, make known, relate, report, record: “cum decretum proditur, lex veri rectique proditur,” Cic. Ac. 2, 9, 27: “Procilius non idem prodidit, quod Piso,” Varr. L. L. 5, § 148: “ea, quae scriptores Graeciae prodiderunt,” Cic. Tusc. 1, 13, 29: “haec monumenta nobis litterae prodiderunt,” id. Planc. 39, 94: Thucydides ossa ejus clam ab amicis esse sepulta, memoriae prodidit, has handed down to memory, i. e. has recorded, Nep. Them. 10, 5: “hujus bella gesta multi memoriae prodiderunt,” id. Hann. 13, 3: “ut produnt,” as they say. Plin. 34, 7, 16, § 33: prodere aliquid memoriā, to put forth from memory, i. e. to record, relate: “quos natos in insulā ipsā, memoriā proditum dicunt,” Caes. B. G. 5, 12: “ut quod proditum memoriā est,” Cic. Rep. 2, 31, 54.—Esp., to publish, proclaim any one as appointed to an office, i. e. to appoint, elect, create a public officer of any kind (syn.: “creo, designo): cum populo agendi jus esto ei, quem produnt patres consulum creandorum ergo,” Cic. Leg. 3, 4, 10; “flaminem,” id. Mil. 17, 46: “interregem,” id. Dom. 14, 38: “dictatorem,” Dig. 1, 2, 2, § 18; to make known, disclose, discover, betray, Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 75: “homine prodente conscios,” Cic. Tusc. 2, 13, 31: “crimen vultu,” Ov. M. 2, 447: “tamquam prodiderim quidquid scio,” Juv. 9, 97: “arcanum,” id. 9, 115

3. To betray perfidiously, surrender treacherously: “si Brutum prodideritis, et deserueritis,” Cic. Phil. 10, 3, 7: “is me deseruit ac prodidit,” id. Fl. 33, 81; id. Sest. 14, 32; cf. Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 33, § 84: “prodebas caput et salutem meam,” id. Pis. 24, 56: “classem praedonibus,” Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 41, § 106: “hosti rempublicam,” Sall. J. 31, 18: “patriam,” Cic. Fin. 3, 9, 32

4. To give up, surrender, abandon: rem summam, Enn. ap. Fest. p. 229 Mόll. (Ann. v. 411 Vahl.): “suam vitam, et Pecuniam omnem,” Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 70

II. To extend, permit to go farther.

A. To put off, defer (anteclass.), Fest. p. 242 Mόll.—

B. To prolong, = produco, de mendico male meretur qui ei dat quod edit, nam illi prodit vitam ad miseriam, Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 58 sq.—

C. To hand down, transmit, bequeath (class.): “qui sacra suis posteris prodiderunt,” Cic. Mil. 30, 83: “jus imaginis ad memoriam posteritatemque prodendae,” Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 14, § 36: “regnum a Tantalo proditum,” id. Off. 3, 21, 84

D. To propagate (poet.): “qui genus alto a sanguine Teucri Proderet,” Verg. A. 4, 230.

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