EVAGRIUS PONTICUS
Various Texts on Avarice
 

 The Banker
 Rreymerswaele, 1550

Translation by Luke Dysinger, O.S.B.  (translation in public domain)


1. from the Praktikos:


  9. LOVE of money (avarice) suggests: a long old age; hands powerless to work; hunger and disease yet to come; the bitterness of poverty; and the disgrace of receiving the necessities [of life] from others.

θ´.  (9) Ἡ φιλαργυρία γῆρας μακρὸν ὑποβάλλει καὶ πρὸς ἐργασίαν ἀδυναμίαν χειρῶν͵ λιμούς τε ἐσομένους καὶ νόσους συμβησο μένας͵ καὶ τὰ τῆς πενίας πικρά͵ καὶ ὡς ἐπονείδιστον τὸ παρ΄ ἑτέρων λαμβάνειν τὰ πρὸς τὴν χρείαν.

   
  18. Just as life and death cannot coexist in the same subject at the same time; so also it is impossible for love (agape) to coexist with wealth. Love destroys not only wealth, but also this, our temporal life. ιη´ (18)  Ὡς ζωὴν καὶ θάνατον ἅμα συμβῆναι τῷ αὐτῷ τῶν οὐκ ἐνδεχομένν ἐστιν, οὕτως ἀγάπην χρήμασι συνυπάρξαι τινὶ τῶν ἀδυνάτων ἐστιν· ἀναιρετικὴ γὰρ οὐ μόνον χρημάτων ἡ ἀγάπη, ἀλλὰ καὶ αὐτῆς ἡμῶν τῆς προσκαίρου ζωῆς.
   
  26. Gifts quench memory of injury (mnēsekakia). Let Jacob persuade you of this. He got around Esau with gifts, when he came against him with four hundred men (Gen. 32).  We who are poor should make up for our lack of other things by being hospitable at table. κς´   (26)  Μνησικακίν σβέννυσι δῶρ· καὶ πειθέτω σε Ἰακὼβ τὸν   Ἐσαῦ δόμασιν ὑπελθὼν μετὰ τετρακοσίων εἰς ὑπάντησιν 3 ἐξελθόντα.  Ἀλλ' ἡμεῖς πένητες ὄντες τραπέζῃ τὴν χρείαν 4 πληρώσωμεν
   

  97. ONE of the brethren possessed just a copy of the gospels, and he sold it and gave the money to feed the hungry, saying something worth remembering ‘I have sold the book which told me, “Sell what you have and give to the poor “(Mt. 19:21)

ζ´.  (97) Ἐκέκτό τις τῶν ἀδελφῶν εὐαγγέλιον μόνον, καὶ τοῦτο πωλήσας ἔδωκεν εἰς τροφὴν τοῖς πεινῶσιν, ἄξιον μνήμης ἐπιφθεγξάμενος ῥῆμα· αὐτὸν γάρ, φησί, τὸν λόγον πεπλώληκα τὸν λέγοντά μοι· πώλησόν σου τὰ ὑπάρχοντα καὶ δὸς πτωχοῖς.
   

  99. ANOTHER monk said, ‘I cut down pleasure in order to cut out excuses for anger (thumos) I know that anger always fights on behalf of pleasures and disturbs my mind and chases away knowledge ‘ One of the old men said that charity does not know how to store up food or money And the same monk said, ‘I am not aware of ever having been taken in by the demons twice on the same point ‘

θ´.  (99) ῎αλλος δὲ πάλιν τῶν μοναχῶν· διὰ τοῦτο περιαιρῶ τὰς ἡδονάς, εἶπεν, ἵνα τὰς τοῦ θυμοῦ περικόψω προφάσεις· οἶδα γὰρ αὐτὸν ἀεὶ μαχόμενον ὑπὲρ τῶν ἡδονῶν καὶ ἐκταράσσοντά [710] μου τὸν νοῦν καὶ τὴν γνῶσιν ἀποδιώκοντα.  Ἔλεγε δέ τις τῶν γερόντων ὅτι ἡ ἀγάπη παραθήκας βρωμάτων ἢ χρημάτων τηρεῖν οὐκ ἐπίσταται.  Ὁ δ' αὐτός· οὐκ οἶδα, φησίν, εἰς τὸ αὐτὸ δὶς ὑπὸ δαιμόνων ἀπατηθείς.
   

2. from Peri Logismōn (on Various Tempting Thoughts):


 

 

 

 

19.When one of the enemies draws near to wound you, and you wish, as it is written, to turn back his sword into his own heart (cf. Ps 37:15), then do as we say: [79.1221b]  ΚΕΦΑΛ. ΙΘ ' 19. [p.216]  Ὅταν τῶν ἐχθ͂ρῶν τρώσῃ σέ τις παραβαλὼν, καὶ βούλει τὴν ῥομφαίαν αὐτοῦ στρέψαι, κατὰ τὸ γεγραμμένον, ἐπὶ τὴν καρδίαν αὐτοῦ ποίησον οὕτως, ὡς λέγομεν. 
distinguish within yourself the hurled [tempting-]thought [into its parts]: Δίελε κατὰ σαυτὸν τὸν ὑπ' αὐτοῦ βληθέντα λογισμὸν,

[1] what it is;

[2] of what [external] concerns is it composed;

[3] and what in it especially afflicts the intellect.

ὅστις ποτέ εστι,

καὶ ἐκ πόσων πραγμάτων συνέστηκε,

καὶ ποῖον τοῦτό ἐστι μάλιστα τὸ θλίβον [79.1221c] τὸν νοῦν.

Let us say that the following happens. When the [tempting-]thought of avarice is discharged at you you should distinguish between: Ο δὲ λέγω, τοιοῦτόν ἐστιν· Ἔστω πεμφθεὶς ὁ τῆς φιλαργυρίας ὑπ' αὐτου λογισμὸς, τοῦτον δίελε εἴς τε

[1] the nous (intellect) that has received it,

[2] the idea (noema) of gold,

[3] the gold itself,

[4] and the passion of avarice.

τὸν ὑποδεξάμενον αὐτὸν νοῦν,

καὶ εἰς τὸ νόημα τοῦ χρυσίου,

καὶ εἰς αὐτὸν τὸν χρυσὸν,

καὶ εἰς τὸ φιλάργυρον πάθος·

And then ask in which of these lies the sin: καὶ λοιπὸν ἐρώτα τί τούτων ἐστὶν ἁμαρτία,

[1] Is it the nous ?
But how
[can that be]? [The nous] is the image of God.

[2] Is it the idea of gold?
But who posessing a nous would say that?

[3] Then is gold itself the sin?
But why was it created?

πότερον ὁ νοῦς;
καὶ πῶς; ἔστιν εἰκὼν θεοῦ.

'Αλλὰ τὸ νόημα τοῦ χρυσοῦ;
καὶ τοῦτο τίς ὰν εἰποι νοῦν ἕχων ποτέ;

ἀλλ' αὐτὸς ὁ χρυσός ἐστιν ἁμαρτία;
καὶ τίνος χάριν γεγένηται;

[4] It follows, therefore, that the cause of the sin is the fourth, which is:

ἕπεται τοίνυν [τῆς ἁμαρτ́ιας εἶναι τὸ αἴτιον τὸ τέταρτον·]

[4.a] neither a naturally subsisting [external] concern (pragma);

[4.b] nor the idea of an [external] concern;

[4.c] nor an incorporeal nous;

ὅπερ οὐκ ἔστι μὲν πρᾶγμα ὑφεστὼς κατ' οὐσίαν,

οὐδὲ νόημα πράγματος,

οὐδὲ νοῦς πάλιν ἀσώματος,

but a pleasure that hates humankind, born of free will, that urges the nous to badly abuse God’s creatures.

ἀλλ' ἡδονή τις μισάνθρωπος, ἐκ τοῦ αὐτεξουσίου τικτομένη, καὶ κακῶς κεχρῆσθαι, τοῖς τοῦ Θεου῀κτίσμασι τὸν νοῦν ἀναγκάζουσα,
It is this [spiteful pleasure] that the law of God commands us to cut off.   ἣν καὶ περιτέμνειν ὁ τοῦ Θεοῦ νόμος [79.1221d] πεπίστευται.
And as you closely examine these things the [tempting-]thought will be destroyed, analyzed into its proper contemplation; and the demon will flee from you as your mind is equipped by this knowledge for the [spiritual] heights Καὶ ταῦτά σου διερευνωμένου, φθαρήσεται μὲν ὁ λογισμὸς εἰς τὴν ἰδίαν ἀναλυόμενος θεωρίαν, φεύξεται δὲ ἀπὸ σοῦ τὸ δαιμόνιον, τῆς διανοίας σου ὑπὸ ταύτης τῆς γνώσεως εἰς ὕψος ἀρθείσης.

Antirrhetikos_Bk3_Avarice


3. from the Antirrhetikos (Book 3, On Avarice)
Τριτος λογος
 περι φιλαργυριας


“Evagrius Ponticus, Antirrheticus, (Selections)” in V. Wimbush, ed., Ascetic Behavior in Greco-Roman Antiquity - A Sourcebook
(Augsburg, 1990): 243-262. tr. O’Laughlin used the Syriac text of W. Fankenberg
[tr. of  17, 22, 23, 36,  42,  50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 57 by Michael O’Laughlin,]

 

   3.1.  For the demons who announce to me within my mind while I sleep, that “you should get one of your relatives or some rich person to send you gold”:

      γενες. 1. προς δαιμονα επαγγελλντα μοι εν τηι διανοιαι μου οτι εν υπνωι τινι των συγγενων σου η των πλουσιων χρυσον σοι πεμψαι ενυποθησω

+ Gen 14:22,23  I will stretch out my hand to the Lord the most high God, who made the heaven and the earth,that I will not take anything from all your goods

+ Γεν· 14·22 φ.Ἐκτενῶ τὴν χεῖρά μου πρὸς τὸν θεὸν τὸν ὕψιστον͵ ὃς ἔκτισεν τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν γῆν͵  [εἰ ἀπὸ σπαρτίου ἕως σφαιρωτῆρος ὑποδήματος] λήμψομαι ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν σῶν͵

 

 

   3.5.  For the avaricious [tempting-]thought,  that closes the heart [lit. bowels (of mercy)] against one who begs for life’s necessities; and counsels those of us who live as solitaries to store up things:

      λευιτικ. 5. προς φιλαργυριας λογισμον τα σπλαγχνα απο του δεομενου αυτου την ενδειαν αποκλειοντα τε και ημιν μονοις ινα αποθωμεθα συμμβουλευοντα

+ Lev 19:18b   You shall love your neighbor as yourself: I am the Lord.

+ Lev. 19·18, καὶ ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν· ἐγώ εἰμι κύριος.

 

 

   3.13.  For the soul that stives to take on the death of Christ (Rom 6:8; Col 2:20) yet still retains some trappings of wealth; forgetting how Elisha the Prophet also made this mistake when he left the world, but  then [later] renounced everything he had:

      13 προς ψυχην την νεκρωσιν χριστου ευρειν ζητουσαν και εως αρτι των χρηματων τι κατεχουσαν· και επιλανθανεται οπως Ελισαιος ο προφητης αποτασσομενος τωι κοσμωι ων ειχεν απαντων εκενωσεν αυτον

+ 1 Kgs 19:19-21  So he departed from there, and found Elisha the son of Shaphat, who was plowing, with twelve yoke of oxen before him, and he was with the twelfth. Elijah passed by him and cast his mantle upon him. And he left his oxen and ran after Elijah, and said, ‘I will kiss my father, and then I will follow you.’ And Elijah said, ‘Go back again; what have I done to you?’ And he returned from following him, and took the yoke of oxen, and slew them, and boiled their flesh with the yokes of the oxen, and gave it to the people, and they ate. Then he rose and went after Elijah, and ministered to him.

+ 1Κι 19·19-21 καὶ κατέλιπεν Ελισαιε τὰς βόας καὶ κατέδραμεν ὀπίσω Ηλιου καὶ εἶπεν Καταφιλήσω τὸν πατέρα μου καὶ ἀκολουθήσω ὀπίσω σου· καὶ εἶπεν Ηλιου Ἀνάστρεφε͵ ὅτι πε ποίηκά σοι. 21 καὶ ἀνέστρεψεν ἐξόπισθεν αὐτοῦ καὶ ἔλαβεν τὰ ζεύγη τῶν βοῶν καὶ ἔθυσεν καὶ ἥψησεν αὐτὰ ἐν τοῖς σκεύεσι τῶν βοῶν καὶ ἔδωκεν τῷ λαῷ͵ καὶ ἔφαγον· καὶ ἀνέστη καὶ ἐπορεύθη ὀπίσω Ηλιου καὶ ἐλειτούργει αὐτῷ.

 

 

   3.14. For the the soul that is miserly, that puts aside for itself all the rest of its possessions, and does not wish to share with the brethren who come [to visit]:

      14. προς ψυχην αργυριον τε και παντων αυτηι αποκειενων φειδομενην και εαυτων υπερ των παραβαλλοντων αδελφων δαπαναν ου θελουσαν

+ 2 Kgs 4:38  And Elisha said to his servant, ‘Set on the great pot, and boil soup for the sons of the prophets.

+ 2Κι 4·38 καὶ εἶπεν Ελισαιε τῷ παιδαρίῳ αὐτοῦ Ἐπίστησον τὸν λέβητα τὸν μέγαν καὶ ἕψε ἕψεμα τοῖς υἱοῖς τῶν προφητῶν.

 

 

   3.15. For the soul that receives gold, ostensibly on behalf of the brothers for business purposes; but, stung by desire, desires to retain it, forgetting the leprosy of Gehazi.

     15. προς ψυχην χρυσον ως εις τα των αδελφων επιτηδεια δεξαμενην και αυτον κατα τας αυτης επιθυμιας αναλισκειν επιθυμουσαν και τaς Γιεζει λεπρας επιλανθανομενην·

   Let the readers understand how Elisha the prophet had mastery over the [tempting-]thought of avarice, which is the first of the evil passions, and over the remaining passions that circle around it, from which are engendered those chronic [tempting-]thoughts, that hinder the nous through evil habits, rendering it leprous:

    οι δε αναγιγνωσκοντες εννοωσιν οπως Ελις. ο προφητης τον φιλαργυριας λογισμον εξεφηνε πρωτον τα πονηρα παθη θεις και μετα τους λοιπους λογισμους τους κυκλωι αυτων εξ ων γενναται το εγχρονιζον των λογισμων ͅ49αβ των νουν ενπονηρις επιτηδευμασιν κατεχοντων και αυτον λεπρουντων

+ 2 Kgs 5:25-27  And Elisha said to him, ‘Where are you coming from, Gehazi?’ And he said, ‘Your servant went neither here nor there.’ But Elisha said to him, ‘Did my heart not go with you when the man turned from his chariot to meet you? And now you have received the money and now you have received the garments, and in so doing, you have also received gardens and olive orchards and vineyards, sheep and oxen, menservants and maidservants. But the leprosy of Naaman shall also cleave to you, and to your descendants forever.’ So he went out from his presence a leper, as white as snow.

+ 2Κι 5·25-27 καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτὸν Ελισαιε Πόθεν͵ Γιεζι; καὶ εἶπεν Γιεζι Οὐ πεπόρευται ὁ δοῦλός σου ἔνθα καὶ ἔνθα. 5.26 καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐ τὸν Ελισαιε Οὐχὶ ἡ καρδία μου ἐπορεύθη μετὰ σοῦ͵ ὅτε ἐπέστρε ψεν ὁ ἀνὴρ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἅρματος εἰς συναντήν σοι; καὶ νῦν ἔλαβες τὸ ἀργύριον καὶ νῦν ἔλαβες τὰ ἱμάτια καὶ λήμψῃ ἐν αὐτῷ κήπους καὶ ἐλαιῶνας καὶ ἀμπελῶνας καὶ πρόβατα καὶ βόας καὶ παῖδας καὶ παιδίσκας· 27 καὶ ἡ λέπρα Ναιμαν κολληθήσεται ἐν σοὶ καὶ ἐν τῷ σπέρματί σου εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα. καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἐκ προσώπου αὐτοῦ λελεπρωμένος ὡσεὶ χιών.

 

 

   3.16 For the Lord concerning the avaricious [tempting-]thought that anxiously reminds me that “you have lost the inheritance of your parents.”

      16. εις κυριον περι φιλαργυριας λογισμου δια μεριμνης αναμιμνησκοντα με οτι της των πατερων σου κληρονομιας εχεληλυθας

+ Ps. 15.5  5The Lord is the portion of my inheritance and my cup; You are he who restores my inheritance to me.  6The lines have fallen to me in the best places; indeed, I have a most excellent heritage.

+ ψ 15,5

 

 

   3.17. [p.250]  For the [tempting-]thoughts that denounces us as having forsaken [both] our parents, and also [thus the possibility] that they would send us gold to satisfy our needs

      17. προς λογισμους ημας ονειδιζοντας ως οτι οι ημων πατερες ημας εγκαταλελοιπαςιν και χρυσον εις την της ενδειας ημων πληρωσιν ου πεμπουσιν

+ Ps 26:10  For my father and mother have forsaken me, but the Lord has received me.

+ ψ26.10  ὅτι ὁ πατήρ μου καὶ ἡ μήτηρ μου ἐγκατέλιπόν με͵ ὁ δὲ κύριος προσελάβετό με.

 

 

   3.19   For the soul we condemn [judge] as demonically inspired, [because that person] does not possess adequate intelligence to administer the goods God has given us.

      19. προς ψυχην οτι κρισις ημιν μετα του διαβολου εστιν ει μη πρεποντως τα ημιν παρα θεου δεδομενα χρηματα διοικουμεν ουκ επισταμενην

+ Ps 36:32 f.  32The sinner watches the righteous and seeks to slay him.  33But the Lord will not leave him in his hands, nor by any means condemn him when he is judged.

+ ψ 36,32 φ.

 

 

   3.22. For the [tempting-]thoughts that meditate on riches without attending to the consuming pain that wealth entails.

      22. προς λογισμους εν χρημασι μελετωντας εις δε την του πλουτου μοχθηραν οδυνην ουκ ατενιζοντας

+ Ps 61:11b  If wealth should flow in, do not set your heart upon it.

+ Πσ 61.112

 

 

   3.23. For the [tempting-]thought that portrays our parent’s house as a reflection of their greatness, while making a small [monastic] cell hateful in our eyes.

      23. προς λογισμον τον ενδοξον των πατερων οικον ημιν αοφαινοντα και την μικραν κελλην ͅ49ββ  εν οφθαλμοις ημων ελασσυντα

+ Ps 83:11b  I would rather be a castoff in the house of the Lord, than live in residence in the tents of sinners

+ Πσ 83·11

 

 

   3.36. For the [tempting-]thought that depicts before one’s eyes the ruin of the possessions and property that afforded Job great physical refreshment.

      ιωβ. 36. προς λογισμον προ οφθαλμων ημων διαγραφοντα αποβολην {ζημιαν} χρηματων και κτηματων α ην αναπαυσις μεγαλη σωματικη τωι Ιωβ

+ Job 1:21b  The Lord gave, and the Lord has taken away, as it seemed good to the Lord.

+ ϑοβ 1·21

 

 

   3.37. For the avaricious [tempting-]thought, that counsels us to store up on provisions and clothes while giving none of these things to the poor who have need of them:

      ησαιας. 37. προς λογισμον φιλαργυριας συμβουλευοντα ημιν εδεσματα και ιματια αποκαταθειναι τοις δε πτωχοις αυτων μη μεταδουναι

+ Isa 58:7  Break your bread for the hungry one, and lead the homeless poor to your house. If you see someone naked, clothe him, and do not disregard your own blood relations.

+ Ισ 58·7

 

 

   3.40. For the [tempting-]thought that urges us to deny our brother, on the grounds that we have nothing to give:

      40. προς λογισμον δανιζειν τωι αδελφωι ημας κωλυοντα ως οτι ουκ εχει αποδιδονται

+ Matt 5:42  Give to him who begs from you, and do not refuse him who would borrow from you.

+ Μτ 5·42

 

 

   3.42. For the demon that says to us, It is possible for a man who has property to serve the Lord:

      ͅ51αβ 42. προς δαιμονα ημιν λεγοντα οτι δυνατον τινα χρηματα κεκτημενον το θεον θρησκευειν

+ Matt 6:24  No one can serve two masters; for either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and mammon.

+ Μτ. 6·24

 

 

   3.46. For the avaricious [tempting-]thought, that blesses our brothers according to the flesh and our secular countrymen because they possess visible wealth:

      κορινθ. β. 46. προς λογισμον φλαργυριας τους κατα σαρκα ημων αδελφους και τους συγγενεις ημων εν τωι κοσμωι ως οτι αργυριον βλεποενον κεκτηνται μακαριζοντα

+ 2 Cor 4:18b  For the things that are seen are transient, but the things that are unseen are eternal.

+ 2Ξορ. 4·18

 

 

   3.49. For the [tempting-]thought that seeks to set aside things for our own  exclusive use:

      φιλιππ. 49. προς λογισμον αυτωι μονωι αποκαταθειναι ζητουντα

+ Phil 2:4  Let each of you look not only to his own interests, but also to the interests of others.

+ Πηι 2·4

 

 

   3.50. For the [tempting-]thought of the possession of wealth that incites us and exhibits before us [visions of] former wealth, saying that with it one can sustain many brothers:

      ͅ52αα 50. προς λογισμον κερδος χρματων ημιν επαγοντα και τον παλαιον πλουτον ημιν αποφαινοντα οτι πολλοις αδελφφοις αρκεσαι αν εδυνατο

+ Phil 3:7:8  But whatever gain I had, I counted as loss for the sake of Christ. Indeed I count everything as loss because of the surpassing worth of knowing Jesus Christ my Lord. For his sake I have suffered the loss of all things, and count them as refuse, in order that I may gain Christ.

+ Πηι 3·7-8

 

 

   3.52. For the [tempting-]thoughts that seek to collect anything beyond the necessities and desire the amassing of wealth:

      εβραι. 52. προς λογισμους ͅ52αβ υπερ την ημων χρειαν συλλεγειν ζητουντας και φιλαργουντας

Heb 13:5  Keep your mind free from the love of money, and be content with what you have; for he has said, ‘I will never fail you or forsake you.

+ Ηεβρ. 13·5

 

 

   3.53. For the soul that seeks anything beyond food and clothing and does not remember that our entry into the world was naked and our leaving the world will again be thus:

      τιμοθ α. 53 προς ψυχην υπερ την τε τροφην και τον σκεπασμον τι ζτουσαν και την εις τον κοσμν εισδον αυτης οτι ψιλη και τη εξοδον αυτς οτ παλιν γυν ο μνημονευουσαν

1 Tim 6:7:8  For we brought nothing into the world, and we cannot take anything out of the world; but if we have food and clothing, with these we shall be content.

+ 1Τιμ 6·7 φ.

 

 

   3.54. For the avaricious [tempting-]thought that says that possessing money will have no evil result, but rather will bring substantial relief for the brothers and for strangers:

      54. προς λογισμον φιλαργυριας λεγοντα οτι ουδεν κακον τηι φιλαργυριαι κολλαται αλλα αναπαυσις μεγαλη οτι εσται ͅ52βα τοις τε αδελφοις και τοις ξενοις

+ 1 Tim 6:10  For the love of money is the root of all evils; it is through this craving that some have wandered away from the faith and pierced their heart with many pangs.

+ 1Τιμ 6·10

 

 

   3.57. For the avaricious [tempting-]thought that does not wish to show mercy [give alms (eleēmosunas)] among the brothers as if they are not in need -  and so it denies the love of God in deed (1 John 3:18)  :

 52ββ ιωαν. 57. προς λογισμον φιλαργυριας εν τοις αδελφοις ελεημοσυνας ποιειν ου θελοντα ως οτι ουκ εισιν ενδεεις και εργωι την θεου αγαπην αρνουμενον

+ 1 John 3:17  If anyone has the world’s  goods and sees his brother in need, yet closes his heart against him, how can God’s love abide in him?

+ 1ϑν 3·17

 

 

 

 

 BLESSED be our Lord and our God,
our Savior Jesus Christ,
who gives us the victory from the demon of avarice.

ευλογητος ο κυριος ημων και ο θεος ημων
και σωτηρ Ι.Χ.
ος δεδωκεν ημιν την κατα του φιλαργυριας δαιμονος νικην

 

 

 

 

 


This Webpage was created for a workshop held at Saint Andrew's Abbey, Valyermo, California in 2004....x.....   “”.

 


This Webpage was created for a workshop held at Saint Andrew's Abbey, Valyermo, California in 2003....x....   “”.