DEFINING
and
 
LOCATING
THE VIRTUES
 

 Furioso


1) DEFINITIONS;  2) PLATO’S TRIPARTITE SOUL;   3) VIRTUES AND VICES of the TRIPARTITE SOUL ;  4) ARISTOTLE on VIRTUE as BALANCE;  5) VIRTUE AS SPIRITUAL WARFARE


1) DEFINITIONS


1) Liddell and Scott. An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1889.ISBN: 0199102066; 2) Henry George Liddell. Robert Scott. A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by. Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1940.ISBN: 0198642261;

 VIRTUE ἀρετή / aretē [Latin: virtus

1. goodness, excellence, of any kind, esp. of manly qualities, manhood, valour, prowess,  Hom., Hdt. [1like Lat. vir-tus, from vir / man]; [2. rank, nobility, Theogn., Eur.]

3. in Prose, generally, goodness, excellence in any art, Plat., etc.; of animals or things, Hdt., attic.

4. in moral sense, goodness, virtue, Plat., etc.:--also character for virtue, merit, Eur., etc.

5. service done him, Thuc.; Xen.

 VICE: κακία / kakía  [Latin: vitium

1. badness in quality, opp. to  ἀρετή / aretē, excellence, pl. defects, Luc.

2. cowardice, sloth, Thuc., Plat.

3. moral badness, wickedness, vice, Plat., Xen.

[4. ill-repute, Thuc.; 5. evil suffered, Ntest.]

 

AS ἀρετή / aretē is not used in the New Testament in the sense of the Stoic doctrine of virtue, so κακία / kakía is not used in the sense of the Greek doctrine of vice. [...] κακία is a force which destroys fellowship.

Walter Grundmann ,Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, G. Kittel, tr. G. W. Bromiley & G. Friedrich, . Eerdmans: Grand Rapids, MI

 

 


2) PLATO’S TRIPARTITE SOUL


 

REASON

 

 

logistikon / hegemonikon

nous / logos / ratio

contemplative faculty

PRUDENCE/phronēsis

 

   

 

DESIRE

epithumetikon

epithumia

concupiscientia

longing

TEMPERANCE/sophrosunē

 

  

 

STRENGTH

thumikon
(thumoeidos
)
passionate, spirited

irascible / orectic

courage / zeal

COURAGE/andrea

 

 JUSTICE/dikaiosunē

 

 


THE ORDERING (AND MASTERY) OF THE SOUL
ACCORDING TO PLATO

OF the nature of the soul, [...] let me speak briefly, and in a figure.

ταύτῃ οὖν λέγωμεν.

And let the figure be composite - a pair of winged horses and a charioteer. [...]

ἐοικέτω δὴ συμφύτῳ δυνάμει ὑποπτέρου ζεύγους τε καὶ ἡνιόχου. 

the human charioteer drives his in a pair; and one of them is noble and of noble breed, and the other is ignoble and of ignoble breed;and the driving of them of necessity gives a great deal of trouble to him.

(Phaedrus 246a; Hofstadter & Kuhns; Harv. U. Press, 1964, p. 57)

καὶ πρῶτον μὲν ἡμῶν ὁ ἄρχων συνωρίδος ἡνιοχεῖ͵ εἶτα τῶν ἵππων ὁ μὲν αὐτῷ καλός τε καὶ ἀγαθὸς καὶ ἐκ τοιούτων͵ ὁ δ΄ ἐξ ἐναντίων τε καὶ ἐναντίος·

   
In the conflict of the soul, spirit (thumoeidos) is arrayed on the side of the rational principle (logistikon) [...] 440.e.6 θυμοειδοῦς [...]  αὐτὸ ἐν τῇ τῆς ψυχῆς στάσει τίθεσθαι τὰ ὅπλα πρὸς τὸ λογιστικόν.
Ought not the rational principle, which is wise and has the care of the whole soul, to rule, and the passionate or spirited principle (thumoeidos) to be the subject or ally? 441.e.4-6 Οὐκοῦν τῷ μὲν λογιστικῷ ἄρχειν προσήκει͵ σοφῷ ὄντι καὶ ἔχοντι τὴν ὑπὲρ ἁπάσης τῆς ψυχῆς προμήθειαν͵ τῷ δὲ θυμοειδεῖ ὑπηκόῳ εἶναι καὶ συμμάχῳ τούτου;
And these two, thus nourished and educated will rule over the concupiscent (epithumetikon), which is in each of us the largest part of the soul and insatiable of gain.

(Republic IV 440-442; pp. 704-706)

Καὶ τούτω δὴ οὕτω τραφέντε καὶ ὡς ἀληθῶς τὰ αὑτῶν μαθόντε καὶ παιδευθέντε προστήσεσθον τοῦ ἐπιθυμητικοῦὃ δὴ πλεῖστον τῆς ψυχῆς ἐν ἑκάστῳ ἐστὶ καὶ χρημάτων φύσει ἀπληστότατονὃ τηρήσετον

 THE ORDERING (AND CONTEMPLATIVE UNION) OF THE SOUL, ACCORDING TO ST. GREGORY OF NYSSA

Safety and security consists in marking the upper doorpost and the side posts of the entrance with the blood of the lamb. 2.95.11-13 Φυλακὴ δέ ἐστι καὶ ἀσφάλεια τὸ τῷ αἵματι τοῦ ἀμνοῦ τήν τε φλιὰν καὶ τοὺς σταθμοὺς τῆς εἰσόδου κατασημήνεσθαι.
While in this way Scripture gives us through symbols a scientific understanding of the nature of the soul, secular learning also places it before the mind, dividing the soul into the rational (logistikon), the appetitive (epithumetikon), and the spirited (thumikon). Of these parts we are told below that the spirit and the appetite are placed below, supporting on each side the intellectual part of the soul, while the rational aspect (logos) is joined to both so as to keep them together and to be held up by them, being trained for courage by the spirit (thumos) and elevated to the participation in the Good (metousian tou agathou) by the appetite (epithumia). 2.96.Ταῦτα περὶ ψυχῆς ἡμῖν φυσιολογοῦντος δι΄ αἰνιγμάτων τοῦ λόγου͵ καὶ ἡ ἔξωθεν παίδευσις ἐφαντάσθη͵ διαιροῦσα τὴν ψυχὴν εἴς τε τὸ λογιστικὸν καὶ ἐπιθυμητικὸν καὶ θυμοειδές. Ἐκ τούτων δὲ τὸν θυμὸν μὲν καὶ τὴν ἐπιθυμίαν ὑποβεβηκέναι φασίν͵ ἑκατέρωθεν τὸ διανοητικὸν τῆς ψυχῆς ὑπερείδοντας͵ τὸν δὲ λογισμὸν ἀμφοτέροις ἐπεζευγμένον συνέχειν τε αὐτοὺς καὶ ὑπ΄ ἐκείνων ἀνέχεσθαι͵ πρὸς μὲν ἀνδρείαν τῷ θυμῷ στομούμενον͵ πρὸς δὲ τὴν τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ μετουσίαν δι΄ ἐπιθυμίας ὑψούμενον.

As long, therefore, as the soul is kept safe in this manner, maintaining its firmness by virtuous thoughts as if by bolts, all the parts cooperate with one another for good. The rational for its part furnishes safety to its supports, and in its turn receives from them an equal benefit.

The Life of Moses II, 95-97, Meyendorf tr.
CWS (Paulist 1978), pp. 76-77

 2.97.῞εως ἂν οὖν ἡ ψυχὴ τῷ σχήματι τούτῳ κατησφαλισμένη τύχῃ͵ καθάπερ τισὶ γόμφοις τοῖς κατ΄ ἀρετὴν νοήμασι τὸ βέβαιον ἔχουσα͵ ἐν πᾶσι δι΄ ἀλλήλων γίνεται ἡ πρὸς τὸ καλὸν συνεργία͵ παρέχοντος ἤδη δι΄ ἑαυτοῦ τοῖς ὑποβεβηκόσι τοῦ λογισμοῦ τὴν ἀσφάλειαν καὶ ἐν τῷ μέρει παρ΄ ἐκείνων τὴν ἴσην χάριν ἀντιλαμβάνοντος.

 

 


3) VIRTUES AND VICES of the TRIPARTITE SOUL


“All these kingdoms are mine [says the devil] … worship me and I will give them to you.” (Mt 4:9; Lk 4:6-7)

 “You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve”.
(Mt. 4:10; Lk 4:8)

THE LOGISTIKON
Reasoning, Contemplative Self

 VIRTUES
prudence

MIND (Reason)

nous / logos / ratio

 VICES
pride

   understanding
wisdom
humility
[justice]

 

  vainglory
ignorance

 

  THE PATHETIKON
Feeling Self, Subject to Emotions

DESIRE
epithumia /
concupescientia

STRENGTH
thumos / irascibility /
zeal

 

VIRTUES

VICES

VIRTUES

VICES

abstinence
temperance
almsgiving

gluttony
lust
avarice

courage
endurance
zeal
enthusiasm

cowardice
anger
dejection
acedia

 

“Command these stones to become bread.”(Mt 4:3; Lk 4:3)

Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds from the mouth of God.(Mt 4:4; Lk. 4:4)

“Throw yourself down from here.” (Mt 4:6; Lk 4:9)

You shall not tempt the Lord your God. (Mt. 4:7; Lk 4:12)

 

 


4) VIRTUE AS BALANCE (mean / midpoint)
(
ARISTOTLE)


[vice of]

EXCESS

[virtuous]

MEAN

[vice of]
DEFICIENCY

[A] With regard to feelings of Fear and Confidence:

Rashness

Courage

Cowardice

 

 

[B] With regard to Pleasures and Pains:

Self-Indulgence

Temperance

Insensibility

 

 

[C] With regard to Truth:

Boastfulness

Truthfulness

False Modesty

 

 

 

 


5) VIRTUE AS SPIRITUAL WARFARE


 

VIR

TUE

versus

VI

CE

Prudence

Temperance

Courage

Justice

Ignorance

Lust

Cowardice

Injustice

 



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