1. THE PEACE of GOD and the TRUCE of GOD.  Taming Warrior-Instincts

2. Odo of Cluny Life of St. Gerald 9 - esp. ch 40  (c. 940)

3. Knight Ceremonies (described by Raymon Lull)

4. Bernard on Military Order, the Song of Songs, and the Blessed Virgin Mary

5. Developing Mariology  - Marian Antiphons as Holy Troubadors

Ave Maris Stella very early: prob. Paul the Deacon (c.720c.800) - late 8th-early 9th cent.
Herman the Cripple (1050) Sequence: Ave Praeclara Maris Stella
    - Salve Regina, (? c.1090)

    - Alma Redemptoris Mater

Regina Caeli  (? 1100s)

Ave Regina Caelorum  (? 1100s)

6. the Courts of Love: Court of Eleanor (1122-1204)
    Andreas Capellanus writes de Amore c. 1185

7. Chetiennes de Troyes and the Arthurian Legends

8. Gertrude, Mechtild, and Brautmystik.




Knights now members of nobility


See Lull - English version

294. Frederick II Confers Nobility, About 1240.

Altmann und Bernheim, no. 74.

There was a noble class among the ancient Germans. As they established themselves on Roman soil, the nobility itself underwent a change and it was added to in various ways. Through great possessions in land, and through appointment to office, which generally led to the acquisition of lands, an aristocratic class wns formed which came to be regarded as noble. From the tenth century the man who fought on horseback was a knight, and hence of the noble class. As the class became conscious of itself and its privileges, it tended to put up barriers and exclude from its ranks all except those who were born into it. Thus in the days of Barbarossa if a knight were challenged by another, he could refuse to fight him unless the challenger could prove that his grandfather was a knight.

Frederick, etc. We wish all to know that A of N

has told us that although his father was not a knight yet he wishes to become one. He therefore besought us to make him a knight. In order to reward the faithfulness of him and of his family we grant his petition and, out of the ful

ness of our power, we grant that, although his father was not a knight, and although our laws forbid anyone to be a knight who is not born of a noble family, he may nevertheless with our permission put on the military girdle, and we forbid all people to hinder or prevent him from doing this..


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