Tilma, Our Lady of Guadalupe

 Nican Mophua: NY City Lib. MS

Miles Philips Description of the Shrine, 1578


ACCORDING to the traditional account, in December 1531 the Virgin Mary appeared to an Indian peasant, Juan Diego, at a place called Tepeyac, while he was going to Tlaltelolco to hear mass and religious instruction. The Virgin directed him to go to the bishop-elect of Mexico, Juan de Zumárraga, and tell him to have a chapel built on that spot. Meeting initial skepticism from the bishop-elect, Juan Diego returned home. In a subsequent apparition the Virgin told him that his uncle Juan Bernardino, who was mortally ill, would recover and that in response to the bishop-elect’s request she would provide a sign. Juan Diego was instructed to gather roses from the top of a promontory where flowers did not grow and take them in his mantle to Zumárraga. When he opened the mantle (tilmatl in Nahuatl) before Zumárraga, the picture of the Virgin was imprinted on it. The bishop-elect immediately put it in his private oratory and before the end of the year had built the first chapel at Tepeyac (later called Guadalupe), to which the entire city of Mexico made pilgrimage.




HERE is told and set down in order how a short time ago the Perfect Virgin Holy May Mother of God, our Queen, miraculously appeared out at Tepeyac, widely known as Guadalupe.

1. Nikan mopoua, motekpana, in kenin yankuikan ueytlamauisoltika monexiti in senkiska ichpochtli Sankta Maria Dios Inantsin tosiuapilatokatsin, in onkan Tepeyakak, moteneua Guadalupe.

First She caused herself to be seen by an Indian named Juan Diego, poor but worthy of respect; and then her Precious Image appeared before the recently named Bishop, Don Fray Juan de Zumárraga.

2. Akattopa kimottititsino se maseualtsintli itoka Juan Diego; Au santenpan monexiti in Itlasoixiptlatsin in ixpan yankuikan Obispo Don Fray Juan de Zumarraga.

1 Ten years after the City of Mexico was conquered, with the arrows and shields put aside, when there was peace in all the towns,

3. Ye yu matlak xiuitl in opeualok in atl in tepetl Mexiko, in ye omoman in mitl in chimali, in ye nouian ontlamatkamani in auakan in tepeuakan.

2 just as it sprouted, faith now grows green, now opens its corolla, the knowledge of the One by whom we all live: the true God.

4. in maka san ye opeu, ye xotla, ye kueponi in tlaneltokilistli, in iximachokatsin in Ipalnemouani, neli Teotl Dios.

3 At that time, the year 1531, a few days into the month of December, it happened that there was a humble but respected Indian, a poor man of the people;

5. In uel ijkuak in ipan xiuitl mil y kinientos y treinta y uno, kin iu ikeskiluiok in metstli Disiembre mochiu: onkatka se maseualtsintli iknotlapalsintli.

4 his name was Juan Diego; he lived in Cuauhtitlán, as they say.

6. itoka katka Juan Diego, iu mitoa ompa chane Kuautitlan,

5 and in all the things of God, he belonged to Tlaltilolco.

7. au in ika Teoyotl , ok mochompa pouia in Tlatilolko.

6 It was Saturday, not yet dawn; he was coming in pursuit of God and his commandments.

8. Au Sabado katka, uel ok youatsinko, kiualtepotstokaya in Teoyotl iuan in inetititlanis.

7 And as he drew near the little hill called Tepeyac it was beginning to dawn.

9. Au in asiko in inauak tepetsintli in itokayokan Tepeyakak, ye tlatlalchipaua,

8 He heard singing on the little hill, like the song of many precious birds; when their voices would stop, it was as if the hill were answering them; extremely soft and delightful, their songs exceeded the songs of the coyoltotl and the tzinitzcan and other precious birds.

10. konkak in ikpak tepetsintli kuikoa, yukin nepapan tlasototome kuika; kakauani in intoski, iukin kinanankilia tepetl, uel senka teyolkima, teuelamachti in inkuik, kisenpanauia in koyoltototl, in tsinitskan iuan in oksekin tlasototome ik kuika.

9 Juan Diego stopped to look. He said to himself: “By any chance am I worthy, have I deserved what I hear? Perhaps I am only dreaming it? Perhaps I’m only dozing?.

11. Kimotstimokets in Juan Diego, kimolui: "—¿Kuix noluil, kuix nomaseual in ye nikkaki ¿Aso san niktemiki ¿Aso san nikkochitleua 

10 Where am I? Where do I find myself? Is it possible that I am in the place our ancient ancestors, our grandparents, told about, in the land of the flowers, in the land of corn, of our flesh, of our sustenance, possible in the land of heaven?”.

12. ¿Kanin ye nika, kanin ye ninotta ¿Kuix ye onkan in kitoteuake ueuetke tachtouan tokokoluan, in xochitlalpan in tonakatlalpan, kuix ye onkan in iluikatlalpan "

11 He was looking up toward the top of the hill, toward the direction the sun rises from, toward where the precious heavenly song was coming from.

13. Ompa on itstikaya in ikpak tepetsintli in tonatiu ikisayampa, in ompa ualkistia in iluikatlasokuikatl.

12 And then when the singing suddenly stopped, when it could no longer be heard, he heard someone calling him, from the top of the hill, someone was saying to him:

14. Au in oyuseutikis in kuikatl, in omokaktimoman in yeekikaki ualnotsalo in ikpak tepetsintli, kiluia:

JUAN, dearest Juan Diego.”

"—Juantsin, Juan Diegotsin".

13 Then he dated to go to where the voice was coming from, his heart was not disturbed and he felt extremely happy and contented, he started to climb to the top of the little hill to go see where they were calling him from..

15. Niman san yemotlapaloa inik ompa yas in kanin notsalo, aken mochiua in iyolo, manose itla ik misauia, yese uel paki uelamachtia; kitlekauita in tepetsintli ompa itstia in kampa ualnotsalok,

14 And when he reached the top of the hill, when a Maiden who was standing there say him,

16. au in ye asitiu in ikpak tepetsintli, in ye okimottili se Siuapili onkan moketsinotikak, 

15 She called to him to come close to her.

17. kiualmonochili inik onyas in inauaktsinko.

16 And when he reached where she was, he was filled with admiration for the way her perfect grandeur exceeded all imagination:

18. Au in oyuasito in ixpantsinko, senka kimomauisalui in kenin uelasenpanauia in ik senkiska mauistikatsintli;

17 her clothing was shining like the sun, as if it were sending out waves of light,

19. in itlakentsin yukin tonatiu ik motonameyotia, inik pepetlaka;

18 and the stone, the crag on which she stood, seemed to be giving out rays;

20. au in tetl in texkali in ik itech moketsa, inik kimina;

19 her radiance was like precious stones, it seemed like an exquisite bracelet (it seemed beautiful beyond anything else);

21. in itlanexyotsin yuki in tlasochalchiuitl, makistli, in ik nesi;

20 the earth seemed to shine with the brilliance of a rainbow in the mist.

22. yukin ayaukosamalokuekueyoka in tlali.

21 And the mesquites and nopals and the other little plants that are generally up there seemed like emeralds. Their leaves seemed like turquoise. And their trunks, their thorns, their prickles, were shining like gold.

23. Au in miskitl, in nopali iuan oksekin nepapan xiutototin onkan mochichiuani yukin ketsalistli, yuki in teoxiuitl in iatlapalo nesi. Au in ikuauyo, in iuitsyo, in iauayo yuki in kostikteokuitatl ik pepetlaka.

22 He prostrated himself in her presence. He listened to her voice [her breath], her words, which give great, great glory, which were extremely kind, as if from someone who was drawing him toward her and esteemed him highly.

24. Ixpantsinko mopechtekak, kikak in iyotsin in itlatoltsin in uel senka teuelamachti in uel tekpiltik yuki in kimokokonauilia, kimotlatlasotilia.

23 She said to him,

25. Kimoluili:

LISTEN, my dearest and youngest son, Juan. where are you going?”

"—Tlaxikkaki noxokoyou Juantsin, kampa in timouika "

24 And he answered her: “My Lady, my Queen, my Little Girl, I am going as far as your little house in Mexico-Tlatilolco, to follow the things of God (everything that makes God be God) that are given to us, that are taught to us by the ones who are the images of Our Lord: our priests.”

26. Au in yeuatl kimonankilili: "—Notekuiyoe Siuapile, Nochpochtsine, ka ompa nonasis mochantsinko Mexiko Tlatilolko, nokontepotstoka in teoyotl, in techmomakilia, in techmomachtilia in ixiptlauan in Tlakatl in Totekuiyo, in toteopixkauan".

25 Then she talks with him, she reveals her precious will;

27. Niman ye ik kimononochilia, kimixpantilia in itlasotlanekilistsin,

26 then she says to him:

28. kimoluilia:

 “KNOW, know for sure, my dearest and youngest son, that I am the perfect Ever Virgin Holy Mary, Mother of the one great God of Truth who gives us life, the inventor and creator of people. the owner and lord of what is around us and what is touching us or very close to us the owner and lord of the sky, the owner of the earth. I want very much that they build my sacred little house here,

"Maxikmatti, ma uel yu ye in moyolo, noxokoyou, ka neuatl in nisenkiska semikak Ichpochtli Sankta Maria, in Inantsin in uel neli Teotl Dios, in Ipalnemouani, in Teyokoyani, in Tloke Nauake, in Iluikaua, in Tlaltikpake. Uel nikneki, senka nikeleuia inik nikan nechkechiliske noteokaltsin,

27 in which I will show him, I will exalt him on making him manifest:

29. in onkan niknextis, nikpantlasas.

28 I will give him to the people in all my personal love, in my compassionate gaze, in my help, in my salvation:

30. Niktemakas in ixkich notetlasotlalis, noteiknoitlalis, in notepaleuilis, in notemanauilis,

29 because I am truly your compassionate mother,

31. Ka nel neuatl in namoiknouakanantsin,

30 yours and of all the people who live together in this land,

32. in teuatl iuan in ixkichtin in ik nikan tlalpan ansepantlaka,

31 and of all the other people of different ancestries, my lovers, those who cry to me, those who seek me, those who trust in me,

33. iuan in oksekin nepapantlaka, notetlasotlakauan, in notech motsatsilia, in nechtemoa, in notech motemachilia,

32 because there I will listen to their weeping, their sadness, to remedy, to cleanse and nurse all their different troubles, their miseries, their suffering.

34. ka onkan nikinkakilis in inchokis, in intlaokol, inik nikyektilis nikpatis in ixkich nepapan innetolinilis, intoneuis, inchichinakilis.

33 And to bring about what my compassionate and merciful gaze is trying to do, go to the residence of the Bishop of Mexico, and you will tell him how I am sending you, so that you may reveal to him that I very much want him to build me a house here, to erect my temple for me on the plain; you will tell him everything, all that you have seen and marveled at, and what you have heard.

35. Au inik uelneltis in niknemilia in noteiknoittalis ma xiau in ompa in itekpanchan in Mexiko Obispo, au tikiluis in kenin neua nimitstitlani inik tikixpantis in kenin uel senka nikeleuia inik nikan nechkalti, nechkechili in ipan in tlalmantli noteokal; uel moch tikpouilis in ixkich in otikittak, otikmauiso, iuan in tlein otikkak.

34 and know for sure that I will appreciate it very much and reward it,

36. Au ma yu ye in moyolo ka uel niktlasokamattis, au ka nikixtlauas

35 that because of it I will enrich you, I will glorify you;

37. ka ik nimitskuiltonos, nimitstlamachtis, 

36 and because of it you will deserve very much the way that I reward your fatigue, your service in going to request the matter that I am sending you for.

38. iuan miek onkan tikmaseuaik nikkuepkayotiin mosiauilis, in motekipanoliin ik tiknemilitiu in tlein nimitstitlani.

37 Now, my dearest son, you have heard my breath, my word: go, do what you are responsible for (in this effort).”

39. Okayeotikkak, noxokoyou, in niiyo, in notlatol; ma ximouikatiu, ma ixkich motlapal xikmochiuili."

38 And immediately he prostrated himself in her presence; he said to her: “My Lady, my Little Girl, now I am going to make your venerable breath, your venerable word, a reality; I, your poor Indian, am leaving you for a while.”

40. Au niman ik ixpantsinko onmopechtekak, kimoluili: "—Notekuiyoe, Siuapile, ka ye niyau inik nikyektilis in miiyotsin in motlatoltsin, ma ok nimitsnotlalkauili in nimoknomaseual".

39 Then he came down (the hill) to put her errand into action: he came to get onto the causeway, he comes straight to Mexico City.

41. Niman ik ualtemok inik kineltilitiu in inelitlanis: konnamikiko in kuepotli, ualamelaua Mexiko.

40 When he reached the center of the city, he went straight to the palace of the Bishop, the Governing Priest, who had just recently arrived; his name was Don Fray Juan de Zumárraga, a Franciscan Priest.

42. In oasiko itik altepetl, niman ik tlamelau in itekpanchantsinko Obispo, in uel yankuikan ualmouikak Teopixkatlatoani, itokatsin katka D. Fray Juan de Sumarraga, San Fransisko Teopixki.

41 And as soon as he got there, he then tries to see him, he begs his servants, his helpers, to go and tell him he needs to see him;

43. Au in oasito niman ik moyeyekoa inik kimottilis, kintlatlautia in itetlayekoltikauan in itlanenkauan, inik konittotiue;

42 after a long time, when the Reverend Bishop ordered that he enter, they came to call him;

44. ye achi uekautika in konnotsako, in ye omotlanauatili in Tlatouani Obispo inik kalakis.

43 And as soon as he entered, first he knelt before him, he prostrated himself, then he reveals to him, he tells him the precious breath, the precious word of the Queen of Heaven, her message, and he also tells him everything that made his marvel, what he saw, what he heard.

45. Au in onkalak niman ixpantsinko motlankuakets, mopechtekak, niman ye ik kimixpantilia kimopouilia in iiyotsin in itlatoltsin Iluikak Siuapili in inetitlanis: noiuan kimoluilia in ixkich okimauiso, in okittak, in okikak.

44 And having heard his whole story, his message, as if he didn’t particularly believe it to be true,

46. Au in okikak in mochi itlatol, inetitlanis, yukin amo senka monelchiutsino,

45 he answered him, he said to him: “My son, you will come again. I will still hear you calmly, I will look at it carefully from the very beginning, I will consider the reason why your have come, your will, your desire”.

47. kimonankili, kimoluili: "—Nopiltse ma okseppa tiualas, ok iuian nimitskakis, uel ok itsinekan nikittas, niknemilis in tlein ik otiuala in motlanekilis, in motlaeleuilis".

46 He left; he came our sad, because the errand entrusted to him was not immediately accepted.

48. Ualkis; tlaokoxtiuits, inik amo niman oneltik in inetitlanis.

47 Then he returned, at the end of the day, then he came straight from there to the top of the little hill,

49. Niman ualmokuep is sa ye ikuak ipan semiluitl; niman onka ualamelau in ikpak tepetsintli,

48 and he had the joy of meeting the Queen of Heaven: there exactly where she had appeared to him the fist time, she was waiting for him.

50. au ipantsinko asito in Iluikak Siuapili, is san ye onkan in kanin akattopa kimottili, kimochialitika.

49 As soon as he saw her, he prostrated himself before her, he threw himself to the ground, he said to her:

51. Au in oyukimottili, ixpantsinko mopechtekak, motlalchitlas, kimoluili:

50 “My dear little Mistress, Lady Queen, my littlest Daughter, my dear little Girl. I did go to where you sent me to carry our your dear breath, your dear word; although I entered with difficulty to where the place is of the Governing Priest, I saw him, I put your breath, your word, before him, as you ordered me to.

52. "—Notekuiyoe, Tlakatle, Chiuapile, Noxokoyoue, Nochpochtsine, ka oniuia in ompa otinechmotitlanili, ka onikneltilito in miiyotsin in motlatoltsin; masiui in ouiuitika in onikalak in ompa iyeyan in teopixkatlatoani, ka onikittak, ka oixpan niktlali in miiyotsin in motlaltotsin in yu otinechmonanauatili,

51 He received me kindly and he listened to it perfectly, but from the way ha answered me, it’s as if he didn’t understand it, he doesn’t think it’s true.

53. onechpakkaseli, au okiyekkak; yese inik onechnankili yukin amo iyolo omasik, amo monelchiua.

52 He said to me: “You will come again: I will still listen to you calmly, I will look well to what you have come for, from the very beginning, to your desire, your will.

54.—Onechilui: —Okseppa tiualas, ok iuiyan nimitskakis, uel ok itsinekan nikittas in tlein otiuala, motlayeleuilis, motlanekilis.

53 The way he answered me, I could clearly see that he thinks your house that you want them to build for you here, maybe I’m only making it up, or that maybe it is not from your lips.

55.—Uel itech onikittak in yu onechnankili ka momatti in moteokaltsin tikmonekiltia mitsmochiuililiske nikan, aso san neuatl nikyoyokoya, akasomo motenkopatsinko; 

54 I beg you, my Lady, Queen, my little girl, to have one of the nobles who are held in esteem, one who is known, respected, honored, (have him) carry, take your dear breath, your dear word, so that he will be believed.

56. ka senka nimitsnotlatlautilia Notekuiyoe, Siuapile, Nochpochtsine, manoso aka seme in tlasopipiltin, in iximacho, in ixtilo, in mauistilo, itech xikmokauili in kitkis in kiuikas in miiyotsin in motlaltoltsin inik neltokos.

55 Because I am really (just) a man from the country, I am a (porter’s) rope I am a backframe, a tail, a wing, a man of no importance: I myself need to be led, carried on someone’s back, that place your are sending me to is a place where I’m not used to going to or spending any time in, my little Virgin, my Youngest Daughter, my Lady, Little girl;

57. Ka nel niknotlapaltsintli, ka nimekapali, ka nikakaxtli, ka nikuitlapili, ka natlapali, ka nitko ka nimamaloni, kamo nonenemian, kamo noneketsayan in ompa tinechmiualia, Nochpochtsine, Noxokoyoue, Tlakatle. Siuapile.

56 please excuse me: I will grieve your face, your heart; I will fall into your anger, into your displeasure, my Lady, my Mistress.”

58. Ma xinechmotlapopoluili niktekipachos in mixtsin in moyolotsin, ipan nias, ipan niuetsis in mosomatsin in mokualantsin, Tlakatle, Notekuiyoe".

57 The Perfect Virgin, worthy of honor and veneration, answered him:

59. Kimonankilili in Senkiska Mauisichpochtsintli:

58LISTEN, my youngest and dearest son, know for sure that I have no lack of servants, of messengers, to whom I can give the task of carrying my breath, my word, so that they carry out my will;

60. "Tlaxikkaki noxokoyou ma uel yu ye in moyolo kamo tlasotin in notetlayekoltikauan in notititlanuan, in uel intech nikkauas in kitkiske in niiyo in notlatol, in kineltiliske in notlanekilis:

59 but it is very necessary that you, personally, go and plead, that my wish, my will, become a reality, be carried out through your intercession.

61. yese uel yu moneki inik uel teuatl ik tinemis, ipan titlatos, uel momatika neltis, mochiuas, in nosialis, in notlanekilis.

60 And I beg you, my youngest and dearest son and I order you strictly to go again tomorrow to see the bishop.

62. Au uel nimitstlatlautia noxokoyou, iuan nimitstlakuaunauatia ka uel okseppa tias in mostla tikittatiu in Obispo.

61 And in my name make him know, make him hear my wish, my will, so that he will bring into being, he will build my house of god that I am asking him for.

63. Au nopampa xiknemachti, uel yu xikkakiti in nosialis, in notlanekilis, inik kineltilis inik kichiuas noteokal nikitlanilia.

62 And carefully tell him again how I, personally, the Ever Virgin Holy Mary, I, who am the Mother of God, am sending you.”

64. Iuan uel okseppa xikilui in kenin uel neuatl nisemikak Ichpochtli Sankta Maria in niinantsin Teotl Dios in ompa nimitstitlani".

63 For his part, Juan Diego responded to her and said to her “My Lady, Queen, my Little Girl, let me not give you anguish, let me not grieve your face, your heart. I will most gladly go to carry out your breath, your word; I will absolutely not fail to do it, nor do I think the road is painful.

65. Au in Juan Diego kimonankilili kimoluili: —"Notekuiyoe, Siuapile, Nochpochtsine, makamo niktekipacho in mixtsin in moyolotsin, ka uel nosenyolokakopa nonyas, nokonneltilitiu in miiyotsin in motlatoltsin ka niman amo niknokakaualtia, manose niktekokokamatti in ojtli.

64 I will go and carry out your will, but perhaps I won’t be heard, and if I am heard, perhaps I won’t be believed.

66. Ka nonyas nokonchiuatiu in motlanekilistsin, san uel ye in aso kamo niyekkakos; in tlanose ye onikakok akasomo nineltokos.

65 Tomorrow afternoon, when the sun goes down, I will come to return to your word, to your breath, what the Governing Priest answers to me.

67. Ka tel mostla ye teotlak in ye onkalaki tonatiu nikkuepakiu in miiyotsin in motlatoltsin in tlein ik nechnankilis in Teopixkatlatoani; 

66 Now, I respectfully say goodbye to you, my youngest Daughter, young Girl, Lady, my Little Girl, rest a little more.”

68. Ka ye nimitsnotlalkauilia, Noxokoyoue, Nochpochtsine, Tlakatle, Siuapile, ma ok ximoseuitsino".

67 And then he went to his house to rest.

69. Au niman ik in ya ichan moseuito.

68 On the following day, Sunday, while it was still night, everything was still dark, he left there, he left his house, he came straight to Tlatilolco, he came to learn what pertains to God and to be counted in roll call; then to see the Reverend Bishop.

70. Au in imostlayok Domingo, uel ok youatsinko tlatlayouatok, ompa ualkis in ichan ualamelau in Tlatilolko, kimattiuits in teoyotl iuan inik tepoualos: niman ye inik kittas Teopixkatlatoani.

69 And around ten o’clock everything had been taken care of: Mass was over and roll had been called and the crowd had gone away.

71. Au aso ya ipan matlaktli jora in onesenkaualok inik omokak Misa, iuan otepoualok, in ualxin in ixkich maseuali.

70 And Juan Diego went to the Reverend Bishop’s residence.

72. Au in yeuatl Juan Diego niman ik ya in itekpanchantsinko in Tlatoani Obispo.

71 And as soon as he arrived he went through the whole struggle to see him, and after much effort he saw him again;

73. Au in oasito ixkich itlapal okichiu inik okimottilis; au uel ouitika in okseppa kimottili;

72 he knelt at his feet, he wept, he became sad as he spoke to him, as he revealed to him the word, the breath of the Queen of Heaven.

74. ikxitlantsiko motlankuakets, choka, tlaokoya in ik kimononochilia, in ik kimixpantilia in iiyotsin in itlatoltsin in Iluikak Siuapili,

73 that would to God the errand, the will, of the Perfect Virgin would be believed, of making for her, of building her sacred little house for her, where she had said, where she wanted it.

75. inik aso sanen neltokos in inetitlanis in itlanekilistsin Senkiska Ichpochtli, inik kimochiuililiske, inik kimokechililiske in iteokaltsin in kanin omotlateneuili in kanin kimonekiltia.

74 And the Governing Bishop asked him many, many things, pursued many, many, questions with him, to make certain of where he had seen her, what She was like; he told absolutely everything to the Señor Bishop.

76. Au in Tlatoani Obispo uel miak tlamantli inik kitlatlani, kitlatemoli, inik uel iyolo masis, kampa in kimottili, kenamekatsintli; uel moch kipouilili in Tlatoani Obispo.

75 And although he told him absolutely everything, and that in everything, he saw and marveled that it appeared with absolute clarity that she was the Perfect Virgin, the Kind and Wondrous Mother of Our Savior, Our Lord Jesus Christ,

77. Au masiui in uel moch kimomelauilili in yukatsintli, iuan in ixkich okittak, okimauiso inka uel yu nesi ka Yeuatsin is Senkiska Ichpochtsintli in Itlasomauisnantsin in Totemakixtikatsin Totekuiyo Jesukristo;

76 nevertheless, it still didn’t happen (his message was still not believed).

78. yese amo niman ik omonelchiu.

77 He said that not simply because of his word would his petition be carried out, would what he asked for happen.

79. Kito ka amo san ika itlatol itlaitlanilis mochiuas moneltilis in tlein kitlani,

78 That some other sign was very necessary if he was to believe how the Queen of Heaven in person was sending him.

80. Ka uel ok itla ineska moneki inik uel neltokos in kenin uel Yeuatsin kimotitlanilia in Iluikak Sipuapili. 

79 As soon as Juan Diego heard that, he said to the Bishop:

81. Au in oyukikak in Juan Diego kimoluili in Obispo:

80 “Señor Governor, think about what the sign you ask for will be, because then I will go to ask for it of the Queen of Heaven who sent me.”

82. "Tlakatle, Tlatoanie, ma xikmottili katleuatl yes in ineska tikmitlanilia ka niman niyas nikitlanililitiu in Iluikak Siuapili onechualmotitlanili."

81 And when the Bishop saw that he was in agreement, that he did not hesitate or doubt in the slightest, he dismisses him.

83. Au in okittak in Obispo ka uel monelchiua ka niman atle ik meleltia, motsotsona, niman ik kiua.

82 And as soon as he is on his way, he orders some of house-hold staff in whom he had absolute trust to go along following him, to carefully observe where he was going, whom he was seeing, to whom he was talking.

84. Au in ye uits, niman ik kinmonauatili keski in ichantlaka, in uel intech motlakaneki, kiualtepotstokaske, uel kipipiaske kampa in yau, iuan akin konitta konnotsa.

83 And that’s what they did. And Juan Diego came directly. He took the causeway.

85. Tel iu mochiu. Au in Juan Diego niman ik ualamelau, kitokak in kuepotli.

84 And those who were following him lost him on the wooden bridge where the brook comes out near Tepeyac. And even though they searched all over for him, they couldn’t find him anywhere.

86. Au in kiualtepotstokaya onkan atlautli kisa inauak Tepeyakak, quaupantitlan kipoloko, manel ok nouian tlatemoke aokkan kittake.

85 And so they turned back. He made them angry, not just because they had made terrible fools of themselves, but also because he had frustrated their attempt.

87. San yu ualmokuepke, amo saniyo in ik omoxixiutlatito, noiuan ik okimelelti okinkualankakuiti.

86 So they went to tell the Señor Bishop, they put into his head that he shouldn’t believe him, they told him how he was only telling him lies, that he was only making up what he came to tell him, or that he was only dreaming or imagining what he was telling him, what he was asking of him.

88. Yu kinonotsato in Tlatoani Obispo, kitlauelalilike inik amo kineltokas, kiluike inik san konmostlakauilia, san kipipiki in tlein kiualmoluilia, anose san okitemik, san okikochitleu in tlein kimoluilia in tlein kimitlanililia;

87 Therefore they decided that if he came again, if he returned, they would grab him right there and would punish him severely, so that he would never come again to tell lies or get the people all excited.

89. Au uel yu kimoluike intla okseppa ualas, mokuepas, onkan kitsitskiske, iuan chikauak kitlatsakuiltiske inik aokmo seppa istlakatis, tekuamanas.

88 Meanwhile, Juan Diego was with the Most Holy Virgin, telling her the response that he was bringing from the Señor Bishop;

90. In okixkichika Juan Diego kakta ixpantsinko Semikak Ichpochtsintli, kiluiaya itenankililis in kitkilito itenkopa Uey Teopixkatlatoani;

89 when she had heard it, she said to him:

91. in oyukimokakilti in Tlatokasiuapili kilui:

90THAT’S fine, my dear son, you will come back here tomorrow so that you may take the bishop the sign he has asked you for;

92. "—Ka ye kuali, ka ye yuki, noxokoyou, nikan mostla okseppa tiualas inik tikitkilitiu Uey Teopixki in tlaneltilistli in neskayotl in mitstlatlanilia;

91 with this he will believe you, and he will no longer have any doubts about all this and he will no longer be suspicious of you;

93. Ik niman mitstlatolkakilis, iuan itechpa ayokik mitschikomattis, nion motech chikoyolouas;

92 and know, my dear son, that I will reward you care and the work and fatigue that you have put into this for me.

94. Iuan ma uel yu ye in moyolo, noxokoyu, ka nimitstlaxtlauis monetlakuitlauilis, motlatekipanolis mosiammikilis, in nopampa titlapopolotok.

93 So, go now: I will be waiting here for you tomorrow.”

95. Tlakuele, notelpotsin, ka tel mostla ye nikan nimitsonchixtos".

94 And on the following day, Monday, when Juan Diego was to take some sign in order to be believed, he did not return.

96. In imostlayok Lunes in ikuak kiuikaskia in Juan Diego in itla ineska inik neltokos aokmo oualmokuep:

95 Because when he arrived at his house, the sickness had struck an uncle of his, named Juan Bernardino, and he was very ill.

97. Ye ika in ikuak asito in ichan, se itla, itoka Juan Bernardino, oitechmotlali in kokolistli, uel tlanautok.

96 He went to get the native healer, who treated him, but it was too late; he was very ill.

98. Ok kitisinochilito, ok ipan tlato, yese aokmo inman, ye uel otlanau:

97 And when night came, his uncle begged him to come to Tlatilolco shortly after midnight, while it was still dark, to call some priest to go to confess him, to go to get him ready,

99. Au in ye youak, kitlatlauti in itla in ok youatsinko, ok tlatlayouatok ualkisas, kimonochilikiu in onkan Tlatilolko seme in teopixke inik mouikas, kimoyolkuitilitiu, iuan kimosenkauilitiu,

98 because he was sure that the time and place had now come for him to die, because he would no longer get up, he would no longer get well.

100. ye ika ka uel yuka in iyolo ka ye inman, ka ye onkan inik mikis ka aok meuas aokmo patis.

99 And on Tuesday, while it was still night, Juan Diego left his house to come to Tlatilolco to get the priest.

101. Au in Martes, uel ok tlatlayouatok in ompa ualkis ichan in Juan Diego in kimonochilis teopixki in ompa Tlatilolko,

100 and when he finally reached the little hill which ended the mountain range, at its foot, where the road comes out, on the side that the sun sets on, where he always passed before, he said:

102. au in ye asitiuits inauak tepetsintli Tepeyakak in ikxitlan kistika ojtli tonatiu ikalakiampa, in onkan yeppa kisani, kito:

101 “If I go ahead on the road, I don’t want this Lady to see me, because for sure, just like before, she’ll stop me so I can take the sign to the church governor for her, as she ordered me to;

103. "Intla san nikmelaua ojtli, manen nechualmottiliti is Siuapili, ka yeppa nechmotsikaluis inik nik uikilis tlaneskayotl in teopixkatlatoani, in yu onechmonauatili;

102 because first our tribulation must leave us; first I must quickly call the (Franciscan) priest; my uncle is anxiously waiting for him”.

104. ma ok techkaua in tonetekipachol, ma ok nik nonochilitiuetsi in teopixki motolinia, in notlatsin amo sa kimochialitok".

103 He immediately turned toward the hill, climbed up across it where there is a pass, and emerged on the eastern side, no that he could quickly to Mexico so that the Queen of Heaven would not detain him.

105. Niman ik kontlakolui in tepetl; itsalan ontlekok yenepa sentlapal, tonatiu ikisayampa kisato, inik isiuka asitiu Mexiko inik amo kimotsikaluis in Iluikak Siuapili,

104 He thinks that where he made the turn, the one who is looking everywhere perfectly won’t be able to see him.

106. in momatti ka in ompa in otlakolo ka auel kimottilis in uel nouiampa motstilitika.

105 He saw how she was coming down from up on the hill, and that from there she had been looking at him, from where she saw him before.

107. Kittak kenin ualmotemoui ikpak in tepetsintli ompa ualmotstilitok in ompa yeppa konmottiliani.

106 She came to meet him beside the hill, she came to block his way; she said to him:

108. Konmonamikiliko in inakastlan tepetl, konmotsakuililiko, kimoluili:

107WHAT’S happening, youngest and dearest of all my sons? Where are you going, where are you headed for?”

109. "—Aux noxokoyou, kampa in tiyau; Kampa in titstiu "

108 And he, perhaps he grieved a little, or perhaps he became ashamed? Or perhaps he became afraid of the situation, be became fearful?

110. Au in yeuatl kuix achi ik melelma Kuix nose pinauak kuix nose ik misaui, momauti 

109 He prostrated himself before her, he greeted her, he said to her:

111. Ixpantsinko mopechtekak, kimotlapalui, kimoluili:

110 “My little Maiden, my smallest Daughter, my Girl, I hope you are happy; how are you this morning? Does your beloved little body feel well, my Lady, my Girl?

112. "Nochpochtsine, Noxokoyoue, Siuapile, maximopakiltitie, ken otimixtonalti Kuix tikmouelmachitia in motlasonakayotsin, Notekuiyoe, Nopiltsinsine 

111 Although it grieves me, I will cause your face and your heart anguish: I must tell you, my little Girl, that one of your servants, my uncle, is very ill.

113. Niktekipachos in mixtsin in moyolotsin: ma xikmomachiltitsino, Nochpochtsine, ka uelanautok se momaseualtsin notla,

112 A terrible sickness has taken hold of him; he will surely die from it soon.

114. Uey kokolistli in itech omotlali; ka yeppa ik momikilis.

113 And now I shall go quickly to your little house of Mexico (Mexico-Tlatilolco), to call one of our priests, the beloved ones of Our Lord, so that he will go to hear his confession and prepare him,

115. Au ok nonisiutiu in mochantsinko Mexiko, nokonnonochilis seme in itlasouan Totekuiyo in toteopixkauan, konmoyolkuitilitiu, iuan konmosenkauilitiu,

114 Because we really were born for that we who came to wait for the painful effort of our death.

116. ka nel ye inik otitlakatke in tikchiako in tomikistekiu.

115 But, if I am going to carry it out, I will return here after that to go carry your breath, your word, Lady, my little Young one.

117. Au intla onokonneltilito, ka niman nikan okseppa niualmokuepas, inik nonyas nokonitkis in miiyotsin in motlatoltsin, Tlakate Nochpochtsine.

116 I beg you to forgive me, be patient with me a little longer, because I am not deceiving you with this, my youngest Daughter, my little Girl, tomorrow without fail I will come as fast as possible”.

118. Ma xinechmotlapopoluili, ma ok ixkich xinechmopakkaijiyouilti kamo ik nimitsnokeluia, Noxokoyoue, Nopiltsine, ka niman mostla nikistiuetsikiu."

117 As soon as she heard the explanations of Juan Diego, the Merciful Perfect Virgin answered him:

119. Au in oyukimokakiti itlatol in Juan Diego kimonankili in Iknouakasenkiskaichpochtsintli:

118LISTEN, put it into your heart, my youngest and dearest son, that the thing that frightened you, the thing that afflicted you is nothing: do not let it disturb you: do not fear this sickness nor any other sickness, nor any sharp and hurtful thing.

120. "Maxikkaki, ma uel yu ye in moyolo, noxokoyou, maka tle tlein mitsmauti, mitstekipacho, makamo ken mochiua in mix in moyolo makamo xikimakasi in kokolistli, manose ok itla kokolistli, kokok teopouki.

119 Am I not here, I, who am your mother? are you not under my shadow and protection? am I not the source of your joy? are you not in the hollow of my mantle, in the crossing of my arms? do you need something more?

121. ¿Kuix amo nikan nika nimonantsin ¿Kuix amo noseualotitlan, nekauyotitlan in tika ¿Kuix amo neuatl in nimopakkayelis Kuix amo nokuixanko nomamaluasko in tika ¿Kuix ok itla in motech moneki

120 Let nothing else worry you, disturb you; do not let your uncle’s illness pressure you with grief, because he will not die of it now. You may be certain that he is already well.”

122. Makamo ok itla mitstekipacho, mitsamana, makamo mitstekipacho in ikokolis motlatsin, kamo ik mikis in axkan itechka; ma uel yu ye in moyolo ka ye opatik".

121 (And at that very moment his uncle became well, as they later found out). .

123. (Au ka niman uel ikuak patik in itlatsin in yu santepan machistik.)

122 An when Juan Diego heard the lovely word, the lovely breath of the Queen of Heaven, he was greatly comforted by it, his heart became peaceful. .

124. Au in Juan Diego in oyukikak in iiyotsin in itlatoltsin in Iluikak Siuapili, uel senka ik omoyolali, uel ik pachiu in iyolo.

123 and he begged her to send him immediately to see the Governing Bishop, to take him something for a sign, for proof so that he would believe. .

125. Au kimotlatlautili inik ma sa ye kimotitlanili inik kittatiu in Tlatoani Obispo in kitkilis itla ineska, in ineltika, inik kineltokas.

124 And the Queen of Heaven ordered him then to go to the top of the little hill, where he had seen her before: .

126. Au in Iluikak Siuapili niman ik kimonauatili inik ontlekos in ikpak tepetsintli, in onkan kanin yeppa konmottiliaya;

125 She said to him:

127. Kimoluili:

GO up, my dearest son, to the top of the hill, to where you saw me and I told you what to do;

"—Xitleko, noxokoyou in ikpak in tepetsintli, au in kanin otinechittak iuan onimitsnanauati;

126 There you will see that there are different kinds of flowers: cut them, gather them, put them all together; then come down here; bring them here, into my presence.” .

128. Onkan tikittas onok nepapan xochitl, xikteteki, xiknechiko, xiksentlali, ninam xik—ualtemoui, nikan nixpan xik—ualuika".

127 Juan Diego climbed to the top the top of the hill right away..

129. Au in Juan Diego niman ik kitlekaui in tepetsintli.

128 and when he reached the top, he was astonished by all of them, blooming, open, flowers of every kind, lovely and beautiful, when it still was not their season:

130. Au in oasito ikpak, senka kimauiso in ixkich onok, xotlatok, kuepontok in nepapan kaxtilan tlasoxochitl, in ayamo imochiuyan,

129 because really that was the season n which the frost was very harsh: .

131. ka nel uel ikuak in motlapaltilia issetl;

130 they were giving off an extremely soft fragrance; like precious pearls, as if filled with the dew of the night. .

132. uel senka auiaxtok, iuki in tlasoepyolotli inik youalauachyotok;

131 Then he began to cut them, he gathered them all, he put them in the hollow of his tilma. .

133. Niman ik peu in kiteteki, uel moch kinechiko, kikuixanten.

132 The top of the little hill was certainly not a place in which any flowers grew; there are only plenty of rocks, thorns, spines, prickly pears and mesquite trees, .

134. Au in onkan ikpak tepetsintli, ka niman atle xochitl in imochiuyan, ka texkala, netsola, uiuitstla, nopala, miskitla;

133 And even though some little herbs or grasses might grow, it was then the month of December, in which the frost eats everything up and destroys it. .

135. au intla xiutotontin mochichiuani, in ikuak in ipan Metstli Disiembre, ka moch kikua kipopoloua issetl,

134 And immediately he came back down, he came to bring the Heavenly Maiden the different kinds of flowers which he had gone up to cut. .

136. Au ka niman ik ualtemok, kiualmotkilili in Iluikak Siuapili in nepapan xochitl okitetekito, 

135 And when she saw them, she took them with her precious hands; .

137. au in oyukimottili, imatikatsinko konmokuili;

136 Then she put them all together into the hollow of his ayate again and said: .

138. niman ye okseppa ikuexanko kiualmotemili kimoluili:

137MY youngest and dearest son, these different kinds of flowers are the proof, the sign that you will take to the bishop; .

139. "—Noxokoyou, inin nepapan xochitl yeuatl in tlaneltilis in neskayotl in tik—uikilis in Obispo.

138 You will tell him from me tha he is to see in them my desire, and that therefore he is to carry out my wish, my will. .

140. Nopampa tikiluis ma ik kitta in notlanekilis iuan ik kineltilis in notlanekilis, in nosialis.

139 and you, you who are my messenger, in you I place my absolute trust;

141. Au in teuatl in tinotitlan ka uel motech netlakanekoni;

140 And I strictly order you that you only open your ayate alone in the presence of the bishop, and show him what you are carrying.

142. Au uel nimitstlakuaunauatia san uel isel ixpan Obispo tiksouas in motilma, iuan tiknextilis in tlein tik—uika:

141 And you will tell him everything exactly, you will tell him that I ordered you to climb to the top of the little hill to cut flowers, and everything that you saw and admired,

143. Au uel moch tikpouilis, tikiluis in kenin onimitsnauati inik titlekos in ikpak tepetsintli in tiktetekitiu xochitl, iuan in ixkich otikittak, otimauiso,

142 So that you can convince the governing priest, so that he will then do what lies within his responsibility so that my temple which I have asked him for will be made, will be raised.”

144. inik uel tikyoloyeuas in Teopixkatlatoani inik niman ipan tlatos inik mochiuas, moketsas in noteokal onikitlanili."

143 And as soon as the Heavenly Queen gave him her orders, he took the causeway, he comes straight to Mexico City, he comes happily now. .

145. Au in okonmonanauatili in Iluikak Siuapili kiualtokak in kuepotli Mexiko ualmelaua, ye paktiuits.

144 His heart is tranquil now, because his errand will come out well, he will carry it our perfectly. .

146. Ye yu yetiuits in iyolo ka yekkisakiu, kiyekitkis.

145 Along the way, he is very careful of what is in the hollow of his garment, lest he lose something: .

147. Uel kimokuitlauitiuits in tlein ikuixanko yetiuits in manen itla kimakau;

146 As he comes, he enjoys the fragrance of the different kinds of exquisite flowers. .

148. kimotlamachtitiuits in iauiaka in nepapan tlasoxochitl.

147 When he arrived at the Bishop’s residence, the doorkeeper and the other servants of the Governing Priest went to meet him. .

149. In oasiko itekpanchan Obispo konnamikito in ikalpixkau iuan oksekin itlanenkauan in Tlatokateopixki.

148 and he begged them to tell him how much he wanted to see him, but none of them was willing; they pretended they didn’t understand him, or perhaps because it was still very dark; .

150. Au kintlatlauti inik ma kimoluilikan in kenin kimottilisneki, yese ayak seme kinek, amo konmokakkaneke aso ye inik uel ok youatsinko.

149 or perhaps because they felt by now that all he did was bother them and keep on insisting, .

151. au anose inik ye kiximatti san kintepachoa inik imixtlan pilkatinemi,

150 and their companions had already told them, the ones who lost him from sight when they were following him. .

152. iuan ye okinonotske in imikniuan in kipoloto in iquak kitepotstokake.

151 For a long, long time he waited for his request to be granted.

153. Uel uekautika in otlatolchixtikatka.

152 And when they saw that he was simply standing there for a long, long time with his head down, without doing anything, in case he should be called, and that it looked as if he was carrying something, as if he was bringing it in the hollow of his tilma – then they came up close to him to see what he was bringing and thus satisfy their curiosity. .

154. Au in okittake ye uel uekautika in onkan ikak, motololtitikak, tlatenmatikak in aso notsalos, iuan in iukinma itla kiualitki, kikuixanotikak; niman ye ik itech onasike inik kittiliske tlein kiuikats inik inyolo pachiuis.

153 And when Juan Diego saw that there was no way in which he could hide from them what he was carrying and that therefore they might harass him or push him perhaps rough him and the flowers up, he finally gave them a little peek and they say that it was flowers. .

155. Au in okittak in Juan Diego ka niman auel kintlatilis in tlein kiuikats, ka ik kitoliniske kitotopeuaske nose ik kimiktiske, tepiton kiualnexti ka xochitl.

154 And when they say that they were all exquisite different flowers and that it wasn’t the season for them to be blooming, they were very, very astonished by how fresh they were, how good they smelled, how handsome they seemed. .

156. Au in yukittake ka moch kaxtilan nepapan xochitl iuan in kamo imochiuyan in ikuak, uel senka kimauisoke, iuan in kenin uel senka seltik, inik kueponki, inik auiak, inik mauistik.

155 And they wanted to grab and pull a few out; .

157. Au keleuike inik keskitetl konanaske, kikixtiliske;

156 They dared to try to grab them three times, but there was no way in which they could do it, .

158. au uel expa mochiuki inik motlapaloke konkuiskia; niman auel mochiuki,

157 because when they would try, they could no longer see the flowers, they saw them as if they were painted or embroidered or sewn on the tilma. .

159. yeika in ikuak kiitskiskia aokmo uel xochitl in kittaya, san yukima tlakuiloli, nose tlamachtli, nose tlatsontli in itech kittaya tilmatli.

158 They went immediately to tell the Governing Bishop what they had seen, .

160. Niman ik kimoluilito in Tlatoani Obispo in tlein okittake;

159 and how much the lowly Indian who had come other times wanted to see him, and that he had been waiting a very long time there for permission, because he wanted to see him. .

161. iuan in kenin kimottilisneki in maseualtsintli ye iskipa ualau, iuan in ye uel uekau in ye ik aso onka tlatlatolchixtok inik kimottilisneki.

160 And as soon as the Governing Bishop heard it, he realized that this was the proof to convince him to get started on what the humble man was asking him for. .

162. Au in Tlatoani Obispo in oyu kimokakiti, niman ipan ya in iyolotsin ka yeuatl in ineltika inik iyolotsin masis, inik kimoneltililis in tlein ik nemi tlakatsintli.

161 He immediately ordered that he come in to see him. .

163. Niman motlanauatili inik niman kalakis, kimottilis.

162 And when he had come in, he prostrated himself in his presence, as he had done before. .

164. Au in okalak ixpantsinko mopechtekak, in yu yeppa kichiuani;

163 And again he told him what he had seen and admired, and his message. .

165. au okseppa kimotlapouilili in ixkich okittak in okimauiso iuan in inetitlanis.

164 He said to him, “Your Excellency, sir, I have done it. I have carried out your orders, .

166. Kimoluili: "—Notekuiyoe, Tlatoanie, ka ye onikchiu, ka ye onikneltili in yu otinechmonauatili,

165 That is, I went to tell my Mistress, the Heavenly Maiden, Holy Mary, the Beloved Mother of God, that you were asking for proof so you could believe me, so that you would make her sacred little house, where she as asking you to build it;

167. ka uel yu oniknoluilito in Tlakatl in Notekuiyo in Iluikak Siuapili Santa Maria in Teotl Dios Itlasonantsin, in tikmitlania in tlaneskayotl inik uel tinechmoneltokitis, inik tikmochiuililis in iteokaltsin in onkan mitsmitlanililia, tikmokechilis;

166 And I also told her that I had given you my word to come to bring you some sign, some proof of her will, as you told me to. .

168. au ka uel yu oniknoluili in onimitsnomakili in notlatol inik nimitsualnouikilis in itla ineska in ineltika in itlanekilistsin inik nomak otikmokauili.

167 And she listened carefully to your breath, your word, and was pleased to receive your request for the sign, the proof, so that her beloved will can be done, can be carried out. .

169. Au ka okiuelmokakiti in miiyotsin in motlatoltsin; au okimopakkaselili in tikmitlania in itla ineska, ineltika, inik mochiuas moneltilis in itlanekilistsin.

168 And today, while it was still night, she ordered me to come again to see you; .

170. Au ye in in axkan ok youatsinko onechmonauatili inik oksepa nimitsnottilikiu;

169 and I asked her for the proof so that I would be believed, as she had said that she would give it to me, and she kept her promise immediately. .

171. au oniknitlanilili in itla ineska inik nineltokos, in yu onechmoluili nechmomakilis, au ka san niman okimoneltilili.

170 And she ordered me to the top of the little hill where I had seen her before, to cut different flowers up there; Castillian roses. .

172. Au onechmiuali in ikpak tepetsintli in kanin yeppa nokonnottiliani inik ompa niktetekitiu in nepapan Kaxtilan xochitl.

171 And when I had cut them, I took them down to her at the bottom; .

173. Au in oniktekito, onichualnouikilili in onkan tlatsintlan;

172 and she took them with her holy hands, .

174. au ka imatikatsinko konmokuili,

173 again she placed them in the hollow of my ayate, .

175. okseppa nokuixanko okonualmotemili,

174 so that I would bring them to you, so I would give them only to you. .

176. inik nimitsualnotkililis, in uel Teuatsin nimitsnomakilis.

175 Although I knew very well that the top of the hill isn’t a place where flowers grow, because there are only a lot of craggy rocks, thorns, spiny acacias, prickly pears, mesquite bushes. I didn’t doubt because of that, I didn’t hesitate because of that. .

177. Masiui in ka uel nikmattia kamo imochiuyan xochitl in ikpak tepetsintli, ka san tetexkala, netsola, uitstla, tenopala, miskitla amo ik oninotsotson, amo ik nomeyoloak.

176 When I reached the top of the hill I saw that it was now paradise. .

178. In nasito in ikpak tepetsintli in nitlachix ka ye xochitlalpan.

177 Every kind of different precious flowers were there, each one perfect, the very finest that there are, full of dew and shining so I immediately cut them; .

179. Onkan senkistok in ixkich nepapan tlasoxochitl kaxtilankayotl auach, tonameyotok, inik niman oniktetekito.

178 and she told me that I should give them to you from her, and that in this way I would show the truth; that your should see the sign that you were asking for in order to carry our her beloved will, .

180. Au onechmoluili inik ipampa nimitsnomakilis; au ka ye yu nik neltitlia inik onkan tikmottilis in itla neskayotl in tikmitlanilia inik tikmoneltililis in itlanekilistsin;

179 and so that it will be clear that my word, my message, is truth, .

181. iuan inik nesi ka neltilistli in notlatol, in nonetitlanis:

180 here they are; please receive them.” .

182. Ka iska, ma xikmoselili."

181 And then he held out his white tilma, in the hollow of which he had placed the flowers. .

183. Au ka niman ik kiualsou in istak itilma in okikuixanotikaka xochitl.

182 And just as all the different precious flowers fell to the floor, .

184. Au in yu ualtepeu in ixkich nepapan kaxtilan xochitl, 

183 then and there the beloved Image of the Perfect Virgin Holy Mary, Mother of God, became the sign, suddenly appeared in the form and figure in which it is now, .

185. niman onkan momachioti, nestikis in itlasoixiptlatsin is senkiska Ichpochtli Santa Maria Teotl Dios Inantsin in yukatsintli axkan moyetstika,

184 where it is preserved in her beloved little house, in her sacred little house at Tepeyac, which is called Guadalupe. .

186. in onkan axkan mopixtsinotika in itlasochantsinko in iteokaltsinko Tepeyakak, motokayotia Guadalupe.

185 And as soon as the Governing Bishop and all those who were there saw it, they knelt, they were full of awe and reverence. .

187. Au in oyukimottili in Tlatoani Obispo iuan in ixkichtin onkan katka motlankuaketske, senka kimauisoke,

186 They stood up to see it, they became sad, they wept, their hearts and minds were in ecstasy. .

188. kimotstimoketske, tlaokoxke, moyoltoneuke, yukin ajkoya in inyolo in intlalnamikilis…

187 And the Governing Bishop weeping and with sadness begged and asked her to forgive him for not having immediately carried out her will, her holy breath, her holy word. .

189. Au in Tlatoani Obispo chokistika, tlaokoyalistika kimotlatlautili, kimitlanilili in itlapopoluililoka inik amo niman okineltili, in itlanekilistsin, in iiyotsin in itlatoltsin.

188 And when he got up, he untied Juan Diego’s garment, his tilma, from his neck where it was tied. .

190. Au in omokets kiualton in ikechtlan ik ilpitikatka in itlaken, in itilma Juan Diego.

189 On which the Heavenly Queen appeared, on which she became the sign. .

191. in itech omonexiti in onkan omomachiotitsino in Iluikak Siuapili.

190 And then he took it and placed it in his private chapel. .

192. Au niman ik kimouikili; ompa kimotlalilito in ineteochiuayan.

191 And Juan Diego still stayed for the day in the Bishop’s house, he still kept him there.

193. Au ok onka osemiluiti in Juan Diego in ichantsinko Obispo, ok kimotsikalui.

192 And on the next day he said to him: “Come, let’s go so you can show where is that the Queen of Heaven wants her chapel built.” .

194. Au in imostlayok kilui: "—Sake, inik tikteittitis in kanin itlanekilistsin Iluikak Siuapili kimokechililiske in iteokaltsin."

193 People were immediately invited to make it, to build it. .

195. Niman ik tetlaluilok inik mochiuas moketsas.

194 And Juan Diego, as soon as he showed where the Lady of Heaven had ordered her sacred little house to be built, asked for permission: .

196. Au in Juan Diego in oyukitteititi in kanin kimonauatili in Iluikak Siuapili moketsas iteokaltsin, niman ik tenauati:

195 he wanted to go to his house in order to see his uncle, Juan Bernardino, who was very ill when he left him to go to Tlatilolco to call a priest to confess him and prepare him, the one whom the Queen of Heaven had told him had already been cured. .

197. in ok onasisneki in ichan inik konittatiu in itlatsin Juan Bernardino, in uelanautok, in ikuak kiualkauteuak seme kinotsaskia Teopixke in onkan Tlatilolko, inik kiyolkuitiskia, kisenkauaskia; in kimoluili Iluikak Siuapili in ye opatik.

196 But they didn’t let him go alone, rather people went with him to his house. .

198. Au amo san isel kikauke yas, ka kiuikake in ompa in ichan;

197 And when they arrived they saw that his uncle was now healthy; he had absolutely no pain of any kind. .

199. Au in oyu asito kittake in itlatsin ye uel paktika, niman atle kikokoa,

198 And he, for his part, was greatly surprised by the way in which his nephew was accompanied and very honored; .

200. Au in yeuatl senka kimauiso in kenin imach ualuiko, iuan senka mauistililo;

199 he asked his nephew why it was that they were honoring him so much; .

201. kitlatlani in imach tleika in yuki chiualo, in senka mauistililo:

200 and he told him how, when he left to go call a priest for him who would confess him and prepare him, the Lady of Heaven appeared to him there at Tepeyac;.

202. Au in yeuatl kilui in kenin ikuak ompa ualeuak in kinochiliskia teopixki in kiyolkuitis, kisenkauas, in onkan Tepeyakak kimottilitsino in Iluikak Siuapili;

201 and she sent him to Mexico City to see the Governing Bishop, so that he would make her a house at Tepeyac.

203. au kimotitlani in ompa Mexiko in kittatiu in Tlatoani Obispo inik onkan kimokaltilis in Tepeyakak.

202 And she told him not to worry, because his uncle was now happy, and she consoled him very much with this news. .

204. Au kimoluili in makamo motekipacho in ka ye paktika; in ik senka moyolali.

203 His uncle told him that it was true, that she healed him at that exact moment, .

205. Kilui in itlatsin ka ye neli ka niman ikuak in kimopatili,

204 And he saw her in exactly the same way she had appeared to his nephew, .

206. iuan uel kimottili is san no uel ye iukatsintli in yu kimottititsinoaya in imach,

205 and she told him that she was also sending him to Mexico City to see the Bishop; .

207. iuan kimoluili in kenin yeuatl ok okimotitlanili Mexiko in kittas Obispo;

206 and also that when he went to see him, he should reveal absolutely everything to him, he should tell him what he had seen .

208. Au ma no in ikuak kittatiu, ma uel moch ik kixpantis kinonotsas in tlein okittak,

207 and the marvelous way in which she had healed him, .

209. iuan in kenin tlamauisoltika okimopatili;

208 and that he would properly name her beloved Image thus: The Perfect Virgin, Holy Mary of Guadalupe. .

210. au ma uel yu kimotokayotilis, ma uel yumotokayotitsinos is senkiska Ichpochtsintli Santa Maria de Guadalupe in itlasoixiptlatsin.

209 And then they brought Juan Bernardino into the presence of the Governing Bishop, they brought him to speak with him, to give his testimony, .

211. Au niman ik kiualuikake in Juan Bernardino in ixpan Tlatouani Obispo in kinonotsako, in ixpan tlaneltiliko.

210 and together with his nephew Juan Diego, the Bishop lodged them in his house for a few days. .

212. Au ineuan in imach Juan Diego kinkaloti in ichan Obispo achi keskiluitl,

211 While the sacred little house of the lovely Little Queen was built out there at Tepeyac, where she revealed herself to Juan Diego. .

213. inok ixkich ika moketsino iteokaltsin Tlatoka Siuapili in onkan Tepeyakak in kanin kimottitili in Juan Diego.

212 And the Reverend Bishop moved the beloved Image of the Beloved Heavenly Maiden to the principal church. .

214. Au in Tlatouani Obispo kikuani ompa in Iglesia Mayor in itlasoixiptlatsin in Iluikaktlasosiuapili.

213 He took her beloved Image from his residence, from his private chapel in which it was, so that all could see it and admire it. .

215. Kiualmokixtili in ompa itekpanchan in ineteochiuayan moyetstikatka: inik mochi tlakatl kittas kimauisos in Itlasoixiptlatsin.

214 And absolutely this entire city with no exception, was deeply moved as everyone came to see and admire her precious Image. .

216. Au uel senmochi is semaltepetl olin, in kiualmottiliaya, in kimauisoaya in Itlasoixiptlatsin.

215 They came to acknowledge its divine character. .

217. Ualateomatia,

216 They came to offer her their payers. .

218. kimotlatlautiliaya.

217 They marveled at the miraculous way it had appeared. .

219. Senka kimauisoaya in kenin teotlamauisoltika inik omonexiti,

218 since absolutely no one on earth had painted her beloved Image.

220. inik niman ma aka tlaltikpak tlakatl okimikuilui in itlasoixiptlayotsin.





A discourse written by one Miles Philips Englishman, one of the company put on shoare Northward of Panuco, in the West Indies, by M. Iohn Hawkins 1568

Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries of the English Nation Collected by Richard Hakluyt Preacher, and sometime Student of Christ-Church in Oxford and Edited by Edmund Goldsmid, F.R.H.S,. Volume XIV, “America”. Part III.

Richard Hakluyt 1553 – 23 November 1616) was an English writer. He is known for promoting the English colonization of North America through his works, notably Divers Voyages Touching the Discoverie of America (1582) and The Principal Navigations, Voiages, Traffiques and Discoueries of the English Nation (1589–1600).

A DISCOURSE written by one Miles Philips Englishman, one of the company put on shoare Northward of Panuco, in the West Indies, by M. Iohn Hawkins [Privateer and Slaver]1568. conteining many special things of that countrey and of the Spanish gouernment, but specially of their cruelties vsed to our Englishmen and amongst the rest to himselfe for the space of 15. or 16 yeres together, vntil by good and happy means he was deliuered from their bloody hands, and returned into his owne Countrey. An. 1582 [...]


THE next morning we departed from thence on our iourney towards Mexico, and so trauelled till wee came within two leagues of it, where there was built by the Spaniards a very faire church, called our Ladyes church,

in which there is an image of our Lady of siluer and gilt, being as high, and as large as a tall woman,

in which church, and before this image, there are as many lamps of siluer as there be dayes in the yeere, which vpon high dayes are all lighted.

Whensoeuer any Spaniards passe by this church, although they be on horse backe, they will alight, and

come into the church,

and kneele before this image,

and pray to our Lady to defend them from all euil;

so that whether he be horseman or footman he will not passe by, but first goe into the Church, and pray as aforesayd, which if they doe not they thinke and beleeue that they shall neuer prosper: which image they call in the Spanish tongue, Nuestra sennora de Guadalupe.

At this place there are certain cold baths, which arise, springing vp as though the water did seeth: the water thereof is somewhat brackish in taste, but very good for any that have any sore or wound, to wash themselues therewith, for as they say, it healeth many:

and euery yeere once vpon our Lady day the people vse to repair thither to offer, and to pray in that Church before the image, and they say that our Lady of Guadalupe doeth work a number of miracles. About this Church there is not any towne of Spaniards that is inhabited, but certaine Indians doe dwell there in houses of their own countrey building.

 [On a commercial trading and slaving voyage together with Francis Drake a devastating storm was encountered] Hawkins himself rode out the gale under the lee of a little island, then beat about for two weeks of increasing misery, when 'hides were thought very good meat, and rats, cats, mice, and dogs, parrots and monkeys that were got at great price, none escaped.' The "Minion" was of three hundred tons; and so was insufferably overcrowded with three hundred men, two hundred English and one hundred blacks. Drake's little "Judith", of only fifty tons, could have given no relief, as she was herself overfull.

Hawkins asked all the men who preferred to take their chance on land to get round the foremast and all those who wanted to remain afloat to get round the mizzen. About a hundred chose one course and a hundred the other. The landing took place about a hundred and fifty miles south of the Rio Grande.

The shore party nearly all died. But three lived to write of their adventures. David Ingram, following Indian trails all round the Gulf of Mexico and up the Atlantic seaboard, came out where St. John, New Brunswick, stands now, was picked up by a passing Frenchman, and so got safely home.

Job Hortop and Miles Philips were caught by the Spaniards and sent back to Mexico. Philips escaped to England fourteen years later. But Hortop was sent to Spain, where he served twelve years as a galley-slave and ten as a servant before he contrived to get aboard an English vessel.






Christianity Comes to the Americas, 1492-1776., Robert Choquette, Stafford Poole ( Paragon House, NY 1992), 44-49.



The account follows closely the pattern to be found in hundreds of apparition stories in Spain and the New World at that time. The Virgin is a compassionate and loving mother, in contrast to her angry and judging son. She comes to the aid of the oppressed and marginalized of society. Her message meets with initial disbelief but after a miraculous sign it is accepted by Church authorities. The account explains the origin of a shrine or a devotion.

The traditional account is not without difficulties. The assertion that Juan Diego went from his native village of Cuauhtitlán to the Franciscan house at Tlaltelolco does not accord with present-day research, which locates the Franciscans at Cuauhtitlán and not at Tlaltelolco in 1531. Similarly, the use of a Spanish name, Guadalupe, associated with a major devotion in Extremadura, presents problems. The claim that Zumárraga heard a Nahuatl word he interpreted as “Guadalupe “ cannot be taken seriously. All accounts, even those in Nahuatl, use the Spanish term. The conclusion is inescapable that the shrine antedated the formulation of the account.

A still more formidable problem is the total lack of any reliable, datable record of the apparitions prior to 1648. The lack of any mention of them in Zumárraga’s letters may be attributable to the fact that not all his correspondence has survived, but his failure to refer to Guadalupe in his will is more significant. In that century any Spaniard who founded a chapel or had a special devotion would have left money either for masses or a chaplaincy. This silence concerning the apparitions is maintained by all major religious figures and writers of the sixteenth century. When reference is made to the shrine or to the devotion of Our Lady of Guadalupe, no mention is made of the apparition account or Juan Diego.

 In 1556 the Franciscan provincial Francisco de Bustamante delivered a scathing condemnation of the devotion, stating that it was pagan in origin, that it was  “new, “ and that the image had been painted by an Indian. Neither in his sermon , however, nor in the investigation later made of it did anyone mention the apparition account.

[n.b. However, his (1556) claim that the painting was made by an Indian surely suggests another tradition (miraculous?) concerning the origin of the image: pilgrims who traversed the shrine did so
on their knees from the door of the shrine to the altar where that image of Our Lady of Guadalupe is located. . . ,”

LSO: in 1574 the Anales de Juan Bautista: “Then in the year 1555 Santa Maria de Guadalupe appeared there in Tepeyacac” [Nahuatl: Yn ipan xihuitl mill e qui-os 55 a[no]s yquac monextitzi[no] in sancta maria de guatalupe yn ompa tepeyacac (folio 9r)

In 1571 the English corsair Miles Philips left a description of the shrine but without mentioning the apparitions. When the viceroy of New Spain, Martín Enríquez de Almansa, was asked in 1575 to give an account of the shrine to the Council of the Indies, he made no reference to the apparitions. Instead, he stated that the chapel had been built about 1555 and that the devotion had become popular after a herdsman claimed to have been cured there.

In general the devotion was condemned by the friars and supported by the bishops and diocesan clergy, but without reference to any apparitions. Bernardino de Sahagún called it  “suspect “ and decried the fact that the Indians equated it with the worship of Tonantzin, the mother goddess of the Mexica, whose shrine had been on the hill of Tepeyac. In the sixteenth century there was a vague tradition of an apparition around the years 1555-1556, but they were not associated with the bestowal of an image. In fact, it seems that at the time the devotion at Guadalupe was twofold. For the Spaniards it was devotion to the Virgin of Extremadura, the land from which the majority of conquistadores and settlers came. For the Indians it was a devotion to the successor of Tonantzin.

In 1648 a priest named Miguel Sánchez published the story of the apparitions for the first time. There is abundant evidence that prior to that time the account was unknown in New Spain. The following year another priest, Luis Lasso de la Vega, published a Nahuatl version of the story. Known as the Nican Mopohua from its opening words, it--rather than Sánchez’s account--has become the standard version. However, attempts to show that it was contemporary with Juan Diego have been unsuccessful.

[n.b. The New York Public Library MS of the Nican Mopohua has been dated by some experts to the mid-to-late sixteenth century, although this dating is based on orthography and handwriting analysis and does not claim to be definitive ]

In the years that followed, the devotion spread very rapidly, particularly among the criollos [Latin Americans who are of full or near full Spanish descent, distinguishing them from both multi-racial Latin Americans and Latin Americans of post-colonial (and not necessarily Spanish) European immigrant origin.]

In the eighteenth century there was a conscious effort to spread [this devotion] among the Indians. The claim that mass conversions of Indians followed on the apparitions in 1531 is without foundation. Eventually, of course, it became popular outside Mexico, and in 1945 Pope Pius XII proclaimed Our Lady of Guadalupe patroness of the Americas.




Anderson, Carl A, Chávez Eduardo, Our Lady of Guadalupe. Mother of the Civilization of Love. (Doubleday, NY 2009)

Brading, D.A., Mexican Phoenix: Our Lady of Guadalupe: Image and Tradition across Five Centuries. New York: Cambridge University Press 2001.

Burkhart, Louise. “The Cult of the Virgin of Guadalupe in Mexico” in South and Meso-American Native Spirituality, ed. Gary H. Gossen and Miguel León-Portilla, pp. 198-227. New York: Crossroad Press 1993.

Burkhart, Louise. Before Guadalupe: The Virgin Mary in Early Colonial Nahuatl Literature. Albany: Institute for Mesoamerican Studies and the University of Texas Press 2001.

Chávez Eduardo. Our Lady of Guadalupe and Saint Juan Diego: The Historical Evidence. By (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006)

Cline, Sarah. “Guadalupe and the Castas: The Power of a Singular Colonial Mexican Painting.” Mexican Studies/Esudios Mexicanos Vol. 31, Issue 2, Summer 2015, pages 218-46.

Elizondo, Virgil. Guadalupe, Mother of a New Creation. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 1997

Lafaye, Jacques. Quetzalcoatl and Guadalupe: The Formation of Mexican National Consciousness, 1532-1815. Trans. Benjamin Keen. Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1976.

Peterson, Jeanette Favrot. Visualizing Guadalupe: From Black Madonna to Queen of the Americas. Austin: University of Texas Press 2014.

Poole, Stafford, Our Lady of Guadalupe: The Origins and Sources of a Mexican National Symbol, 1531-1797. Tucson: University of Arizona Press 1995.

Poole, Stafford, “History Versus Juan Diego,” The Americas 62, no. 1 (July 2005), 1-16.

Taylor, William B., “The Virgin of Guadalupe in New Spain: An Inquiry into the Social History of Marian Devotion.” American Ethnologist 14, no 1 (1987): 9-33.


This Webpage was created for a workshop held at Saint Andrew's Abbey, Valyermo, California in 2002....x....   “”.

APPENDIX B Chronology of Guadalupan Events

1474: An Indian named Cuauhtlatoatzin (“eagle that speaks”) is born in Cuautitlán.

1476: Juan de Zumárraga is born in Spain.

1492: Christopher Columbus discovers the Americas, when he makes landfall on an island he calls San Salvador.

1517: Martin Luther writes his Ninety-Five Theses, commencing the Protestant Reformation.

1517: Francisco Hernández de Córdoba discovers Mexico.

1519-1521: Hernán Cortes lands in Mexico and conquers the capital city of the Aztecs.

1522: The first missionaries, including Pedro de Gante, arrive in Mexico.

1524: Official missionary activity begins with the arrival of twelve missionaries in Mexico City.

1525: The Indian Cuauhtlatoatzin is baptized and receives the Christian name of Juan Diego (John James).

1526: Dominican missionaries arrive in Mexico.

1528: Friar Juan de Zumárraga arrives in the New World.

1528: The first civil government, called the First Audience, arrives in New Spain, headed by President Nuño de Guzmán.

1529: Juan Diego’s wife, María Lucía, dies.

1529, August 27: Problems arise between the First Audience officials and the evangelizing missionaries.

1530: There is a plot to assassinate bishop-elect Juan de Zumárraga, but he escapes harm.

1531: A series of natural events, including earthquakes, the appearance of Halley’s comet, and a solar eclipse, leads the Indians to believe the world is about to end.

1531, December 9-12: During the winter solstice, Our Lady of Guadalupe appears to a Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin, and asks him to be her messenger. The tilma is presented to bishop-elect Juan de Zumárraga.

1531: The first chapel to Our Lady of Guadalupe of Tepeyac is built, and on December 26, the tilma with Our Lady of Guadalupe’s image is carried in procession to this first chapel.

1531: The Pregón del Atabal is composed, pairing pre-Conquest Aztec melodies with new words celebrating the procession of the tilma to the chapel on the Tepeyac.

1537, June 9: Pope Paul III issues the papal bull Sublimis Deus, which declares that Indians are able to receive the sacraments, encourages their catechesis, and defends their humanity.

1537: A junta eclesiástica is convened to consider modifications of the baptismal ceremony which had been proposed and practiced to accommodate the unusually large number of baptisms. These discussions would continue for a couple decades.

1541: The Franciscan friar Toribio de Benavente, an early historian of New Spain, writes that some nine million Indians had converted to Christianity.

1544, May 15: The uncle of Juan Diego, Juan Bernardino, dies.

1545: During a great drought and plague, a pilgrimage of young children goes to the Guadalupan shrine. c1545-1548: The Nican Mopohua, an account of the apparitions of Our Lady of Guadalupe, is written down by a mestizo named Antonio Valeriano.

1548: Both Juan Diego and Bishop Juan de Zumárraga die in the same year.

Mid- to late sixteenth-century: Three of the most important extent manuscripts are written. -The earliest extent manuscript of the Nican Mopohua is written; the manuscript now resides in the New York Public Library; -The Códice 1548 or Codex Escalada is composed on deerskin, depicting the two of the apparitions of Our Lady of Guadalupe at the Tepeyac and Juan Diego wearing the tilma with the image on it; this manuscript also contains the date of Juan Diego’s death, his name, a brief inscription in Náhuatl, and signatures of significant persons including Antonio Valeriano (author of the Nican Mopohua) and Sahagún; -The Codex Saville is written, a pictorial calendar in which a depiction of Our Lady of Guadalupe is place in the position representing the year 1531.

1555: In the Provincial Council, archbishop of Mexico, Alonso de Montúfar, formulates canons that indirectly approve the apparitions.

1555-1556 - The Chapel of the Tepeyac is put on the “Uppsala map” (named for the cityUppsalawhere the map is presently located.

1556: Archbishop Montúfar orders an investigation into the Guadalupan devotion during which several testimonies are taken that ultimately affirm the devotion as true expression of Christian faith and practices.

1556 - Archbishop Montúfar begins the construction of the second church in honor of Our Lady of Guadalupe.

1556: A chapel is built next to Juan Diego’s house in Cuauhtitlán and another is built in Tulpetlac c.1559: The daughter of Juan Martín García gives a detailed testimony about Juan Diego and his wife, María Lucía, including such details as where they were married and where they lived.

1562: A census, now located in the Basilica Museum, is conducted by Martín de Aranguren and speaks of the Virgin of Guadalupe.

1564: An image of Our Lady of Guadalupe is carried on the first formal expedition to the Philippine Islands.

1567: The new church begun by Archbishop Montúfar is completed.

1568: Bernal Díaz del Castillo, in his work Verdadera Historia del Conquista de la Nueva España, twice mentions the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Guadalupe and notes that many miracles took place there.

1568: The pirate Miles Philips describes the great devotion of the Spaniards and Indians to Our Lady of Guadalupe.

1568: Friar Bernardino of Sahagún writes of the growing popularity of devotion to Our Lady Guadalupe on Tepeyac.

1570: Archbishop Montúfar sends King Philip II of Spain a copy of the image of Our Lady of Guadalupe done in oil paints.

1571: Admiral Giovanni Andrea Doria carries a copy of the image of Our Lady of Guadalupe aboard his ship during the battle of Lepanto and later credits the Virgin of Guadalupe with the victory over the Ottoman Empire forces.

1573: The historian Juan de Tovar, who transcribed the story of the apparitions from an earlier source, probably that written by Juan González, Zumárraga’s translator, writes the “Primitive Relation.”

1576: Pope Gregory XIII extends indulgences and blessings to the chapel at Tepeyac.

1582: Two important documents in the File of Chimalhuacán Chalco, an exvoto (a sign of gratitude for a favor) and a sonnet, describe the apparitions of Guadalupe.

1589: In his Treatise on the History of the Indies, Suárez de Peralta speaks of the apparition of Our Lady of Guadalupe.

1590: The Nican Motecpana is written, providing an account of the apparitions and the virtuous life of Juan Diego.

1590: A sixteenth-century drawing that captures the apparition of Our Lady of Guadalupe to Juan Diego is completed.

1606: The first copy of the tilma, dated and signed by Baltasar de Echave, is made.

1615: The artist Johannes Stradanus creates a copper engraving of the apparition of Our Lady of Guadalupe and the miracles attributed to her intercession.

1622: A publication from Publicación de Diego Garrido captures the image of Our Lady of Guadalupe.

1647: The image of Our Lady of Guadalupe on the tilma is covered with glass for the first time.

1648: For the 100th anniversary of Juan Diego’s death, the priest Miguel Sánchez publishes Imagen de la Virgen María, Madre de Dios de Guadalupe, a work recounting in Spanish the apparition story.

1649: Luis Lasso de la Vega publishes Huei–Tlamahuicoltica, telling the story of the apparitions in Náhuatl and including earlier Náhuatl sources.

1650: The construction of the Indians’ parish is completed, and the chapel is now used as a sacristy.

1666, February 18-March 22: A formal inquiry and investigation are conducted by the Church in order to inquire into the apparitions at Guadalupe and the miraculous tilma. The Vatican latter confirms the quality of investigation, designating them on the level of an Apostolic Visitation.

1666: The Chapel of the Cerrito is built at the highest point on the Tepeyac.

1667: Pope Clement IX institutes the feast of Our Lady of Guadalupe on December 12

1689: Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora writes Piedad Heroyca de don Fernando Cortés, in which he speaks of the apparitions of Guadalupe.

1695: The first stone of the new sanctuary is laid, and the sanctuary is solemnly dedicated in 1709.

1723: Another formal investigation ordered by Archbishop Lanziego y Eguilaz is conducted.

1737: The Most Holy Mary of Guadalupe is chosen as the patroness of Mexico City.

1746: The patronage of Our Lady of Guadalupe is accepted for all of New Spain, which includes the regions from northern California to El Salvador.

1746: Pope Benedict XIV approves the building of the Our Lady of Guadalupe College.

1746: The knight Boturini Benaducci promotes the solemn and official coronation of the image.

1754: Pope Benedict XIV approves the Virgin’s patronage of New Spain and grants a Mass and Office proper to the celebration of her feast on December 12.

1756: The famous painter Miguel Cabrera publishes his study of the tilma and image in the book Maravilla Americana.

1757: The Virgin of Guadalupe is named patroness of the city of Ponce in Puerto Rico.

1757: Pope Benedict XV allows King Ferdinand VII to use the offices and Masses of Our Lady of Guadalupe in the Spanish territories.

1767: When the Society of Jesus is expelled from the Spanish territory, the Jesuits carry the image with them around the world.

1787: Dr. Jose Ignacio Bartolache conducts an experiment on the tilma’s miraculous preservation and commissions a group of artist to examine the Virgin’s image.

1795: During a routine cleaning of the image’s frame, acid is accidentally poured on the image of Our Lady of Guadalupe, yet miraculously the image is not damaged, except for a minor stain.

1810: Fr. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, leader of Mexico’s movement for independence, takes the image of Guadalupe as his flag.

1821: Agustín de Iturbide puts the Mexican nation in the hands of Our Lady of Guadalupe and proclaims her Patroness and Empress of Mexico.

1895: Many of the bishops from throughout the Americas attend the pontifically authorized coronation of Our Lady of Guadalupe.

1899: The First Plenary Council of Latin America takes place in Rome and recognizes the special protection of Our Lady of Guadalupe.

1900: Pope Leo XII proclaims that the offices and Masses of Our Lady of Guadalupe are to be celebrated in perpetuity.

1904: Pope Pius X elevates the Church of Our Lady of Guadalupe to a minor basilica.

1910: Pope Pius X declares Our Lady of Guadalupe Patroness of Latin America.

1911: A church is built on the site of Juan Bernardino’s home.

1921, November 14: A bomb placed beneath the image explodes, causing a great deal of damage within the basilica, but the tilma is unharmed.

1926-1929: The Cristeros, fighting against Mexico’s anticlerical government, adopt the battle cry: “Viva Cristo Rey, viva la Virgen de Guadalupe!” (“Long live Christ the King and Our Lady of Guadalupe!”). The North American episcopate and the Knights of Columbus support the persecuted Catholic Church in Mexico.

1926: For the first time, the feast of Our Lady of Guadalupe is celebrated at the Basilica without any priests participating, due to government restrictions on religion.

1928: A copy of the image is crowned in Santa Fe, Argentina.

1929: Photographer Alfonso Marcue makes the first documented discovery of an apparent reflection of a man’s head in the right eye of the Virgin.

1931: In celebration of the 400 anniversary of the apparitions, the infants baptized in the Archdiocese of Guadalajara this year are given the name Guadalupe or José Guadalupe.

1933: The day Our Lady of Guadalupe was first proclaimed Patroness of Latin America is commemorated in St. Peters Basilica in Rome.

1935: Pope Pius XI names Our Lady of Guadalupe Patroness of the Philippines.

1938: The president of the Holy Name Society in California declares Our Lady of Guadalupe to be the Queen of the New World, who should be honored by all Catholics in the United States and Canada.

1941: Delegates representing twenty countries gather at the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe to pray for peace. Among those attending is Archbishop John J. Cantwell of Los Angeles, who leads a delegation of American clergy to Mexico City and petitions that Our Lady of Guadalupe be named Patroness of the United States. The archbishop of Mexico City, Luis María Martínez, gives a small piece of the tilma to Archbishop Cantwell.

1945: Pope Pius XII declares that the Virgin of Guadalupe is the Queen of Mexico and Empress of the Americas and upholds the divine origins of her miraculous image.

1946: Pope Pius XII declares Our Lady of Guadalupe Patroness of the Americas.

1951: Carlos Salinas examines the image and finds the reflection of a man’s head in the right eye of the image of Our Lady.

1956 - Dr. Javier Torroella Bueno, an ophthalmologist, examines the eyes of the Virgin on the tilma and confirms the existence of a reflection in her eyes.

1958: Dr. Rafael Torija-Lavoignet publishes his study of the Purkinje-Sanson effect as exhibited in the Guadalupan image.

1961: Pope John XXIII prays to Our Lady of Guadalupe as the Mother of the Americas and calls her the mother of and teacher of the faith to all people in the Americas.

1962: Studying a photograph of the image enlarged twenty-five times, Dr. Charles Wahlig, O.D., announces the discovery of two images reflected in the eyes of the Virgin.

1962: During a diplomatic visit to Mexico, President John F. Kennedy and the first lady Jacqueline Kennedy attend Mass at the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe.

1966: Pope Paul VI sends a golden rose to the basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe.

1975: The glass covering the image is removed so another ophthalmologist, Dr. Enrique Graue, can examine the image.

1976: The new basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe, located four miles from central Mexico City, is dedicated.

1979: Pope John Paul II celebrates Mass in the sanctuary of Our Lady of Guadalupe during his first international pilgrimage.

1979: Dr. José Aste Tönsmann finds at least four human figures reflected in both eyes of the Virgin.

1981: The process of Juan Diego’s canonization is officially opened.

1988: The liturgical celebration of Our Lady of Guadalupe on December 12 is raised to the status of a feast in all dioceses in the United States.

1990, May 3-6: Jose Barragan Silva fractures his skull and sustains life-threatening injuries in a fall from a balcony, but is healed through the intercession of Juan Diego. This miracle would become the miracle that would further Juan Diego’s cause of canonization.

1990, May 6: Juan Diego is declared Blessed by Pope John Paul II at the Vatican. Later that year, Pope John Paul II returns to the Basilica in Mexico City to perform the beatification ceremony of Juan Diego.

1992: Pope John Paul II dedicates a chapel in honor of Our Lady of Guadalupe in St. Peter’s Basilica.

1999: Pope John Paul II proclaims Our Lady of Guadalupe as Patroness of the whole American continent.

1999: The tilma is examined as part of the investigation process for Juan Diego’s canonization.

2002, July 31: Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin is canonized by Pope John Paul II at the Basilica of Our Lady of Gaudalupe in Mexico City.

2003: A relic of the tilma tours the United States. The pilgrimage is organized by the Apostolate for Holy Relics and is sponsored by the Knights of Columbus and Holy Cross Family Ministries. The relic is then enshrined in the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels in Los Angeles.

2003: After the Juan Diego’s canonization, Archbishop Norberto Rivera Carrera founds the Guadalupan Studies Institute to bring together scholars to further study the Guadalupan event.

2007, May 13: On his first apostolic journey, while in Brazil, Pope Benedict XVI underscores the continuing significance of Our Lady of Guadalupe by addressing the Bishops of Latin America and the Caribbean with the words she once spoke to Juan Diego centuries before.


Hidden text: Virgin of Guadalupe. 16th century C.E., Oil and possibly tempera on maguey cactus cloth and cotton, Basilica of Guadalupe, Mexico City 


Marcos Cipac de Aquino (?–1572), informally known as Marcos the Indian, was a Roman Catholic Nahuatl artist in sixteenth-century Mexico, who may have been the painter of the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe. Art historian Jeanette Favrot Peterson has ventured "Marcos Cipac (de Aquino) was the artist of the Mexican Guadalupe, capable of executing a large Marian painting on cloth within a professional milieu that was abundantly stock to stimulate his innate artistry."[1]. The basis of her conjecture is evidence in the Anales de Juan Bautista, a manuscript housed in the Biblioteca Boturini of the Basilica of Guadalupe and translated and published in 2001.[2][3] Mexican scholars of the nineteenth century posited the painting's artist as Marcos Cipac de Aquino, including Joaquín García Icazbalceta in his "Carta acerca del Origen ce la Imagen de Nuestra Sra. de Guadalupe" (1883) and Francisco del Paso y Troncoso's "Noticia del indio Marcos y de otros pintores del siglo XVI" (1891).[4] There is some skepticism about the identification of the painting with Cipac Aquino.[5][6][7][8] He is identified a 1556 sermon, but referred to him only as Marcos. This sermon came to light only in 1888. Marcos de Aquino is credited with the painting also by Leoncio Garza-Valdés[9] on the basis of a scientific investigation.
Further reading[edit]
Peterson, Jeanette Favrot. Visualizing Guadalupe: From Black Madonna to Queen of the Americas. Austin: University of Texas Press 2014.
Poole, Stafford. Our Lady of Guadalupe: The Origins and Sources of a Mexican National Symbol, 1531-1797. Tucson: University of Arizona Press 1995
Reyes García, Luis Reyes. Anales de Juan Bautista. Mexico City: Biblioteca Lorenzo Boturini, Insigne y Nacional Bacilica de Guadalupe 2001.
Jump up ^ Jeanette Favrot Peterson, Visualizing Guadalupe: From Black Madonna to Queen of the Americas. Austin: University of Texas Press 2014, pp. 115-16, 118.
Jump up ^ Peterson, Visualizing Guadalupe, p. 287, fn. 25.
Jump up ^ Luis Reyes García, Anales de Juan Bautista. Mexico City: Biblioteca Lorenzo Boturini, Insigne y Nacional Bacilica de Guadalupe 2001.
Jump up ^ Peterson, Visualizing Guadalupe, p. 289, fn. 73.
Jump up ^ Stafford Poole, Our Lady of Guadalupe: The Origins and Sources of a Mexican National Symbol, 1531-1797. Tucson: University of Arizona Press 1995, p. 63.
Jump up ^ Mariano Cuevas, S.J., Historia de la iglesia en México, Mexico City: Patria S.A., vol. 4, p.21.
Jump up ^ Primo Feliciano Velázquez, La aparición de Sta. Ma. de Guadalupe. Mexico City: Patricio Sanz 1931, pp. 51-55m 402, 109.
Jump up ^ Dunning, Brian. "Skeptoid #201: The Virgin of Guadalupe". Skeptoid. Retrieved June 19, 2017.
Jump up ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2016-03-04.




Michelangelo, Last Judgment, Sistine Chapel. 1536-1541

The Hakluyt Edition project is preparing a 14-volume critical edition of Richard Hakluyt’s The Principal Navigations (1598–1600) for Oxford University Press.

Richard Hakluyt 1553 – 23 November 1616) was an English writer. He is known for promoting the English colonization of North America through his works, notably Divers Voyages Touching the Discoverie of America (1582) and The Principal Navigations, Voiages, Traffiques and Discoueries of the English Nation (1589–1600).


The next morning we departed from thence on our iourney towards Mexico, and so trauelled till wee came within two leagues of it, where there was built by the Spaniards a very faire church, called our Ladyes church, in which there is an image of our Lady of siluer and gilt, being as high, and as large as a tall woman, in which church, and before this image, there are as many lamps of siluer as there be dayes in the yeere, which vpon high dayes are all lighted. Whensoeuer any Spaniards passe by this church, although they be on horse backe, they will alight, and come into the church, and kneele before this image, and pray to our Lady to defend them from all euil; so that whether he be horseman or footman he will not passe by, but first goe into the Church, and pray as aforesayd, which if they doe not they thinke and beleeue that they shall neuer prosper: which image they call in the Spanish tongue, Nuestra sennora de Guadalupe. At this place there are certain cold baths, which arise, springing vp as though the water did seeth: the water thereof is somewhat brackish in taste, but very good for any that have any sore or wound, to wash themselues therewith, for as they say, it healeth many: and euery yeere once vpon our Lady day the people vse to repair thither to offer, and to pray in that Church before the image, and they say that our Lady of Guadalupe doeth work a number of miracles. About this Church there is not any towne of Spaniards that is inhabited, but certaine Indians doe dwell there in houses of their own countrey building.