Cassian, INSTITUTES, BK. 8
On the SPIRIT of ANGER (Indignation)

 Betrayal in the Garden, Athos

(tr. mod. in part by L.Dysinger, O.S.B: from  E.C.S. Gibson, , NPNF 2nd ser. , vol 11)

AUDIO LECTURE: Cassian on Anger (Inst. 8; see also Conf. 16)

1, The Damage done by Anger2-Never Pretend to Imitate Divine Indignation;    6-9 The Proper Use of Anger;    10-14. Never Cling to Anger;    16-19 Solitude Harms the Angry Soul;    20-22 Uproot All Anger From the Soul



CHAPTER 1. How our fourth conflict is against the sin of anger, and how many evils this passion produces.

CAPUT I. Quod quartum certamen aduersus irae sit uitium, et quanta mala generet haec perturbatio.



[1] The Damage done by Anger


1.1. IN our fourth combat the deadly poison of anger has to be utterly rooted out from the inmost corners of our soul. For as long as this remains in our hearts, and blinds with its hurtful darkness the eye of the soul,

I. Quarto quoque certamine est irae mortiferum uirus de recessibus animae nostrae funditus eruendum. Hac enim in nostris cordibus insidente et oculum mentis noxiis tenebris

[1] we can neither acquire right judgment and discretion, nor gain the insight which springs from an honest gaze, or ripeness of counsel,

[2] nor can we be partakers of life, or retentive of righteousness, or even have the capacity for spiritual and true light: for, says one, mine eye is disturbed by reason of anger. (Ps. 30 [31]:10)

obcaecante nec iudicium rectae discretionis adquirere nec honestae contemplationis intuitum nec maturitatem consilii possidere

nec uitae participes nec iustitiae tenaces, sed ne spiritalis quidem ac ueri luminis capaces poterimus exsistere, quia turbatus est, inquit, prae ira oculus meus.

[3] 1.2. Nor can we become partakers of wisdom, even though we are considered wise by universal consent, for anger rests in the bosom of fools. (Eccl. 7:10 [LXX]))

[4] Nor can we even attain immortal life, although we are accounted prudent in the opinion of everybody, for anger destroys even the prudent. (Prov. 15:1 [LXX])

 2. Nec sapientiae participes effici, tametsi sapientes omnium pronuntiari opinione uideamur, quia ira in sinu insipientium requiescit,

 sed ne uitam quidem inmortalitatis consequi poterimus, quamuis prudentes uideamur definitione hominum iudicari, quia ira perdit etiam prudentes.

[5] Nor shall we be able with clear judgment of heart to secure the controlling power of righteousness, even though we are reckoned perfect and holy in the estimation of all men, for the wrath of man worketh not the righteousness of God. (James 1:20)

[6] Nor can we by any possibility acquire that esteem and honour which is so frequently seen even in worldlings, even though we are thought noble and honourable through the privileges of birth, because an angry man is dishonoured. (Prov. 11:25 [LXX])

Nec iustitiae moderamina perspicaci discretione cordis ualebimus obtinere, licet perfecti sanctique cunctorum opinationibus aestimemur, quia ira uiri iustitiam Dei non operatur.

Ipsam quoque honestatis grauitatem, quae etiam uiris saeculi huius solet familiaris exsistere, nullo modo possidere poterimus, licet nobiles et honesti natalium praerogatiua putemur, qui uir iracundus inhonestus est.

[7] 1.3. Nor again can we secure any ripeness of counsel, even though we appear to be weighty, and endowed with the utmost knowledge; because an angry man acts without counsel. (Prov. 14:17 [LXX])

[8] Nor can we be free from dangerous disturbances, nor be without sin, even though no sort of disturbances be brought upon us by others; because a passionate man engenders quarrels, but an angry man digs up sins. (Prov. 29:22 [LXX])

 3. Consilii etiam maturitatem nullatenus ualebimus obtinere, quamuis graues et scientia summa praediti uideamur, quia iracundus agit sine consilio, sed nec quieti esse a perturbationibus noxiis,

nec poterimus carere peccatis, tametsi nequaquam nobis inquietudines ab aliis inferantur, quia uir animosus parit rixas, uir autem iracundus effodit peccata.

2-Never Pretend to Imitate Divine Indignation  



CHAPTER 2. Of those who say that anger is not injurious, if we are angry with those who do wrong, since God Himself is said to be angry.

CAPUT II. De his qui iram dicunt non esse noxiam, si delinquentibus irascamur, quia et ipse Deus irasci dicatur.



[2] Never Pretend to Imitate Divine Indignation


2. WE have heard some people trying to excuse this most pernicious disease of the soul, in such a way as to endeavour to extenuate it by a rather shocking way of interpreting Scripture: as they say that it is not injurious if we are angry with the brethren who do wrong, since, say they, God Himself is said to rage and to be angry with those who either will not know Him, or, knowing Him, spurn Him, as here: And the anger of the Lord was kindled against His people; (Ps. 105 [106]:40) or where the prophet prays and says, O Lord, rebuke me not in thine anger, neither chasten me in thy displeasure; (Ps. 6:2) not understanding that, while they want to open to men an excuse for a most pestilent sin, they are ascribing to the Divine Infinity and Fountain of all purity a taint of human passion.

II. Nonnullos audiuimus hunc animae perniciosissimum morbum ita excusare temptantes, ut eum detestabiliore interpretatione scripturarum extenuare gestirent, dicentes non esse noxium, si delinquentibus fratribus irascamur, siquidem ipse Deus contra eos, qui eum uel scire nolunt uel scientes contemnunt, furere atque irasci dicatur, ut ibi : Et iratus est furore Dominus in populum suum, uel cum orat propheta dicens : Domine, ne in furore tuo arguas me, neque in ira tua corripias me, non intellegentes, quod, dum hominibus occasionem pestiferi uitii uolunt concedere, inmensitati diuinae ac fonti totius puritatis iniuriam carnalis passionis admisceant.



CHAPTER 3. Of those things which are spoken of God anthropomorphically.

CAPUT III. De his quae in Deo ex nostrae naturae consuetudine nominantur.



3. FOR if when these things are said of God they are to be understood literally in a material gross signification,

III. Si enim haec, cum dicuntur de Deo, carnali et pingui secundum litteram significatione percipienda sunt,

[1] then also He sleeps, as it is said, Arise, wherefore sleepest thou, O Lord? (Ps. 43 [44]:23) though it is elsewhere said of Him: Behold he that keepeth Israel shall neither slumber nor sleep. (Ps. 120 [121]:4)

ergo et dormit, cum dicitur : Exsurge, quare obdormis, Domine? De quo dicitur : Ecce non dormitabit neque obdormiet, qui custodit Israhel,

[2] And He stands and sits, since He says, Heaven is my seat, and earth the footstool for my feet: (Isa. 46:1) though He measure out the heaven with his hand, and holdeth the earth in his fist. (Isa. 40:12)

et stat ac sedet, cum dicit : Caelum mihi sedes est, terra autem scabillum pedum meorum, qui metitur caelum palmo, et terram suo pugillo concludit,

[3] And He is drunken with wine as it is said, The Lord awoke like a sleeper, a mighty man, drunken with wine; (Ps. 77 [78]:65) He who only hath immortality and dwelleth in the light which no man can approach unto: (1 Tim. 6:16)

et crapulatur uino, cum dicitur : Et exsurrexit sicut dormiens Dominus, sicut potens crapulatus a uino, qui solus habet inmortalitatem et lucem habitat inacessibilem :

[4] not to say anything of the ignorance and forgetfulness, of which we often find mention in Holy Scripture:

ut praeteream ignorationem et obliuionem, quae de ipso legimus in scripturis sanctis frequenter inserta,

[5] nor lastly of the outline of His limbs, which are spoken of as arranged and ordered like a mans; e.g., the hair, head, nostrils, eyes, face, hands, arms, fingers, belly, and feet:

deinde liniamenta membrorum, quae tamquam de homine figurali et conposito describuntur, capillis scilicet, capite et naribus, oculis ac facie, manibus et brachio, digitis, utero pedibusque.

if we are willing to take all of which according to the bare literal sense, we must think of God as in fashion with the outline of limbs, and a bodily form; which indeed is shocking even to speak of, and must be far from our thoughts.

Quae omnia secundum uilem litterae sonum si uoluerimus admittere, Deum liniamentis membrorum et corporea figura conpositum, quod dictu quoque nefas est quodque absit a nobis, necesse est aestimari.



CHAPTER 4. In what sense we should understand the passions and human arts which are ascribed to the unchanging and incorporeal God.

CAPUT IV. Qualiter de affectibus membrisque humanis quae immutabili et incorporeo Deo ascribi legimus, sentiendum sit.



4.1. AND so as without horrible profanity these things cannot be understood literally of Him who is declared by the authority of Holy Scripture to be invisible, ineffable, incomprehensible, inestimable, simple, and uncompounded, so neither can the passion of anger and wrath be attributed to that unchangeable nature without fearful blasphemy.

IIII. Itaque ut haec secundum litteram non absque nefando sacrilegio possunt intellegi super eo, qui inuisibilis, ineffabilis, inconprehensibilis, inaestimabilis, simplex et inconpositus sanctarum scripturarum auctoritate definitur, ita ne furoris quidem et irae perturbatio illi indemutabili naturae sine ingenti blasphemia poterit coaptari.

[1] For we ought to see that the limbs signify the divine powers and boundless operations of God, which can only be represented to us by the familiar expression of limbs:

Nam huiuscemodi significatione membrorum diuinas efficientias Dei et inmensas operationes eius sentire debemus, quae nobis nisi per haec usitata membrorum uocabula nequeunt intimari.

[2] 4.2. by the mouth we should understand that His utterances are meant, which are of His mercy continually poured into the secret senses of the soul, or which He spoke among our fathers and the prophets:

2. Vt puta significatione oris conlocutionem eius, quae in arcanos animae sensus solet clementer infundi, uel quod in patribus nostris atque prophetis idem locutus sit agnoscamus.

[3] by the eyes we can understand the boundless character of His sight with which He sees and looks through all things, and so nothing is hidden from Him of what is done or can be done by us, or even thought.

In oculis inmensitatem perspicaciae, qua uniuersa perlustrat ac perspicit, et quod nihil eum ex his quae a nobis geruntur gerendaue sunt seu cogitantur lateat, scire possimus.

[4] By the expression hands, we understand His providence and work, by which He is the creator and author of all things;

Manuum nuncupatione prouidentiam et operationem, qua omnium ipse sit creator et conditor, sentiamus.

[5] the arms are the emblems of His might and government, with which He upholds, rules and controls all things.

Brachium quoque uirtutis et gubernationis eius insignia, qua cuncta sustentat, moderatur ac regit,

[6] And not to speak of other things, what else does the hoary hair of His head signify but the eternity and perpetuity of Deity, through which He is without any beginning, and before all times, and excels all creatures?

et ut de ceteris taceam, canities capitis quid aliud quam longaeuitatem deitatis et antiquitatem significat, qua sine ullo principio est et ante omnia tempora creaturas excedit uniuersas?

4.3. So then also when we read of the anger or fury of the Lord, we should take it not anthropopathos; i.e., according to an unworthy meaning of human passion, but in a sense worthy of God, who is free from all passion; so that by this we should understand that He is the judge and avenger of all the unjust things which are done in this world; and by reason of these terms and their meaning we should dread Him as the terrible rewarder of our deeds, and fear to do anything against His will.

 3. Ita igitur et de ira Dei uel furore cum legimus, non , id est secundum humilitatem humanae perturbationis, sed digne Deo, qui omni perturbatione alienus est, sentire debemus, scilicet quo per haec eum iudicem et ultorem omnium quae inique geruntur in hoc mundo possimus aduertere, et retributorem terribilem actuum nostrorum his uerborum significationibus formidantes contra illius uoluntatem quicquam timeamus admittere.

4.4. For human nature is wont to fear those whom it knows to be indignant, and is afraid of offending: as in the case of some most just judges, avenging wrath is usually feared by those who are tormented by some accusation of their conscience; not indeed that this passion exists in the minds of those who are going to judge with perfect equity, but that, while they so fear, the disposition of the judge towards them is that which is the precursor of a just and impartial execution of the law. And this, with whatever kindness and gentleness it may be conducted, is deemed by those who are justly to be punished to be the most savage wrath and vehement anger.

 4. Illos etenim timere consueuit humana natura, quos indignari nouit, et ueretur offendere : ut in nonnullis aequissimis iudicibus solet ab his, qui aliquo reatu suae conscientiae remordentur, ira ultrix timeri, non scilicet quod haec in animis eorum qui iuste iudicaturi sunt perturbatio consistat, sed quod ita metuentibus ille sentiatur affectus, qui pro exsecutione legum et examinatione iustitiae et aequilibratione procedit. Quae tamen quantalibet animi fuerit mansuetudine ac lenitate prolata, ab his, qui pro suo merito poena plectendi sunt, furor grauis et ira saeuissima iudicatur.

4.5. It would be tedious and outside the scope of the present work were we to explain all the things which are spoken metaphorically of God in Holy Scripture, with human figures. Let it be enough for our present purpose, which is aimed against the sin of wrath, to have said this that no one may through ignorance draw down upon himself a cause of this evil and of eternal death, out of those Scriptures in which he should seek for saintliness and immortality as the remedies to bring life and salvation. 9

 5. Longum est nec praesentis operis, si uoluerimus omnia quae de Deo humana significatione figuraliter in scripturis dicta sunt explanare. Haec ad praesentem necessitatem, quae contra furoris uitium pertinebant, dixisse sufficiat, ut nullus exinde sibimet occasionem morbi mortisque perpetuae per ignorantiam trahat, unde sanctitas et inmortalitas uitae salutisque remedia conquiruntur.



CHAPTER 5. How calm a monk ought to be.

CAPUT V. Cujus placiditatis monachum esse conveniat.



5. AND so a monk aiming at perfection, and desiring to strive lawfully in his spiritual combat, should be free from all sin of anger and wrath, and should listen to the charge which the chosen vessel gives him. Let all anger, says he, and wrath, and clamour, and evil speaking, be taken away from among you, with all malice. (Eph. 4:31) When he says, Let all anger be taken away from you, he excepts none whatever as necessary or useful for us. And if need be, he should at once treat an erring brother in such a way that, while he manages to apply a remedy to one afflicted with perhaps a slight fever, he may not by his wrath involve himself in a more dangerous malady of blindness. For he who wants to heal anothers wound ought to be in good health and free from every affection of weakness himself, lest that saying of the gospel should be used to him, Physician, first heal thyself; (Luke 4:23) and lest, seeing a mote in his brothers eye, he see not the beam in his own eye, for how will he see to cast out the mote from his brothers eye, who has the beam of anger in his own eye? (Cf. Matt. 7:3-5)

V. Itaque monachus ad perfectionem tendens et agonem spiritalem legitime cupiens decertare ab omni irae furorisque uitio alienus exsistat, et audiat quid sibi uas electionis praecipiat : Omnis, inquit, ira et indignatio et clamor et blasphemia tollatur a uobis cum omni malitia - cum dicit : omnis ira tollatur a uobis, nullam penitus uelut necessariam et utilem nobis excepit -, delinquentemque fratrem, si necesse est, ita curare festinet, ut, dum medellam leuiore forsitan febricula laboranti procurat inferre, non semet ipsum iratus taetriore morbo caecitatis inuoluat - oportet namque illum, qui alterius uulneri mederi cupit, omni languoris morbo alienum sanumque subsistere, ne illud euangelicum dicatur ei : Medice, prius cura te ipsum - ac uidens fistucam in oculo fratris sui trabem in oculo suo non uideat. Vel quomodo uidebit eicere fistucam de oculo fratris sui, qui trabem furoris gestat in oculo suo?

   3, [6-9] The Proper Use of Anger


[3] The Proper Use of Anger




CHAPTER 6. Of the righteous and unrighteous passion of wrath.

CAPUT VI. De injusta iracundiae commotione, vel justa.



6. FROM almost every cause the emotion of wrath boils over, and blinds the eyes of the soul, and, bringing the deadly beam of a worse disease over the keenness of our sight, prevents us from seeing the sun of righteousness. It makes no difference whether gold plates, or lead, or what metal you please, are placed over our eyelids, the value of the metal makes no difference in our blindness.

VI. Qualibet ex causa iracundiae motus efferuens excaecat oculos cordis et acumini uisuum exitialem ualidioris morbi ingerens trabem solem iustitiae non sinit intueri. Nihil interest, utrum aurea lammina plumbeaue seu cuiuslibet metalli oculorum obtutibus inponatur : differentiam caecitatis non facit pretiositas metallorum.



CHAPTER 7. Of the only case in which anger is useful to us.

CAPUT VII.. In quo tantummodo nobis ira sit necessaria, vel



7. WE have, it must be admitted, a use for anger excellently implanted in us for which alone it is useful and profitable for us to admit it, viz., when we are indignant and rage against the lustful emotions of our heart, and are vexed that the things which we are ashamed to do or say before men have risen up in the lurking places of our heart, as we tremble at the presence of the angels, and of God Himself, who pervades all things everywhere, and fear with the utmost dread the eye of Him from whom the secrets of our hearts cannot possibly be hid.

VII. Habemus sane irae ministerium satis commode nobis insertum, ad quod solum eam recipere utile nobis est ac salubre, cum contra lasciuientes cordis nostri motus indignantes infremimus et ea, quae agere confundimur coram hominibus uel proloqui, in latebras ascendisse nostri pectoris indignamur, angelorum scilicet ac Dei ipsius praesentiam ubique et omnia penetrantis oculumque eius tota formidine tremescentes, quem nequaquam possunt conscientiae nostrae latere secreta.



CHAPTER 8. Instances from the life of the blessed David in which anger was rightly felt.

CAPUT VIII. Quibus beati David exemplis ira salubriter assumatur.



8.1. AND at any rate (this is the case), when we are agitated against this very anger, because it has stolen on us against our brother, and when in wrath we expel its deadly incitements, nor suffer it to have a dangerous lurking place in the recesses of our heart. To be angry in this fashion even that prophet teaches us who had so completely expelled it from his own feelings that he would not retaliate even on his enemies and those delivered by God into his hands: when he says Be ye angry and sin not. (Ps. 4:5)

VIII. Vel certe cum contra hanc ipsam iram, cur nobis aduersus fratrem inrepserit, commouemur et irati letales instigationes eius extrudimus enc in adytis pectoris nostri noxias eam latebras habere permittimus. Taliter nos irasci etiam ille propheta docet, qui in tantum hanc e suis abegerat sensibus, ut ne inimicis quidem propriis et quidem a Deo sibi traditis maluerit reddere talionem irascimni, inquiens, et nolite peccare.

8.2. For he, when he had longed for water from the well of Bethlehem, and had been given it by his mighty men, who had brought it through the midst of the hosts of the enemy, at once poured it out on the ground: and thus in his anger extinguished the delicious feeling of his desire, and poured it out to the Lord, without satisfying the longing that he had expressed, saying: That be far from me that I should do this! Shall I drink the blood of those men who went forth on the danger of their souls? (2 Sam. 23:17)

 2. Ille etenim cum aquam de cisterna Bethlehem concupisset eamque a uiris fortibus per medias hostium cateruas suscepisset adlatam, protinus effudit in terram, et ita uoluptuosam concupiscentiae passionem iratus extinguens libauit eam Domino, et cupiditatis suae desideria non expleuit dicens : Propitius mihi sit Dominus, ne faciam hoc : num sanguinem hominum istorum, qui profecti sunt, et animarum periculum bibam?

8.3. And when Shimei threw stones at King David and cursed him, in his hearing, before everybody, and Abishai, the son of Zeruiah, the captain of the host, wished to cut off his head and avenge the insult to the king, the blessed David moved with pious wrath against this dreadful suggestion of his, and keeping the due measure of humility and a strict patience, said with imperturbable gentleness, What have I to do with you, ye sons of Zeruiah? Let him alone that he may curse. For the Lord hath commanded him to curse David. And who is he who shall dare to say, Why hast thou done this? Behold my son, who came forth from my loins, seeks my life, and how much more this son of Benjamin? Let him alone, that he may curse, according to the command of the Lord. It may be the Lord will look upon my affliction, and return to me good for this cursing to-day. (2 Sam. 16:10-12)

 3. Vel cum Semei in regem Dauid audiente eo lapides et maledicta coram omnibus inrogaret, uelletque Abisai filius Saruiae princeps militum conuicii regalis ultionem truncatione capitis eius explere, beatus Dauid aduersus diram suggestionem eius indignatione pia commotus humilitatis modum et patientiae rigorem inconcussa lenitate seruauit dicens : Quid mihi et uobis, filii Saruiae? dimittite eum, ut maledicat : Dominus enim praecepit ei ut malediceret Dauid : et quis est qui audeat dicere, quare sic fecerit? Ecce filius meus, qui egressus est de utero meo, quaerit animam meam : quanto magis nunc filius Iemini? Dimittite eum ut maledicat iuxta praeceptum Domini: si forte respiciat Dominus adflictionem meam, et reddat mihi bonum pro maledictione hac hodierna.



CHAPTER 9. Of the anger which should be directed against ourselves.

CAPUT IX. De ira adversus nosmetipsos suscipienda.



9. AND some are commanded to be angry after a wholesome fashion, but with our own selves, and with evil thoughts that arise, and not to sin, viz., by bringing them to a bad issue. Finally, the next verse explains this to be the meaning more clearly: The things you say in your hearts, be sorry for them on your beds: (Ps. 4:5) i.e., whatever you think of in your hearts when sudden and nervous excitements rush in on you, correct and amend with wholesome sorrow, lying as it were on a bed of rest, and removing by the moderating influence of counsel all noise and disturbance of wrath. VIIII. Iubemur itaque irasci salubriter, sed nobismet ipsis ac suggestionibus ascendentibus prauis, et non peccare, ad effectum scilicet eas noxium perducentes. Denique hunc eundem sensum euidentius explanat uersiculus sequens : Quae dicitis in cordibus uestris, et in cubilibus uestris conpungimini, id est quaecumque in cordibus uestris ingruentibus repentinis ac lubricis instigationibus cogitatis, consilii moderatione, omnem strepitum ac perturbationem furoris amouentes, uelut in cubili quietis positi conpunctione saluberrima emendate atque corrigite.
Lastly, the blessed Apostle, when he made use of the testimony of this verse, and said, Be ye angry and sin not, added, Let not the sun go down upon your wrath, neither give place to the devil. (Eph. 4:26) Denique beatus Apostolus usus huius uersiculi testimonio cum dixisset : Irascimini et nolite peccare, subiunxit : Sol non occidat super iracundiam uestram, neque detis locum diabolo.

If it is dangerous for the sun of righteousness to go down upon our wrath, and if when we are angry we straightway give place to the devil in our hearts, how is it that above he charges us to be angry, saying, Be ye angry, and sin not? Does he not evidently mean this: be ye angry with your faults and your tempers, lest, if you acquiesce in them, Christ, the sun of righteousness, may on account of your anger begin to go down on your darkened minds, and when He departs you may furnish a place for the devil in your hearts?

Si noxium est super iracundiam nostram occidere solem iustitiae et irati confestim diabolo locum damus in corde nostro, quomodo superius praecepit ut irascamur, dicens : Irascimini et nolite peccare? Nonne euidenter hoc dicit : irascimini uitiis et furori uestro, ne coniuentibus uobis sol iustitiae Christus incipiat propter iracundiam uestram mentibus obscuratis occidere et discedente illo locum diabolo in uestris cordibus praebeatis?

4. [10-14.] Never Cling to Anger  



[4] Never Cling to Anger




CHAPTER 10. Of the sun, of which it is said that it should not go down upon your wrath.

CAPUT X. De quo sole dicatur, ut non occidat super iracundiam vestram.



10. AND of this sun God clearly makes mention by the prophet, when He says, But to those that fear my name the sun of righteousness shall arise with healing in His wings. (Mal. 4:2) And this again is said to go down at midday on sinners and false prophets, and those who are angry, when the prophet says, Their sun is gone down at noon. (Amos 8:9) And at any rate tropically the mind, that is the nous or reason, which is fairly called the sun because it looks over all the thoughts and discernings of the heart, should not be put out by the sin of anger: lest when it goes down the shadows of disturbance, together with the devil their author, fill all the feelings of our hearts, and, overwhelmed by the shadows of wrath, as in a murky night, we know not what we ought to do. In this sense it is that we have brought forward this passage of the Apostle, handed down to us by the teaching of the elders, because it was needful, even at the risk of a somewhat lengthy discourse, to show how they felt with regard to anger, for they do not permit it even for a moment to effect an entrance into our heart: observing with the utmost care that saying of the gospel: Whosoever is angry with his brother is in danger of the judgment. (Matt. 5:22) But if it be lawful to be angry up till sunset, the surfeit of our wrath and the vengeance of our anger will be able to give full play to passion and dangerous excitement before that sun inclines towards its setting.

X. De quo sole per prophetam Deus euidenter commemorat ita dicens : Timentibus autem nomen meum orietur sol iustitiae, et sanitas in pinnis eius. Qui rursum peccatoribus et pseudoprophetis illisque qui irascuntur occidere dicitur in medio die dicente propheta : Occidet eis sol in meridie. Vel certe secundum tropicum sensum mens, id est siue ratio, quae pro eo, quod omnes cordis cogitationes discretionesque perlustret, sol merito nuncupatur, irae uitio non extinguatur, ne eadem occidente perturbationum tenebrae cum auctore suo diabolo uniuersum nostri cordis occupent sensum, et tenebris irae possessi uelut in nocte caeca, quid nos agere oporteat, ignoremus. Tali sensu hunc Apostoli locum institutis seniorum traditum nobis, quia necesse fuit quemadmodum de ira sentirent, licet longiore sermone protulimus : qui eam ne ad momentum quidem cor nostrum penetrare permittunt, illud euangelii omnimodis obseruantes : Qui irascitur fratri suo, reus erit iudicio. Ceterum si usque ad occasum solis licitum sit irasci, ante furoris satietas et ultrices irae commotionem poterunt noxiae perturbationis explere, quam sol iste ad locum sui uergat occasus.



CHAPTER 11. Of those to whose wrath even the going down of the sun sets no limit.

CAPUT XI. De his quorum iracundiae ne occasus quidem solis istius modum ponit.



11. BUT what am I to say of those (and I cannot say it without shame on my own part) to whose implacability even the going down of the sun sets no bound: but prolonging it for several days, and nourishing rancorous feelings against those against whom they have been excited, they say in words that they are not angry, but in fact and deed they show that they are extremely disturbed? For they do not speak to them pleasantly, nor address them with ordinary civility, and they think that they are not doing wrong in this, because they do not seek to avenge themselves for their upset. But since they either do not dare, or at any rate are not able to show their anger openly, and give place to it, they drive in, to their own detriment, the poison of anger, and secretly cherish it in their hearts, and silently feed on it in themselves; without shaking off by an effort of mind their sulky disposition, but digesting it as the days go by, and somewhat mitigating it after a while.

XI. Quid uero dicendum de his - quod quidem dicere sine mea confusione non possum -, quorum inplacabilitati ne hic quidem sol occidens terminum ponit, sed per dies eam plurimos protelantes atque aduersus eos, in quos commoti fuerint, rancorem animi reseruantes negant quidem se uerbis irasci, sed re ipsa et opere indignari grauissime conprobantur? Nam neque eos congruo sermone conpellant nec affabilitate eis solita conloquuntur, et in eo se minime delinquere putant, quod uindictam suae commotionis non expetant : quam tamen quia proferre palam et exercere aut non audent aut certe non possunt, in suam perniciem uirus iracundiae retorquentes concoquunt eam in corde taciti ac silentes in semet ipsis consumunt, amaritudinem tristitiae non uirtute animi protinus expellentes, sed digerentes processu dierum et utcumque pro tempore mitigantes.



CHAPTER 12. How this is the end of temper and anger when a man carries it into act as far as he can.

CAPUT XII. Quod hic finis tristitiae uel irae sit, ut hos quod praeualet unusquisque perficiat.



12. BUT it looks as if even this was not the end of vengeance to every one, but some can only completely satisfy their wrath or sulkiness if they carry out the impulse of anger as far as they are able; and this we know to be the case with those who restrain their feelings, not from desire of calming them, but simply from want of opportunity of revenge. For they can do nothing more to those with whom they are angry, except speak to them without ordinary civility: or it looks as if anger was to be moderated only in action, and not to be altogether rooted out from its hiding place in our bosom: so that, overwhelmed by its shadows, we are unable not only to admit the light of wholesome counsel and of knowledge, but also to be a temple of the Holy Spirit, so long as the spirit of anger dwells in us. For wrath that is nursed in the heart, although it may not injure men who stand by, yet excludes the splendour of the radiance of the Holy Ghost, equally with wrath that is openly manifested.

XII. Quasi uero non hic finis unicuique uindictae sit et abunde quis furori proprio uel tristitiae satisfecerit, si id, quod praeualet, ira instigante conpleuerit - quod hi quoque facere noscuntur, qui motus suos non adpetitu placiditatis, sed inopia cohibent ultionis : nihil enim inferre amplius his quibus irati sunt possunt, nisi ut cum eis affabilitate solita minime conloquantur -, aut quasi in effectu operis solummodo sit iracundia moderanda et non potius ab arcanis nostri pectoris eruenda, ne tenebris illius obscurati nec consilii salubris nec scientiae lumen admittere, sed nec templum Spiritus sancti, habitante in nobis spiritu nequam, ualeamus exsistere. Cohibitus enim in corde furor adstantes quidem homines non offendit, sed aeque Spiritus sancti splendidissimum iubar ac si prolatus excludit.



CHAPTER 13. That we should not retain our anger even for an instant.

CAPUT XIII Quod ne momentaneam quidem iram liceat retentari.



13. OR how can we think that the Lord would have it retained even for an instant, since He does not permit us to offer the spiritual sacrifices of our prayers, if we are aware that another has any bitterness against us: saying, If then thou bringest thy gift to the altar and there rememberest that thy brother hath aught against thee, leave there thy gift at the altar and go thy way; first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift. (Matt. 5:23, 24) How then may we retain displeasure against our brother, I will not say for several days, but even till the going down of the sun, if we are not allowed to offer our prayers to God while he has anything against us? And yet we are commanded by the Apostle: Pray without ceasing; (1 Thess. 5:17) and in every place lifting up holy hands without wrath and disputing. (1 Tim. 2:8) XIII. Aut quemadmodum uel ad momentum uult eam Dominus retentari, qui ne sacrificia quidem spiritalia orationum nostrarum permittit offerri, si uel alium contra nos aliquid rancoris habere cognoscimus, dicens : Si ergo offers munus tuum ad altare, et ibi recordatus fueris quod frater tuus habet aliquid aduersum te, relinque ibi munus tuum ad altare, et uade prius reconciliare fratri tuo, et sic ueniens offeres munus tuum? Quomodo ergo non dicam usque in dies plures, sed uel usque ad occasum solis istius permittimur contra fratrem retinere tristitiam, qui ne illo quidem aliquid habente aduersum nos orationes nostras Deo offerre concedimur? Quibus praecipitur ab Apostolo : Sine intermissione orate, et : In omni loco leuantes puras manus sine ira et disceptatione.

It remains then either that we never pray at all, retaining this poison in our hearts, and become guilty in regard of this apostolic or evangelic charge, in which we are bidden to pray everywhere and without ceasing; or else if, deceiving ourselves, we venture to pour forth our prayers, contrary to His command, we must know that we are offering to God no prayer, but an obstinate temper with a rebellious spirit.

Superest igitur, ut aut numquam oremus huiuscemodi uirus retinentes in cordibus nostris et apostolico huic praecepto siue euangelico, quo indesinenter et ubique iubemur orare, simus obnoxii, aut, si nosmet ipsos circumuenientes precem fundere contra eius interdictum praesumimus, non orationem Domino, sed rebellionis spiritu contumaciam nos eidem nouerimus offerre.



CHAPTER 14. Of reconciliation with our brother.

CAPUT XIV. De reconciliatione fraterna.



14. AND because we often spurn the brethren who are injured and saddened, and despise them, and say that they were not hurt by any fault of ours, the Healer of souls, who knows all secrets, wishing utterly to eradicate all opportunities of anger from our hearts, not only commands us to forgive if we have been wronged, and to be reconciled with our brothers, and keep no recollection of wrong or injuries against them, but He also gives a similar charge, that in case we are aware that they have anything against us, whether justly or unjustly, we should leave our gift, that is, postpone our prayers, and hasten first to offer satisfaction to them; and so when our brothers cure is first effected, we may bring the offering of our prayers without blemish. For the common Lord of all does not care so much for our homage as to lose in one what He gains in another, through displeasure being allowed to reign in us. For in any ones loss He suffers some loss, who desires and looks for the salvation of all His servants in one and the same way. And therefore our prayer will lose its effect, if our brother has anything against us, just as much as if we were cherishing feelings of bitterness against him in a swelling and wrathful spirit.

XIIII. Et quia plerumque seu laesos fratres et contristatos contemnimus uel certe non uitio nostro dicentes eos offensos despicimus, animarum medicus et occultorum conscius, occasiones iracundiae uolens radicitus a cordibus nostris euellere, non solum si laesi fuerimus iubet nos remittere et reconciliari fratribus nostris nullamque aduersus eos iniuriae seu laesionis memoriam retinere, sed etiam si illos aduersum nos seu iuste siue iniuste habere aliquid nouerimus, similiter praecepit, ut munus nostrum relinquentes, id est conpescentes orationes nostras, ad eorum prius satisfactionem tendere festinemus et ita fratris curatione praemissa orationum nostrarum munera inlibata deferre. Non enim ita nostris obsequiis communis omnium Dominus delectatur, ut, quod in uno adquirit, perdat in altero dominante tristitia. In cuiuslibet namque dispendio unum patitur detrimentum, qui eodem modo omnium famulorum suorum salutem desiderat et expectat. Et idcirco aeque habente aduersum nos fratre inefficax erit oratio nostra, ac si nos aduersus eum tumenti spiritu indignationis amaritudinem reseruemus.



CHAPTER 15. How the Old Law would root out anger not only from the actions but from the thoughts.

CAPUT XV. Quod vetus quoque lex iram non tantum de effectu, sed etiam de cogitatione convellat.



15. BUT why should we spend any more time over evangelic and apostolic precepts, when even the old law, which is thought to be somewhat slack, guards against the same thing, when it says, Thou shall not hate thy brother in thine heart; and again, Be not mindful of the injury of thy citizens; (Lev. 19:17, 18) and again, The ways of those who preserve the recollection of wrongs are towards death? (Prov. 12:28 [LXX]) You see there too that wickedness is restrained not only in action, but also in the secret thoughts, since it is commanded that hatred be utterly rooted out from the heart, and not merely retaliation for, but the very recollection of, a wrong done.

XV. Sed quid diutius praeceptis euangelicis atque apostolicis inmoramur, cum etiam uetus lex, quae aliquid habere remissionis uidetur, haec eadem praecaueat dicens : Ne oderis fratrem tuum in corde tuo, et iterum : Non eris memor iniuriae ciuium tuorum, et rursum : Itinera eorum qui memoriam retinent malefacti in mortem? Vides et ibi nequitiam non in opere tantum, sed etiam in arcanis cogitationibus resecari, cum de corde odium et iniuriae non solum retributio, sed etiam ipsa memoria radicitus iubetur euelli.

16-19 Solitude Harms the Angry Soul  



[5] Solitude Harms the Angry Soul




CHAPTER 16. How useless is the retirement of those who do not give up their bad manners.

CAPUT XVI. De superflua secessione eorum qui ab inemendatis moribus non recedunt



16. SOMETIMES when we have been overcome by pride or impatience, and we want to improve our rough and bearish manners, we complain that we require solitude, as if we should find the virtue of patience there where nobody provokes us: and we apologize for our carelessness, and say that the reason of our disturbance does not spring from our own impatience, but from the fault of our brethren. And while we lay the blame of our fault on others, we shall never be able to reach the goal of patience and perfection.

XVI. Interdum superbia uel inpatientia superati cum inconditos mores nostros atque inordinatos nolumus emendare, solitudinem nos desiderare conquerimur, tamquam ibi nullis nos concitantibus ilico uirtutem patientiae reperturi, excusantes neglegentiam nostram causasque commotionis non nostra dicentes inpatientia, sed fratrum uitio generari : dumque in alios erroris nostri uergimus causas, numquam ad patientiae ac perfectionis calcem ualebimus peruenire.



CHAPTER 17. That the peace of our heart does not depend on anothers will, but lies in our own control.

CAPUT XVII Quod tranquillitas cordis nostri non in alterius arbitrio, sed in nostra debeat ditione consistere.



17. THE chief part then of our improvement and peace of mind must not be made to depend on anothers will, which cannot possibly be subject to our authority, but it lies rather in our own control. And so the fact that we are not angry ought not to result from anothers perfection, but from our own virtue, which is acquired, not by somebody elses patience, but by our own long-suffering.

XVII. Summa igitur emendationis ac tranquillitatis nostrae non est in alterius arbitrio conlocanda, quod nequaquam nostrae subiacet potestati, sed in nostra potius dicione consistat. Itaque ut non irascamur, non debet ex alterius perfectione, sed ex nostra uirtute descendere, quae non aliena patientia, sed propria longanimitate conquiritur.



CHAPTER 18. Of the zeal with which we should seek the desert, and of the things in which we make progress there.

CAPUT XVIII. Quo studio eremum debeamus expetere.



18.1 FURTHER, it is those who are perfect and purified from all faults who ought to seek the desert, and when they have thoroughly exterminated all their faults amid the assembly of the brethren, they should enter it not by way of cowardly flight, but for the purpose of divine contemplation, and with the desire of deeper insight into heavenly things, which can only be gained in solitude by those who are perfect. For whatever faults we bring with us uncured into the desert, we shall find to remain concealed in us and not to be got rid of. For just as when the character has been improved, solitude can lay open to it the purest contemplation, and reveal the knowledge of spiritual mysteries to its clear gaze, so it generally not only preserves but intensifies the faults of those who have undergone no correction.

XVIII. Porro heremum perfectos omnique uitio purgatos oportet expetere, et excoctis ad purum in congregatione fratrum uitiis non pusillanimitatis perfugio, sed diuinae contemplationis obtentu et desiderio intuitus sublimioris intrare, qui non nisi in solitudine a perfectis solummodo poterit adprehendi. Quaecumque enim uitia incurata in heremum detulerimus, operta in nobis, non abolita sentientur. Solitudo namque sicut nouit emendatis moribus contemplationem purissimam reserare et intuitu sincerissimo spiritalium sacramentorum scientiam reuelare, ita eorum qui minus emendati sunt uitia non solum seruare, uerum etiam exaggerare consueuit :

18.2. For a man appears to himself to be patient and humble, just as long as he comes across nobody in intercourse; but he will presently revert to his former nature, whenever the chance of any sort of passion occurs: I mean that those faults will at once appear on the surface which were lying hid, and, like unbridled horses diligently fed up during too long a time of idleness, dash forth from the barriers the more eagerly and fiercely, to the destruction of their charioteer. For when the opportunity for practising them among men is removed, our faults will more and more increase in us, unless we have first been purified from them. And the mere shadow of patience, which, when we mixed with our brethren, we seemed fancifully to possess, at least out of respect for them and publicity, we lose altogether through sloth and carelessness.

 2. tamdiuque sibi patiens quis uidetur et humilis, donec nullius hominum conmisceatur consortio, ad naturam pristinam mox reuersurus, cum interpellauerit cuiuslibet commotionis occasio. Emergunt quippe ex eo confestim uitia quae latebant, et uelut equi infrenes certatim e suis repagulis otio longiore nutriti acrius ad perniciem aurigae proprii ferociusque prorumpunt. Magis enim exercitio usuque humano cessante efferantur in nobis uitia, nisi fuerint ante purgata, ipsamque umbram patientiae, quam possidere imaginarie permixti fratribus saltim pro eorum reuerentia et nota publica uidebamur, desidia securitatis amittimus.



CHAPTER 19. An illustration to help in forming an opinion on those who are only patient when they are not tried by any one.

CAPUT XIX. Qua conparatione aestimandi sint qui tunc tantum patientes sunt cum a nemine prouocantur.



19.1. BUT it is like all poisonous kinds of serpents or of wild beasts, which, while they remain in solitude and their own lairs, are still not harmless; for they cannot really be said to be harmless, because they are not actually hurting anybody. For this results in their case, not from any feeling of goodness, but from the exigencies of solitude, and when they have secured an opportunity of hurting some one, at once they produce the poison stored up in them, and show the ferocity of their nature. And so in the case of men who are aiming at perfection, it is not enough not to be angry with men.

XVIIII. Quasi uero uniuersa uirulenta serpentium genera uel ferarum, cum in solitudine suisque cubilibus inmorantur, non innoxia perseuerent. Nec tamen ex eo pronuntiari possunt innoxia, quia nulli noceant : hoc enim eis non affectus bonitatis, sed necessitas solitudinis confert. Quae cum laedendi nancta fuerint copiam, in semet ipsis reconditum uirus et animae feritatem protinus egerunt atque demonstrant. Ideoque perfectionem quaerentibus non sufficit contra hominem non irasci.

19.2. For we recollect that when we were living in solitude a feeling of irritation would creep over us against our pen because it was too large or too small; against our penknife when it cut badly and with a blunt edge what we wanted cut; and against a flint if by chance when we were rather late and hurrying to the reading, a spark of fire flashed out, so that we could not remove and get rid of our perturbation of mind except by cursing the senseless matter, or at least the devil.

 2. Meminimus enim in solitudine commorantibus nobis contra calamum, cum aut crassitudo eius aut exilitas displiceret, contraue scalpellum, cum incidenda hebeti acie segniter exsecaret, contraque silicem, si forte ex ea festinantibus nobis ad lectionem tardius scintilla ignis emicuit, ita indignationis inrepsisse motum, ut non alias perturbationem mentis quam uel contra insensibiles materias uel certe aduersus diabolum maledictione prolata digerere atque euaporare possemus.

19.3. Wherefore for a method of perfection it will not be of any use for there to be a dearth of men against whom our anger might be roused: since, if patience has not already been acquired, the feelings of passion which still dwell in our hearts can equally well spend themselves on dumb things and paltry objects, and not allow us to gain a continuous state of peacefulness, or to be free from our remaining faults: unless perhaps we think that some advantage and a sort of cure may be gained for our passion from the fact that inanimate and speechless things cannot possibly reply to our curses and rage, nor provoke our ungovernable temper to break out into a worse madness of passion.

 3. Quamobrem ad perfectionis dumtaxat rationem non satis proderit abesse homines, in quos ira moueatur cum, si patientia prius non fuerit adquisita, etiam erga res mutas exerceri similiter iracundiae possit affectus, qui residens in corde nostro nec iugem nos possidere tranquillitatis statum nec residuis uitiis carere permittet. Nisi forte in eo putemus commotionibus nostris lucrum aliquod uel remedium conparari, quod maledictionibus uel iracundiae nostrae minime res inanimae mutaeque respondeant et intemperantiam cordis nostri ad maiorem nequaquam prouocent exardescere furoris insaniam.

20-22 Uproot All Anger From the Soul




[6] Uproot All Anger From the Soul




CHAPTER 20. Of the way in which anger should be banished according to the gospel.

CAPUT XX. De amputanda ira secundum Evangelium.



20.1. WHEREFORE if we wish to gain the substance of that divine reward of which it is said, Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God, (Matt. 5:8) we ought not only to banish it from our actions, but entirely to root it out from our inmost soul. For it will not be of any good to have checked anger in words, and not to have shown it in deeds, if God, from whom the secrets of the heart are not hid, sees that it remains in the secret recesses of our bosom.

XX. Quapropter si illam summam diuini praemii cupimus adipisci, de quo dicitur : Beati mundo corde, quoniam ipsi Deum uidebunt, non solum haec e nostris actibus amputanda est, sed etiam de internis animae radicitus exstirpanda. Non enim ualde proderit iracundiae cohibitus furor in uerbo nec in effectum prolatus, si illum arcanis pectoris nostri Deus, quem secreta cordium non latent, inesse perspexerit.

20.2. For the word of the gospel bids us destroy the roots of our faults rather than the fruits; for these, when the incitements are all removed, will certainly not put forth shoots any more; and so the mind will be able to continue in all patience and holiness, when this anger has been removed, not from the surface of acts and deeds, but from the very innermost thoughts. And, therefore to avoid the commission of murder, anger and hatred are cut off, without which the crime of murder cannot possibly be committed. For whosoever is angry with his brother, is in danger of the judgment; (Matt. 5:22) and whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer; (1 John 3:15)

 2. Radices enim uitiorum potius excidi praecepit euangelicus sermo quam fructus, qui procul dubio euulsis fomitibus nequaquam ulterius pullulabunt : atque ita mens poterit iugiter in omni patientia et sanctitate durare, cum haec non de superficie operationis et actuum, sed de cogitationum fuerint euulsa penetralibus. Et idcirco ne homicidium perpetretur, ira odiumque succiditur, sine quibus homicidii crimen nullo modo ualebit admitti. Qui irascitur enim fratri suo, reus erit iudicio, et : Qui odit fratrem suum homicida est.

20.3. viz., because in his heart he desires to kill him, whose blood we know that he has certainly not shed among men with his own hand or with a weapon; yet, owing to his burst of anger, he is declared to be a murderer by God, who renders to each man, not merely for the result of his actions, but for his purpose and desires and wishes, either a reward or a punishment; according to that which He Himself says through the prophet: But I come that I may gather them together with all nations and tongues; (Isaiah 66:18) and again: Their thoughts between themselves accusing or also defending one another, in the day when God shall judge the secrets of men. (Rom. 2:15, 16)

 3. In eo scilicet quod eum corde cupiat interire, cuius cruorem propria manu uel telo apud homines minime fudisse cognoscitur, affectu irae homicida pronuntiatur a Domino, qui non solum pro operationis effectu, sed etiam pro uoluntatis ac uoti desiderio unicuique aut praemium reddet aut poenam, secundum illud quod ipse loquitur per Prophetam : Ego autem opera eorum, et cogitationes eorum : uenio ut congregem cum omnibus gentibus et linguis, et rursum : Inter se inuicem cogitationibus accusantibus aut etiam defendentibus, in die qua iudicabit Deus occulta hominum.



CHAPTER 21. Whether we ought to admit the addition of without a cause, in that which is written in the Gospel, whosoever is angry with his brother, etc.

CAPUT XXI. In eo quod in Evangelio scriptum est, qui irascitur fratri suo, etc., utrum recipiendum sit, quod adjectum est, SINE CAUSA.



21. BUT you should know that in this, which is found in many copies, Whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause, is in danger of the judgment, (Matt. 5:22) the words without a cause are superfluous, and were added by those who did not think that anger for just causes was to be banished: since certainly nobody, however unreasonably he is disturbed, would say that he was angry without a cause. Wherefore it appears to have been added by those who did not understand the drift of Scripture, which intended altogether to banish the incentive to anger, and to reserve no occasion whatever for indignation; lest while we were commanded to be angry with a cause, an opportunity for being angry without a cause might occur to us. For the end and aim of patience consists, not in being angry with a good reason, but in not being angry at all. Although I know that by some this very expression, without a cause, is taken to mean that he is angry without a cause who when he is angered is not allowed to seek for vengeance. But it is better so to take it as we find it written in many modern copies and all the ancient ones.

XXI. Sciendum tamen in eo, quod in quibusdam exemplaribus inuenitur : Qui irascitur fratri suo sine causa, reus erit iudicio, superfluum esse sine causa et adiectum esse ab his, qui amputandam iram pro iustis causis minime putauerunt, cum utique nullus quamlibet absque ratione commotus sine causa se dicat irasci. Quamobrem apparet ab eis adiectum, qui propositum non intellexerunt scripturae uolentis fomitem iracundiae omnimodis amputare nullamque indignationis occasionem penitus reseruare, ne, dum iubemur irasci cum causa, etiam sine causa irascendi nobis intromittatur occasio. Finis enim patientiae non in irascendo iuste, sed in penitus non irascendo consistit. Licet a quibusdam hoc ipsum quod dicitur sine causa ita interpretari sciam, quod scilicet sine causa irascatur is, cui expetere ultionem irato non liceat. Melius tamen est ita tenere, ut et nouella exemplaria multa et antiqua omnia inueniuntur esse perscripta.



CHAPTER 22. The remedies by which we can root out anger from our hearts.

CAPUT XXII Remedia quibus iram de cordibus nostris eradicare possimus.



22. WHEREFORE the athlete of Christ who strives lawfully ought thoroughly to root out the feeling of wrath. And it will be a sure remedy for this disease, if [:]

XXII. Quapropter athletam Christi legitime decertantem iracundiae motus radicitus oportet euellere. Cuius morbi haec erit medicina perfecta,

[1] in the first place we make up our mind that we ought never to be angry at all, whether for good or bad reasons: as we know that we shall at once lose the light of discernment, and the security of good counsel, and our very uprightness, and the temperate character of righteousness, if the main light of our heart has been darkened by its shadows:

[2] next, that the purity of our soul will presently be clouded, and that it cannot possibly be made a temple for the Holy Ghost while the spirit of anger resides in us;

ut primitus credamus nullo modo siue iniustis seu iustis ex causis licere nobis irasci, scientes nos discretionis lumen rectique consilii firmitatem, ipsam quoque honestatem et iustitiae moderamina protinus amissuros, si principale cordis nostri eius fuerit tenebris obscuratum,

tum deinde puritatem mentis nostrae mox proturbandam, templumque eam sancti Spiritus effici omnino non posse iracundiae in nobis spiritu commorante :

 [3] lastly, that we should consider that we ought never to pray, nor pour out our prayer to God, while we are angry.

[4] And above all, having before our eyes the uncertain condition of mankind, we should realize daily that we are soon to depart from the body, and that our continence and chastity, our renunciation of all our possessions, our contempt of wealth, our efforts in fastings and vigils will not help us at all, if solely on account of anger and hatred eternal punishments are awarded to us by the judge of the world.

postremo ut cogitemus nequaquam licere nobis orare nec iratos fundere preces ad Deum,

 et prae omnibus incertum statum condicionis humanae prae oculis habentes cotidie nos credamus e corpore migraturos, nihilque nobis continentia castitatis, nihil abrenuntiatione omnium facultatum, nihil diuitiarum contemptu, nihil ieiuniorum uigiliarumque laboribus conferendum, quibus propter iracundiam solam et odium ab uniuersitatis iudice supplicia promittuntur aeterna.


xcxxcxxc  F This Webpage was created for a workshop held at Saint Andrew's Abbey, Valyermo, California in 1990....x....   .