St. John Chrysostom

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HOMILY 15 on 1 TIMOTHY, conclusion

Engl. tr. based principally on: Alexander Roberts, and James Donaldson, , Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, First Series: Volume XIIITLG 001 2062.16   In epistulam i ad Timotheum (homiliae 1-18)  Migne, PG 62.586.17-47

Beloved, see how we are honored! yet some are so unreasonable and so ungrateful as to say, “Why are we endowed with free will?” But how in all the particulars which we have mentioned could we have imitated God, if there had been no free will? “I rule Angels”, He says, “and so do you, through Him who is the First-fruits. (1 Cor. 15:23.) I sit on a royal throne, and you art seated with Me in Him who is the First-fruits.” As it is said, “He has raised us up together and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus.” (Eph. 2:6.) Through Him who is the First-fruits, Cherubim and Seraphim adore you, with all the heavenly host, principalities and powers, thrones and dominions. Do not disparage your body, to which such high honors appertain, that the unbodied Powers tremble at it.”

  Ὁρᾶτε͵ ἀγαπητοὶ͵ πῶς τετιμή μεθα· καί τινες τῶν ἀλογίστων καὶ ἀγνωμόνων λέ γουσι͵ Διὰ τί τῆς προαιρέσεώς ἐσμεν κύριοι; Ταῦτα πάντα ὅσα διήλθομεν͵ ἐν οἷς δυνάμεθα μιμεῖσθαι τὸν Θεὸν͵ εἰ μὴ προαίρεσις ἦν͵ οὐκ ἂν ἦν ἡμῖν δυνατὸν μιμήσασθαι. ῎αρχω͵ φησὶν͵ ἀγγέλων ἐγὼ͵ καὶ σὺ διὰ τῆς ἀπαρχῆς. Ἐπὶ θρόνου κάθημαι βασιλικοῦ· καὶ σὺ συγκάθησαι διὰ τῆς ἀπαρχῆς· Συνήγειρε͵ῃ φησὶν͵ καὶ συνεκάθισεν ἡμᾶς ἐν δεξιᾷ τοῦ Πατρός. ῃ Προσκυνεῖ σε τὰ Χερουβὶμ καὶ τὰ Σεραφὶμ͵ πᾶσα ἡ ἀγ γελικὴ δύναμις͵ ἀρχαὶ͵ ἐξουσίαι͵ θρόνοι͵ κυριότητες διὰ τῆς ἀπαρχῆς. Μὴ κατηγόρει τοῦ σώματος͵ ὃ τοσαύτης ἀπολαύει τιμῆς͵ ὃ τρέμουσι καὶ αἱ ἀσώ ματοι δυνάμεις.

“But what shall I say? It is not only in this way that I have shown My love to you, but by what I have suffered. For you I was spit upon, I was scourged. I emptied myself of glory, I left My Father and came to you, who dost hate Me, and turn from Me, and art loath to hear My Name. I pursued you, I ran after you, that I might overtake you. I united and joined you to myself, “eat Me, drink Me,” I said.

Ἀλλὰ τί εἴπω; οὐ τούτοις τὸ φίλτρον ἐπιδείκνυμαι μόνοις͵ ἀλλὰ καὶ οἷς ἔπαθον. Διὰ σὲ ἐνεπτύσθην͵ ἐῤῥαπίσθην͵ τὴν δόξαν ἐκένωσα͵ τὸν Πατέρα εἴασα͵ καὶ πρὸς σὲ ἦλθον τὸν μισοῦντά με καὶ ἀποστρεφόμενον͵ καὶ οὐδὲ ἀκοῦσαι βουλόμενον τὸ ὄνομά μου· κατεδίωξα καὶ ἐπέδραμον͵ ἵνα σε κα τάσχω· ἥνωσά σε καὶ συνῆψα ἐμαυτῷ· Φάγε με͵ εἶπον͵ πίε με.

“Above I hold you, and below I embrace you. Is it not enough for you that I have thy First-fruits above? Does not this satisfy your affection? I descended below: Καὶ ἄνω σε ἔχω͵ καὶ κάτω συμπλέκο μαί σοι. Οὐκ ἀρκεῖ σοι͵ ὅτι σου τὴν ἀπαρχὴν ἔχω ἄνω; οὐ παραμυθεῖται τοῦτο τὸν πόθον; καὶ κάτω πάλιν κατέβην͵
I not only am mingled with you I am entwined in you. I am chewed, broken into minute particles, that the interspersion, and commixture, and union may be more complete. Things united remain yet in their own limits, but I am interwoven with you. I would have no more any division between us. I will that we both be one.” οὐχ ἁπλῶς μίγνυμαί σοι͵ ἀλλὰ συμ πλέκομαι͵ τρώγομαι͵ λεπτύνομαι κατὰ μικρὸν͵ ἵνα πολλὴ ἡ ἀνάκρασις γένηται καὶ ἡ μίξις καὶ ἡ ἕνωσις. Τὰ γὰρ ἑνούμενα ἐν οἰκείοις ἕστηκεν ὅροις· ἐγὼ δὲ συνυφαίνομαί σοι. Οὐ βούλομαι λοιπὸν εἶναί τι μέσον· ἓν εἶναι βούλομαι τὰ ἀμφότερα.


Homilies on John, Homily 44 (46) NPNF vol. 14

      Work #001 2062.15  to    Work #001 2062.153.10  2062.153 key 2062 153 wrk In Joannem (homiliae 1-88) cla Exeget. cla Homilet. xmt Cod typ Collection wct 227,691 cit Volumeƒpageƒline pag 23-482 ser MPG  59.260.31 - 59.262.20

[3.] Those men then at that time reaped no fruit from what was said, but we have enjoyed the benefit in the very realities.

Ἐκεῖ νοι μὲν οὖν οὐδὲν ἐκαρπώσαντο τότε ἐκ τῶν εἰρημέ νων· ἡμεῖς δὲ τῆς εὐεργεσίας δι΄ αὐτῶν τῶν ἔργων ἀπολελαύκαμεν.

Wherefore it is necessary to understand the marvel of the Mysteries, what it is, why it was given, and what is the profit of the action. We become one Body, and “members of His flesh and of His bones.” (Eph. v. 30.) Let the initiated [i.e. communicants] follow what I say. In order then that we may become this not by love only, but in very deed, let us be blended into that flesh.

Διὸ καὶ ἀναγκαῖον μαθεῖν τὸ θαῦμα τῶν μυστηρίων͵ τί ποτέ ἐστι͵ καὶ διατί ἐδόθη͵ καὶ τίς ἡ ὠφέλεια τοῦ πράγματος. Ἓν σῶμα γινόμεθα͵ καὶ μέλη͵ῃ φησὶν͵ ἐκ τῆς σαρκὸς αὐτοῦ͵ καὶ ἐκ τῶν ὀστέων αὐτοῦ.ῃ Οἱ δὲ μεμυημένοι παρακολουθείτωσαν τοῖς λεγομένοις. γ. ῞ιν΄ οὖν μὴ μόνον κατὰ τὴν ἀγάπην τοῦτο γενώ μεθα͵ ἀλλὰ καὶ κατ΄ αὐτὸ τὸ πρᾶγμα͵ εἰς ἐκείνην ἀνακερασθῶμεν τὴν σάρκα.

This is effected by the food which He hath freely given us, desiring to show the love which He hath for us. On this account He hath mixed up Himself with us; He hath kneaded up His body with ours, that we might be a certain One Thing, like a body joined to a head.

Διὰ τῆς τροφῆς γὰρ τοῦτο γίνεται ἧς ἐχαρίσατο͵ βουλόμενος ἡμῖν δεῖξαι τὸν πόθον͵ ὃν ἔχει περὶ ἡμᾶς. Διὰ τοῦτο ἀνέμιξεν ἑαυτὸν ἡμῖν͵ καὶ ἀνέφυρε τὸ σῶμα αὐτοῦ εἰς ἡμᾶς͵ ἵνα ἕν τι ὑπάρξωμεν͵ καθάπερ σῶμα κεφαλῇ συνημ μένον.

For this belongs to them who love strongly;

Τῶν γὰρ σφόδρα ποθούντων ἐστὶ τοῦτο δεῖγμα.

this, for instance, Job implied, speaking of his servants, by whom he was beloved so exceedingly, that they desired to cleave unto his flesh. For they said, to show the strong love which they felt, “Who would give us to be satisfied with his flesh?” (Job xxxi. 31.), And so Christ has therefore also done this [very thing], to lead us to a closer friendship, and to show His love for us: He hath given to those who desire Him not only to see Him, but even to touch, and eat Him, and fix their teeth in His flesh, and to embrace Him, and satisfy all their love. Let us then return from that table like lions breathing fire, having become terrible to the devil; thinking on our Head, and on the love which He hath shown for us. Parents often entrust their offspring to others to feed; “but I,” saith He, “do not so, I feed you with Mine own flesh, desiring that you all be nobly born, and holding forth to you good hopes for the future. For He who giveth out Himself to you here, much more will do so hereafter. I have willed to become your Brother, for your sake I shared in flesh and blood, and in turn I give out to you the flesh and the blood by which I became your kinsman.”

Τοῦτο γοῦν καὶ ὁ Ἰὼβ αἰνιττόμενος͵ ἔλεγε περὶ τῶν ἑαυτοῦ οἰκετῶν͵ οἷς ἦν οὕτω μεθ΄ ὑπερβο λῆς ποθεινὸς͵ ὡς προσφύναι ταῖς σαρξὶν αὐτοῦ ἐπι θυμεῖν. Ἐκεῖνοι γὰρ τὸν πολὺν αὐτῶν ἐνδεικνύμενοι πόθον ὃν εἶχον͵ Τίς ἂν δῴη ἡμῖν τῶν σαρκῶν αὐ τοῦ͵ῃ ἔλεγον͵ ἐμπλησθῆναι; ῃ Διὸ δὴ καὶ ὁ Χριστὸς αὐτὸ πεποίηκεν͵ εἰς φιλίαν ἡμᾶς ἐνάγων μείζονα͵ καὶ τὸν αὐτοῦ πόθον ἐπιδεικνὺς τὸν περὶ ἡμᾶς͵ οὐκ ἰδεῖν αὐτὸν μόνον παρέσχε τοῖς ἐπιθυμοῦσιν· ἀλλὰ καὶ ἅψασθαι͵ καὶ φαγεῖν͵ καὶ ἐμπῆξαι τοὺς ὀδόντας τῇ σαρκὶ͵ καὶ συμπλακῆναι͵ καὶ τὸν πόθον ἐμπλῆ σαι πάντα. Ὡς λέοντες τοίνυν πῦρ πνέοντες͵ οὕτως ἀπὸ τῆς τραπέζης ἀναχωρῶμεν ἐκείνης͵ φοβεροὶ τῷ διαβόλῳ γινόμενοι͵ καὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν τὴν ἡμετέραν ἐννοοῦντες͵ καὶ τὴν ἀγάπην ἣν περὶ ἡμᾶς ἐπε 59.261 δείξατο. Οἱ μὲν οὖν γεννήσαντες͵ πολλάκις ἑτέροις τρέφειν διδόασι τὰ τεχθέντα· ἐγὼ δὲ οὐχ οὕτω͵ φη σὶν͵ ἀλλὰ ταῖς σαρξὶ τρέφω ταῖς ἐμαῖς͵ ἐμαυτὸν ὑμῖν παρατίθημι͵ πάντας ὑμᾶς εὐγενεῖς εἶναι βουλό μενος͵ καὶ χρηστὰς ὑμῖν περὶ τῶν μελλόντων ὑπο τείνων ἐλπίδας. Ὁ γὰρ ἐνταῦθα ὑμῖν ἐκδοὺς ἑαυ τὸν͵ πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἐν τῷ μέλλοντι. Ἀδελφὸς ἠθέλησα ὑμέτερος γενέσθαι· ἐκοινώνησα σαρκὸς καὶ αἵματος δι΄ ὑμᾶς͵ πάλιν αὐτὴν ὑμῖν τὴν σάρκα καὶ τὸ αἷμα͵ δι΄ ὧν συγγενὴς ἐγενόμην͵ ἐκδίδωμι.

This blood causes the image of our King to be fresh within us, produces beauty unspeakable, permits not the nobleness of our souls to waste away, watering it continually, and nourishing it. The blood derived from our food becomes not at once blood, but something else; while this doth not so, but straightway waters our souls, and works in them some mighty power.

Τοῦτο τὸ αἷμα τὴν εἰκόνα ἡμῖν ἀνθηρὰν ἐργάζεται τὴν βασιλικὴν͵ τοῦτο κάλλος ἀμήχανον τίκτει͵ τοῦτο ἀπομαρανθῆναι τῆς ψυχῆς τὴν εὐγένειαν οὐκ ἀφίη σιν͵ ἄρδον αὐτὴν συνεχῶς καὶ τρέφον. Τὸ μὲν γὰρ ἀπὸ τῶν σιτίων ἡμῖν αἷμα γινόμενον͵ οὐκ εὐθέως τοῦτο γίνεται͵ ἀλλ΄ ἕτερόν τι· τοῦτο δὲ οὐχ οὕτως͵ ἀλλ΄ εὐθέως τὴν ψυχὴν ἀρδεύει͵ καὶ μεγάλην τινὰ δύναμιν ἐμποιεῖ.

This blood, if rightly taken, drives away devils, and keeps them afar off from us, while it calls to us Angels and the Lord of Angels. For wherever they see the Lord’s blood, devils flee, and Angels run together.

Τοῦτο τὸ αἷμα ἀξίως λαμβανόμε νον ἐλαύνει μὲν δαίμονας καὶ πόῤῥωθεν ἡμῶν ποιεῖ͵ καλεῖ δὲ ἀγγέλους πρὸς ἡμᾶς͵ καὶ τὸν Δεσπότην τῶν ἀγγέλων. ῞οπου γὰρ ἂν ἴδωσι τὸ αἷμα τὸ Δεσποτικὸν͵ φεύγουσι μὲν δαίμονες͵ συντρέχουσι δὲ ἄγγελοι.

This blood poured forth washed clean all the world; many wise sayings did the blessed Paul utter concerning it in the Epistle to the Hebrews. Τοῦτο τὸ αἷμα ἐκχυθὲν πᾶσαν τὴν οἰκουμένην ἐξέ πλυνε. Πολλὰ περὶ τοῦ αἵματος τούτου καὶ ὁ μακά ριος Παῦλος ἐν τῇ πρὸς Ἑβραίους ἐφιλοσόφησε.
This blood cleansed the secret place, and the Holy of Holies. And if the type of it had such great power in the temple of the Hebrews, and in the midst of Egypt, when smeared on the door-posts, much more the reality. Τοῦτο τὸ αἷμα τὰ ἄδυτα καὶ τὰ ἅγια τῶν ἁγίων ἐκά θηρεν. Εἰ δὲ ὁ τύπος αὐτοῦ τοσαύτην ἔσχεν ἰσχὺν͵ ἔν τε τῷ ναῷ τῶν Ἑβραίων͵ ἔν τε Αἰγύπτῳ μέσῃ͵ ταῖς φλιαῖς ἐπιχριόμενον· πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἡ ἀλή θεια.
This blood sanctified the golden altar; without it the high priest dared not enter into the secret place. Τοῦτο τὸ αἷμα͵ τὸ χρυσοῦν θυσιαστήριον ἡγί ασε· τούτου χωρὶς οὐκ ἐτόλμα ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς εἰς τὰ ἄδυτα εἰσιέναι·
This blood consecrated priests, this in types cleansed sins. But if it had such power in the types, if death so shuddered at the shadow, tell me how would it not have dreaded the very reality? τοῦτο τὸ αἷμα ἱερέας ἐχειροτόνει· τοῦτο ἀπέλουεν ἁμαρτίας ἐν τοῖς τύποις. Εἰ δὲ ἐν τοῖς τύποις τοσαύτην ἔσχεν ἰσχὺν͵ εἰ τὴν σκιὰν οὕ τως ὁ θάνατος ἔφριξε͵ τὴν ἀλήθειαν αὐτὴν͵ εἰπέ μοι͵ πῶς οὐκ ἂν ἐφοβήθη;
This blood is the salvation of our souls, by this the soul is washed, by this is beautiful, by this is inflamed, this causes our understanding to be more bright than fire, and our soul more beaming than gold; this blood was poured forth, and made heaven accessible. Τοῦτο ἡ σωτηρία τῶν ἡμετέρων ψυχῶν͵ τούτῳ λούεται ἡ ψυχὴ͵ τούτῳ καλλωπίζεται͵ τούτῳ πυροῦται͵ τοῦτο πυρὸς λαμ πρότερον ἐργάζεται τὸν νοῦν τὸν ἡμέτερον͵ τοῦτο χρυσίου φαιδροτέραν τὴν ψυχὴν ποιεῖ͵ τοῦτο ἐξεχύθη τὸ αἷμα͵ καὶ τὸν οὐρανὸν ἐποίησε βατόν.

[4.] Awful in truth are the Mysteries of the Church, awful in truth is the Altar. A fountain went up out of Paradise sending forth material rivers, from this table springs up a fountain which sends forth rivers spiritual. By the side of this fountain are planted not fruitless willows, but trees reaching even to heaven, bearing fruit ever timely and undecaying. If any be scorched with heat, let him come to the side of this fountain and cool his burning. For it quenches thirst, and comforts all things that are burnt up, not by the sun, but by the fiery darts. For it has its beginning from above, and its source is there, whence also its water flows. Many are the streams of that fountain which the Comforter sends forth, and the Son is the Mediator, not holding mattock to clear the way, but opening our minds. This fountain is a fountain of light, spouting forth rays of truth. By it stand the Powers on high looking upon the beauty of its streams, because they more clearly perceive the power of the Things set forth, and the flashings unapproachable. For as when gold is being molten if one should (were it possible) dip in it his hand or his tongue, he would immediately render them golden; thus, but in much greater degree, doth what here is set forth work upon the soul. Fiercer than fire the river boileth up, yet burneth not, but only baptizeth that on which it layeth hold. This blood was ever typified of old in the altars and sacrifices of righteous men, This is the price of the world, by This Christ purchased to Himself the Church, by This He hath adorned Her all. For as a man buying servants giveth gold for them, and again when he desireth to deck them out doth this also with gold; so Christ hath purchased us with His blood, and adorned us with His blood. They who share this blood stand with Angels and Archangels and the Powers that are above, clothed in Christ’s own kingly robe, and having the armor of the Spirit. Nay, I have not as yet said any great thing: they are clothed with the King Himself.

δ. Φρικτὰ ὄντως τὰ μυστήρια τῆς Ἐκκλησίας͵ φρι κτὸν ὄντως τὸ θυσιαστήριον. Ἀνέβαινεν ἐκ τοῦ πα ραδείσου πηγὴ͵ ποταμοὺς αἰσθητοὺς προχέουσα· ἀπὸ τῆς τραπέζης ταύτης ἄνεισι πηγὴ͵ ποταμοὺς ἀφιεῖσα πνευματικούς. Παρὰ ταύτην τὴν πηγὴν πε φυτευμέναι εἰσὶν͵ οὐκ ἰτέαι ἄκαρποι͵ ἀλλὰ δένδρα πρὸς αὐτὸν φθάνοντα τὸν οὐρανὸν͵ καρπὸν ἔχοντα ὥριμον ἀεὶ καὶ ἀμάραντον. Εἴ τις καυσοῦται͵ παρὰ ταύτην ἡκέτω τὴν πηγὴν͵ καὶ καταψυχέτω τὸ καῦ σος. Καὶ γὰρ αὐχμοὺς λύει͵ καὶ τὰ διακαῆ πάντα παραψύχει͵ οὐ τὰ ἐξ ἡλίου διακαιόμενα͵ ἀλλὰ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν βελῶν τῶν πεπυρωμένων. Καὶ γὰρ τὴν ἀρ χὴν ἄνωθεν ἔχει͵ καὶ τὴν ῥίζαν ἐκεῖθεν͵ ὅθεν καὶ ἄρ δεται. Πολλοὶ ταύτης οἱ ῥύακες τῆς πηγῆς͵ οὓς 59.262 ἀφίησιν ὁ Παράκλητος· καὶ μεσίτης ὁ Υἱὸς γίνεται͵ οὐ δίκελλαν ἔχων καὶ ὁδοποιῶν͵ ἀλλὰ τὴν διάθεσιν ἀνοίγων τὴν παρ΄ ἡμῖν. Αὕτη ἡ πηγὴ φωτός ἐστι πηγὴ͵ ἀναβλύζουσα ἀληθείας ἀκτῖνας. Ταύτῃ καὶ αἱ ἄνω παρεστήκασι δυνάμεις͵ πρὸς τὸ κάλλος ἐνορῶσαι τῶν ῥείθρων͵ ἐπειδὴ καὶ σαφέστερον ἐκεῖναι τῶν προκειμένων θεωροῦσι τὴν δύναμιν͵ καὶ τὰς μαρμαρυγὰς τὰς ἀπροσίτους. ῞ωσπερ γὰρ χρυσοῦ τηκομένου͵ ἄν τε τὴν χεῖρά τις ἐμβάλῃ͵ εἰ οἷόν τε ἦν͵ ἄν τε τὴν γλῶτταν͵ χρυσῆν εὐθέως αὐτὴν ἐποίη σεν ἄν· οὕτω δὴ καὶ πολλῷ πλέον ἐνταῦθα τὴν ψυ χὴν ἐργάζεται τὰ προκείμενα. Ἀναζεῖ μὲν γὰρ πυ ρὸς σφοδρότερον ὁ ποταμὸς͵ ἀλλ΄ οὐ καίει͵ ἀλλὰ βαπτίζει μόνον ὅπερ ἂν λάβῃ. Τοῦτο τὸ αἷμα ἄνω θεν προετυποῦτο ἀεὶ͵ ἐν θυσιαστηρίοις͵ ἐν δικαίων σφαγαῖς· τοῦτο ἡ τιμὴ τῆς οἰκουμένης͵ τούτῳ ἠγό ρασε τὴν Ἐκκλησίαν ὁ Χριστὸς͵ τούτῳ κατεκόσμη σεν αὐτὴν ἅπασαν. Καθάπερ γὰρ ἄνθρωπος οἰκέτας ὠνούμενος χρυσίον δίδωσι͵ καὶ καλλωπίσαι πάλιν αὐ τοὺς βουλόμενος͵ χρυσῷ τοῦτο ποιεῖ·




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