Oration 45

 Anastasis - Easter Icon

Engl. adapted from: NPNF VII, pp. 309 ff. Greek PG 36.624-664

References to theosis in: §3 (converse with us as gods); §7 (our deification by inclination); §9 (Christ’s humanity deified by his divinity).

The Office of Readings, Saturday, Lent Week 5. Oration 45, 23-24; PG 36, 654-655.
Tuesday, Advent Week 1, Oration. 45, 9, 22. 26. 28





1. I will stand upon my watch, (Hab. 2. 1). says the venerable Habakkuk; and I will take my post beside him today on the authority and observation which was given me of the Spirit; and I will look forth, and will observe what shall be said to me. Well, I have taken my stand, and looked forth; and behold a man riding on the clouds and he is very high, and his countenance is as the countenance of Angel, (Judg. 13. 6). and his vesture as the brightness of piercing lightning; and he lifts his hand toward the East, and cries with a loud voice. His voice is like the voice of a trumpet; and round about Him is as it were a multitude of the Heavenly Host; and he says, Today is salvation come unto the world, to that which is visible, and to that which is invisible.

Α. Ἐπὶ τῆς φυλακῆς μου στήσομαι͵ φησὶν ὁ θαυμάσιος Ἀββακούμ. Κἀγὼ μετ΄ αὐτοῦ σήμερον͵ τῆς δεδομένης μοι παρὰ τοῦ Πνεύματος ἐξουσίας καὶ θεωρίας͵ καὶ ἀποσκοπεύσω καὶ γνώσομαι͵ τί ὀφθήσεται͵ καὶ τί λαληθήσεταί μοι. Καὶ ἔστην͵ καὶ ἀπεσκόπευσα· καὶ ἰδοὺ ἀνὴρ ἐπιβεβηκὼς ἐπὶ τῶν νεφελῶν͵ καὶ οὗτος ὑψηλὸς σφόδρα· καὶ ἡ ὅρασις αὐτοῦ͵ ὡς ὅρασις ἀγγέλου· καὶ ἡ στολὴ αὐτοῦ͵ ὡς φέγγος ἀστραπῆς διερχομένης· καὶ ἐπῆρε τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦ κατ΄ ἀνατολὰς͵ καὶ ἐβόησε φωνῇ μεγάλῃ. Φωνὴ αὐτοῦ͵ ὡς φωνὴ σάλπιγγος· καὶ κύκλῳ αὐτοῦ͵ ὡς πλῆθος οὐρανίου στρατιᾶς͵ καὶ εἶπε· Σήμερον σωτηρία τῷ κόσμῳ͵ ὅσος τε ὁρατὸς͵ καὶ ὅσος ἀόρα τος.

Christ is risen from the dead,

rise with [Him].

Christ has returned to Himself

return [to yourself].

Christ is [freed] from the tomb:

be freed from the chains of sin.

Χριστὸς ἐκ νεκρῶν͵

Χριστὸς εἰς ἑαυτὸν͵

Χριστὸς ἐκ τάφων͵
ἐλευθερώθητε τῶν δεσμῶν τῆς ἁμαρτίας.

The gates of hell are opened, and death is destroyed, and the old Adam is put aside, and the New is fulfilled; if any man be in Christ he is a new creature; (2 Cor. 5. 17).

be renewed.

Πύλαι ᾅδου ἀνοίγονται͵ καὶ θάνατος καταλύεται͵ καὶ ὁ παλαιὸς Ἀδὰμ ἀποτίθεται͵ καὶ ὁ νέος συμπληροῦται· εἴ τις ἐν Χριστῷ καινὴ κτίσις͵


Thus he speaks; and the rest sing out, as they did before when Christ was manifested to us by His birth on earth, their glory to God in the highest, on earth, peace, goodwill among men.[1] And with them I also utter the same words among you. And would that I might receive a voice that should rank with the Angel’s, and should sound through all the ends of the earth.

Ταῦτα ὁ μὲν ἔλεγεν· οἱ δὲ ἀνύμνουν͵ ὅπερ καὶ πρότερον͵ ἡνίκα ἡμῖν ἐπεφάνη Χριστὸς διὰ τῆς κάτω γεννή σεως͵ τὸ͵ δόξα ἐν ὑψίστοις Θεῷ͵ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς εἰ ρήνη͵ ἐν ἀνθρώποις εὐδοκία. Μεθ΄ ὧν καὶ αὐτὸς ἐν ὑμῖν ταῦτα φθέγγομαι· εἴη δὲ καὶ φωνὴν λαβεῖν τῆς ἀγγελικῆς ἀξίαν͵ καὶ πάντα περιηχοῦσαν τὰ πέρατα.





2. The Lord’s Passover, the Passover, and again I say the Passover to the honour of the Trinity. This is to us a Feast of feasts and a Solemnity of solemnities[2] as far exalted above all others (not only those which are merely human and creep on the ground, but even those which are of Christ Himself, and are celebrated in His honour) as the Sun is above the stars.

Β. Πάσχα Κυρίου͵ Πάσχα͵ καὶ πάλιν ἐρῶ Πάσχα͵ τιμῇ τῆς Τριάδος. Αὕτη ἑορτῶν ἡμῖν ἑορτὴ͵ καὶ πανήγυρις πανηγύρεων͵ τοσοῦτον ὑπεραίρουσα πά σας͵ οὐ τὰς ἀνθρωπικὰς μόνον καὶ χαμαὶ ἐρχομέ νας͵ ἀλλ΄ ἤδη καὶ τὰς αὐτοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ ἐπ΄ αὐτῷ τελουμένας͵ ὅσον ἀστέρας ἥλιος.

Beautiful indeed yesterday was our splendid array, and our illumination, in which both in public and private we associated ourselves, every kind of men, and almost every rank, illuminating the night with our crowded fires, formed after the fashion of that great light, both that with which the heaven above us lights its beacon fires, and that which is above the heavens, amid the angels (the first luminous nature, next to the first nature of all, because springing directly from it), and that which is in the Trinity, from which all light derives its being, parted from the undivided light and honoured.

Καλὴ μὲν καὶ ἡ χθὲς ἡμῖν λαμπροφορία καὶ φωταγωγία͵ ἣν ἰδίᾳ τε καὶ δημοσίᾳ συνεστησάμεθα͵ πᾶν γένος ἀν θρώπων μικροῦ καὶ ἀξία πᾶσα͵ δαψιλεῖ τῷ πυρὶ τὴν νύκτα καταφωτίζοντες͵ καὶ τοῦ μεγάλου φωτὸς ἀντίτυπος͵ ὅσον τε οὐρανὸς ἄνωθεν φρυκτωρεῖ͵ κό σμον ὅλον αὐγάζων τοῖς παρ΄ ἑαυτοῦ κάλλεσι͵ καὶ ὅσον ὑπερουράνιον͵ ἔν τε ἀγγέλοις τῇ πρώτῃ φωτεινῇ φύσει μετὰ τὴν πρώτην͵ τῷ ἐκεῖθεν πηγά 36.625 ζεσθαι͵ καὶ ὅσον ἐν τῇ Τριάδι͵ παρ΄ ἧς φῶς ἅπαν συνέστηκεν͵ ἐξ ἀμερίστου φωτὸς μεριζόμενον καὶ τιμώμενον.

But today’s is more beautiful and more illustrious; inasmuch as yesterday’s light was a forerunner of the rising of the Great Light, and as it were a kind of rejoicing in preparation for the Festival; but today we are celebrating the Resurrection itself, no longer as an object of expectation, but as having already come to pass, and gathering the whole world unto itself. Let then different persons bring forth different fruits and offer different offerings at this season, smaller or greater…such spiritual offerings as are dear to God…as each may have power. For scarcely Angels themselves could offer gifts worthy of its rank, those first and intellectual and pure beings, who are also eye-witnesses of the Glory That is on high; if even these can attain the full strain of praise. We will for our part offer a discourse, the best and most precious thing we have—especially as we are praising the Word for the blessing which He hath bestowed on the reasoning creation. I will begin from this point.

Καλλίων δὲ ἡ σήμερον͵ καὶ πε ριφανεστέρα. Ὅσῳ χθὲς μὲν πρόδρομον ἦν τοῦ με γάλου φωτὸς ἀνισταμένου τὸ φῶς͵ καὶ οἷον εὐφροσύνη τις προεόρτιος. Σήμερον δὲ τὴν ἀνάστασιν αὐτὴν ἑορτάζομεν͵ οὐκ ἔτι ἐλπιζομένην͵ ἀλλ΄ ἤδη γεγενη μένην͵ καὶ κόσμον ὅλον ἑαυτῇ συνάγουσαν. Ἄλλος μὲν οὖν ἄλλο τι τῷ καιρῷ καρποφορείτω͵ καὶ δω ροφορείτω δῶρον ἑόρτιον͵ ἢ μικρὸν͵ ἢ μεῖζον͵ τῶν πνευματικῶν τε καὶ Θεῷ φίλων͵ ὅπως ἂν ἕκα στος ἔχῃ δυνάμεως. Τῆς γὰρ ἀξίας͵ μόλις ἂν καὶ ἄγγελοι τύχοιεν͵ οἱ πρῶτοι͵ καὶ νοεροὶ͵ καὶ καθαροὶ͵ καὶ τῆς ἄνω δόξης ἐπόπται καὶ μάρτυρες· εἴπερ καὶ τούτοις τὸ πᾶν ἐφικτὸν τῆς ὑμνήσεως. Ἡμεῖς δὲ λόγον εἰσοίσομεν͵ ὧν ἔχομεν τὸ κάλλιστόν τε καὶ τιμιώτατον͵ ἄλλως τε καὶ Λόγον ὑμνοῦντες͵ ἐπ΄ εὐεργεσίᾳ τῆς λογικῆς φύσεως. Ἄρξομαι δὲ ἐν τεῦθεν.

For I cannot endure, when I am engaged in offering the sacrifice of the lips concerning the Great Sacrifice and the greatest of days, to fail to recur to God, and to take my beginning from Him. Therefore I pray you, cleanse your mind and ears and thoughts, all you who delight in such subjects, since the discourse will be concerning God, and will be divine; that you may depart filled with delights of a sort that do not pass away into nothingness. And it shall be at once very full and very concise, so as neither to distress you by its deficiencies, nor to displease you by satiety.

Οὐδὲ γὰρ ἀνέχομαι͵ τοὺς περὶ τοῦ μεγάλου θύματος καὶ τῆς μεγίστης ἡμερῶν θύων λόγους͵ μὴ πρὸς Θεὸν ἀναδραμεῖν͵ κἀκεῖθεν ποιήσασθαι τὴν ἀρχήν. Καί μοι καθήρασθε καὶ νοῦν͵ καὶ ἀκοὴν͵ καὶ διάνοιαν͵ ὅσοι τρυφᾶτε τὰ τοιαῦτα (ἐπειδὴ περὶ Θεοῦ καὶ θεῖος ὁ λόγος)͵ ἵν΄ ἀπέλθητε τρυφήσαντες ὄντως τὰ μὴ κενούμενα. Ἔσται δὲ ὁ αὐτὸς πληρέστατός τε ἅμα καὶ συντομώτατος͵ ὡς μήτε τῷ ἐνδεεῖ λυπεῖν͵ μήτε ἀηδὴς εἶναι διὰ τὸν κόρον.





3. God [3] always was and always is, and always will be; or rather, God always Is. [4] For Was and Will Be are fragments of our time, and of changeable nature. But He is Eternal Being; and this is the Name He gives Himself when giving the Oracles to Moses in the Mount.

Γ. Θεὸς ἦν μὲν ἀεὶ͵ καὶ ἔστι͵ καὶ ἔσται· μᾶλ λον δὲ͵ ἔστιν ἀεί. Τὸ γὰρ ἦν͵ καὶ ἔσται͵ τοῦ καθ΄ ἡμᾶς χρόνου τμήματα͵ καὶ τῆς ῥευστῆς φύσεως· ὁ δὲ ὢν ἀεὶ͵ καὶ τοῦτο αὐτὸς ἑαυτὸν ὀνο μάζει͵ τῷ Μωϋσεῖ χρηματίζων ἐπὶ τοῦ ὄρους.

For in Himself He sums up and contains all Being, having neither beginning in the past nor end in the future…like some great Sea of Being, limitless and unbounded, transcending all conception of time and nature, only adumbrated by the mind, and that very dimly and scantily…not by what He is in Himself, but by what surrounds Him, [5] one image being got from one source and another from another,

Ὅλον γὰρ ἐν ἑαυτῷ συλλαβὼν ἔχει τὸ εἶναι͵ μήτε ἀρξά μενον͵ μήτε παυσόμενον͵ οἷόν τι πέλαγος οὐσίας ἄπειρον καὶ ἀόριστον͵ πᾶσαν ὑπερεκπίπτον ἔννοιαν͵ καὶ χρόνου͵ καὶ φύσεως· νῷ μόνῳ σκιαγραφούμε νος͵ καὶ τούτῳ λίαν ἀμυδρῶς καὶ μετρίως͵ οὐκ ἐκ τῶν κατ΄ αὐτὸν͵ ἀλλ΄ ἐκ τῶν περὶ αὐτὸν͵ ἄλλης ἐξ ἄλλου φαντασίας συλλεγομένης͵

and combined into some sort of presentation of the truth, which escapes us before we have caught it, and which takes to flight before we have conceived it, blazing forth upon our master-part, even when that is cleansed, as the lightning flash which will not stay its course does upon our sight…in order, as I conceive, by that part of it which we can comprehend to draw us to itself (for that which is altogether incomprehensible is outside the bounds of hope, and not within the compass of endeavour); and by that part of It which we cannot comprehend to move our wonder;

εἰς ἕν τι τῆς ἀληθείας ἴνδαλμα͵ πρὶν κρατηθῆναι φεῦγον͵ καὶ πρὶν νοηθῆναι διαδιδράσκον· τοσαῦτα περιλάμπον 36.628 ἡμῶν τὸ ἡγεμονικὸν͵ καὶ ταῦτα κεκαθαρμένον͵ ὅσα καὶ ὄψιν͵ ἀστραπῆς τάχος οὐχ ἱσταμένης· ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν͵ ἵνα τῷ ληπτῷ μὲν ἕλκῃ πρὸς ἑαυτὸ (τὸ γὰρ τελέως ἄληπτον͵ ἀνέλπιστον καὶ ἀνεπιχείρητον)· τῷ δὲ ἀλήπτῳ͵ θαυμάζηται·

and as an object of wonder to become more an object of desire;

and being desired, to purify;

and purifying to make us like God;

θαυμαζόμενον δὲ͵ ποθῆται πλέον·

ποθούμενον δὲ͵ καθαίρῃ·

καθαῖρον δὲ͵ θεοειδεῖς ἐργάζηται·

so that, when we have become like Himself, God may,

converse with us (to use a bold expression) as God with gods;

being united to us, and known by us;

τοιούτοις δὲ γενομένοις͵ ὡς οἰκείοις ἤδη

προσομιλῇ (τολμᾷ τι νεανικὸν λόγος)· Θεὸς θεοῖς

ἑνούμενός τε καὶ γνωριζόμενος·

and that perhaps to the same extent as He already knows those who are known to Him. (John 10. 15; 1 Cor. 13. 12)

καὶ τοσοῦτον ἴσως͵ ὅσον ἤδη γινώσκει τοὺς γινωσκομένους.

The Divine Nature, then, is boundless and hard to understand, and all that we can comprehend of Him is His boundlessness; even though one may conceive that because He is of a simple Nature He is therefore either wholly incomprehensible or perfectly comprehensible. For let us farther enquire what is implied by “is of a simple Nature?” For it is quite certain that this simplicity is not itself its nature, just as composition is not by itself the essence of compound beings.

Ἄπειρον οὖν τὸ θεῖον καὶ δυσθεώρητον· καὶ τοῦτο πάντη καταληπτὸν αὐτοῦ μόνον͵ ἡ ἀπειρία· κἄν τις οἴηται τῷ ἁπλῆς εἶναι φύσεως͵ ἢ ὅλον ἄλη πτον εἶναι͵ ἢ τελέως ληπτόν. Τί γὰρ ὂν ἁπλῆς ἐστι φύσεως͵ ἐπιζητήσωμεν. Οὐ γὰρ δὴ τοῦτο φύσις αὐτῷ͵ ἡ ἁπλότης· εἴπερ μηδὲ τοῖς συνθέτοις͵ τὸ εἶναι μόνον συνθέτοις.





4. And when Infinity is considered from two points of view, beginning and end (for that which is beyond these and not limited by them is Infinity), when the mind looks into the depths above, not having where to stand, and leans upon phænomena to form an idea of God it calls the Infinite and Unapproachable which it finds there by the name of Unoriginate. And when it looks into the depth below and at the future, it calls Him Undying and Imperishable. And when it draws a conclusion from the whole, it calls Him Eternal. For Eternity is neither time nor part of time; for it cannot be measured. But what time measured by the course of the sun is to us, that Eternity is to the Everlasting; namely a sort of timelike movement and interval, coextensive with Their Existence.

Δ. Διχῆ δὲ τοῦ ἀπείρου θεωρουμένου͵ κατά τε ἀρχὴν καὶ τέλος (τὸ γὰρ ὑπὲρ ταῦτα͵ καὶ μὴ ἐν τού τοις͵ ἄπειρον)͵ ὅταν μὲν εἰς τὸν ἄνω βυθὸν ὁ νοῦς ἀποβλέψῃ͵ οὐκ ἔχων ὅποι στῇ καὶ ἀπερείσηται ταῖς περὶ Θεοῦ φαντασίαις͵ τὸ ἐνταῦθα ἄπειρον καὶ ἀνέκ βατον͵ ἄναρχον προσηγόρευσεν· ὅταν δὲ εἰς τὸν κά τω͵ καὶ τὰ ἑξῆς͵ ἀθάνατον καὶ ἀνώλεθρον· ὅταν δὲ συνέλῃ τὸ πᾶν͵ αἰώνιον. Αἰὼν γὰρ͵ οὔτε χρόνος͵ οὔτε χρόνου τι μέρος· οὐδὲ γὰρ μετρητόν· ἀλλ΄ ὅπερ ἡμῖν ὁ χρόνος͵ ἡλίου φορᾷ μετρούμενος͵ τοῦτο τοῖς ἀϊδίοις αἰὼν͵ τὸ συμπαρεκτεινόμενον τοῖς οὖ σιν͵ οἷόν τι χρονικὸν κίνημα καὶ διάστημα.

This however is all that I must now say of God; for the present is not a suitable time, as my present subject is not the doctrine of God, but that of the Incarnation. And when I say God, I mean Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; for Godhead is neither diffused beyond These, so as to introduce a mob of gods, nor yet bounded by a smaller compass than These, so as to condemn us for a poverty stricken conception of Deity, either Judaizing to save the Monarchia, or falling into heathenism by the multitude of our gods. For the evil on either side is the same, though found in contrary directions.

Ταῦτά μοι περὶ Θεοῦ πεφιλοσοφήσθω τανῦν. Οὐδὲ γὰρ ὑπὲρ ταῦτα καιρὸς͵ ὅτι μὴ θεολογία τὸ προκείμενον ἡμῖν͵ ἀλλ΄ οἰκονομία. Θεοῦ δὲ ὅταν εἴπω͵ λέγω Πατρὸς͵ καὶ Υἱοῦ͵ καὶ ἁγίου Πνεύματος· οὔτε ὑπὲρ ταῦτα τῆς θεότητος χεομένης͵ ἵνα μὴ δῆμον θεῶν εἰσαγάγωμεν· οὔτε ἐντὸς τούτων ὁριζο μένης͵ ἵνα μὴ πενίαν θεότητος κατακριθῶμεν͵ ἣ διὰ τὴν μοναρχίαν Ἰουδαΐζοντες͵ ἢ διὰ τὴν ἀφθο νίαν Ἑλληνίζοντες. Τὸ γὰρ κακὸν ἐν ἁμφοτέροις ὅμοιον͵ κἂν ἐν τοῖς ἐναντίοις εὑρίσκηται.

Thus then is the Holy of Holies, Which is hidden even from the Seraphim, and is glorified with a thrice-repeated Holy meeting in one ascription of the title Lord and God, as one of our predecessors has most beautifully and loftily reasoned out.

Οὕτω μὲν οὖν τὰ Ἅγια τῶν ἁγίων͵ ἂ καὶ τοῖς σεραφὶμ συγκαταλύπτεται͵ καὶ δοξάζεται τρισὶν ἁγιασμοῖς͵ εἰς 36.629 μίαν συνιοῦσι κυριότητα καὶ θεότητα· ὅπερ καὶ ἄλλῳ τινὶ τῶν πρὸ ἡμῶν πεφιλοσόφηται κάλλι στά τε καὶ ὑψηλότατα.





5. But since this movement of Self-contemplation alone could not satisfy Goodness, but Good must be poured out and go forth beyond Itself, to multiply the objects of Its beneficence (for this was essential to the highest Goodness), He first conceived the Angelic and Heavenly Powers. And this conception was a work fulfilled by His Word and perfected by His Spirit.

Ε. Ἐπεὶ δὲ οὐκ ἤρκει τῇ ἀγαθότητι τοῦτο͵ τὸ κινεῖσθαι μόνον τῇ ἑαυτῆς θεωρίᾳ͵ ἀλλ΄ ἔδει χεθῆναι τὸ ἀγαθὸν καὶ ὁδεῦσαι͵ ὡς πλείονα εἶναι τὰ εὐεργε τούμενα (τοῦτο γὰρ τῆς ἄκρας ἦν ἀγαθότητος)· πρῶ τον μὲν ἐννοεῖ τὰς ἀγγελικὰς δυνάμεις καὶ οὐρα νίους· καὶ τὸ ἐννόημα ἔργον ἦν͵ Λόγῳ συμπληρού μενον͵ καὶ Πνεύματι τελειούμενον·

And so the Secondary Splendours came into being, as the ministers of the Primary Splendour (whether we are to conceive of them as intelligent Spirits, or as Fire of an immaterial and incorporeal kind, or as some other nature approaching this as near as may be).

καὶ οὕτως ὑπ έστησαν λαμπρότητες δεύτεραι͵ λειτουργοὶ τῆς πρώ της λαμπρότητος͵ εἴτε νοερὰ πνεύματα͵ εἴτε πῦρ͵ οἷον ἄϋλον καὶ ἀσώματον͵ εἴτε τινὰ φύσιν ἄλλην ὅτι ἐγγυτάτω τῶν εἰρημένων͵ ταύτας ὑπολη πτέον.

I should like to say that they are incapable of movement in the direction of evil, and susceptible only of the movement of good, as being about God and illuminated with the first Rays from God (for earthly beings have but the second illumination), but I am obliged to stop short of saying that they are immovable, and to conceive and speak of them as only difficult to move, because of him who for His Splendour was called Lucifer, but became and is called Darkness through his pride; and the Apostate Hosts who are subject to him, creators of evil by their revolt against good, and our inciters.

Βούλομαι μὲν εἰπεῖν͵ ὅτι ἀκινήτους πρὸς τὸ κακὸν͵ καὶ μόνην ἐχούσας τὴν τοῦ καλοῦ κίνησιν͵ ἅτε περὶ Θεὸν οὔσας͵ καὶ τὰ πρῶτα ἐκ Θεοῦ λαμπο μένας (τὰ γὰρ ἐνταῦθα δευτέρας ἐλλάμψεως)· πείθει δέ με͵ μὴ ἀκινήτους͵ ἀλλὰ δυσκινήτους͵ καὶ ὑπολαμβάνειν ταύτας καὶ λέγειν͵ ὁ διὰ τὴν λαμπρό τητα Ἑωσφόρος͵ σκότος διὰ τὴν ἔπαρσιν καὶ γενό μενος καὶ λεγόμενος͵ αἵ τε ὑπ΄ αὐτὸν ἀποστατικαὶ δυνάμεις͵ δημιουργοὶ τῆς κακίας τῇ τοῦ καλοῦ φυγῇ͵ καὶ ἡμῖν πρόξενοι. .





6. Thus then and for these reasons, He gave being to the world of thought, as far as I can reason on these matters, and estimate great things in my own poor language.

Οὕτω μὲν οὖν ὁ νοητὸς αὐτῷ καὶ διὰ ταῦτα ὑπέστη κόσμος͵ ὡς ἐμὲ γοῦν περὶ τούτων φιλοσο φῆσαι͵ μικρῷ λόγῳ τὰ μεγάλα σταθμώμενον.

Then, when His first Creation was in good order, He conceives a second world, material and visible; and this a system of earth and sky and all that is in the midst of them; an admirable creation indeed when we look at the fair form of every part, but yet more worthy of admiration when we consider the harmony and unison of the whole, and how each part fits in with every other in fair order, and all with the whole, tending to the perfect completion of the world as a Unit. This was to shew that He could call into being not only a nature akin to Himself, but also one altogether alien to Him .

Ἐπεὶ δὲ τὰ πρῶτα καλῶς εἶχεν αὐτῷ͵ δεύτερον ἐννοεῖ κόσμον͵ ὑλικὸν καὶ ὁρώμενον· καὶ οὗτός ἐστι͵ τὸ ἐξ οὐρανοῦ͵ καὶ γῆς͵ καὶ τῶν ἐν μέσῳ σύστημά τε καὶ σύγκριμα· ἐπαινετὸν μὲν τῆς καθ΄ ἕκαστον εὐ φυΐας͵ ἀξιεπαινετώτερον δὲ τῆς ἐξ ἁπάντων εὐαρ μοστίας καὶ συμφωνίας͵ ἄλλου πρὸς ἄλλο τι καλῶς ἔχοντος͵ καὶ πάντων πρὸς ἅπαντα͵ εἰς ἑνὸς κόσμου συμπλήρωσιν· ἵνα δείξῃ͵ μὴ μόνον οἰκείαν ἑαυτῷ φύσιν͵ ἀλλὰ καὶ πάντη ξένην ὑποστήσασθαι δυνατὸς ὤν.

 For akin to Deity are those natures which are intellectual, and only to be comprehended by mind; but all of which sense can take cognizance are utterly alien to It; and of these the furthest removed from it are all those which are entirely destitute of soul and power of motion.

Οἰκεῖον μὲν γὰρ θεότητος͵ αἱ νοεραὶ φύσεις͵ καὶ νῷ μόνῳ ληπταί· ξένον δὲ παντάπασιν͵ ὅσαι ὑπὸ τὴν αἴσθησιν· καὶ τούτων αὐτῶν ἔτι ποῤῥωτέ ρω͵ ὅσαι παντελῶς ἄψυχοι καὶ ἀκίνητοι.





7. Mind then and sense, thus distinguished from each other, had remained within their own boundaries, and bore in themselves the magnificence of the Creator-Word, silent praisers and thrilling heralds of His mighty work. Not yet was there any mingling of both, nor any mixture of these opposites, tokens of a greater wisdom and generosity in the creation of natures; nor as yet were the whole riches of goodness made known. Now the Creator-Word, determining to exhibit this, and to produce a single living being out of both (the invisible and the visible creation, I mean) fashions Man; and taking a body from already existing matter, and placing in it a Breath taken from Himself (which the Word knew to be an intelligent soul, and the image of God), as a sort of second world, great in littleness, He placed him on the earth, a new Angel, a mingled worshipper, fully initiated into the visible creation, but only partially into the intellectual; king of all upon earth, but subject to the King above; earthly and heavenly; temporal and yet immortal; visible and yet intellectual; halfway between greatness and lowliness; in one person combining spirit and flesh; spirit because of the favour bestowed on him, flesh on account of the height to which he had been raised; the one that he might continue to live and glorify his benefactor, the other that he might suffer, and by suffering be put in remembrance, and be corrected if he became proud in his greatness;

Ζ. Νοῦς μὲν οὖν ἤδη καὶ αἴσθησις͵ οὕτως ἀπ΄ ἀλλήλων διακριθέντα͵ τῶν ἰδίων ὅρων ἐντὸς 36.632 εἱστήκεισαν͵ καὶ τὸ τοῦ δημιουργοῦ Λόγου μεγαλεῖον ἐν ἑαυτοῖς ἔφερον͵ σιγῶντες ἐπαινέται τῆς μεγα λουργίας͵ καὶ διαπρύσιοι κήρυκες. Οὔπω δὲ ἦν κρᾶ μα ἐξ ἀμφοτέρων͵ οὐδέ τις μίξις τῶν ἐναντίων͵ σο φίας μείζονος γνώρισμα καὶ τῆς περὶ τὰς φύσεις πολυτελείας· οὐδὲ ὁ πᾶς πλοῦτος τῆς ἀγαθότητος γνώριμος. Τοῦτο δὴ βουληθεὶς ὁ τεχνίτης ἐπιδεί ξασθαι Λόγος͵ καὶ ζῶον ἓν ἐξ ἀμφοτέρων͵ ἀοράτου τε λέγω καὶ ὁρατῆς φύσεως͵ δημιουργεῖ͵ τὸν ἄνθρω πον· καὶ παρὰ μὲν τῆς ὕλης λαβὼν τὸ σῶμα ἤδη προϋποστάσης͵ παρ΄ ἑαυτοῦ δὲ πνοὴν ἐνθεὶς (ὃ δὴ νοερὰν ψυχὴν καὶ εἰκόνα Θεοῦ οἶδεν ὁ λόγος)͵ οἷόν τινα κόσμον ἕτερον͵ ἐν μικρῷ μέγαν͵ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἵστησιν͵ ἄγγελον ἄλλον͵ προσκυνητὴν μικτὸν͵ ἐπόπτην τῆς ὁρατῆς κτίσεως͵ μύστην τῆς νοουμένης͵ βασιλέα τῶν ἐπὶ γῆς͵ βασιλευόμενον ἄνωθεν͵ ἐπί γειον καὶ οὐράνιον͵ πρόσκαιρον καὶ ἀθάνατον͵ ὁρα τὸν καὶ νοούμενον͵ μέσον μεγέθους καὶ ταπει νότητος͵ τὸν αὐτὸν πνεῦμα καὶ σάρκα· πνεῦμα διὰ τὴν χάριν͵ σάρκα διὰ τὴν ἔπαρσιν· τὸ μὲν͵ ἵνα μέ νῃ͵ καὶ δοξάζῃ τὸν εὐεργέτην· τὸ δὲ͵ ἵνα πάσχῃ͵ καὶ πάσχων ὑπομιμνήσκηται͵ καὶ παιδεύηται τῷ μεγέθει φιλοτιμούμενος·

a living creature, trained here and then moved elsewhere; and to complete the mystery, Deified by its inclination to God…

ζῶον ἐνταῦθα οἰ κονομούμενον͵ καὶ ἀλλαχοῦ μεθιστάμενον͵ καὶ πέρας τοῦ μυστηρίου͵ τῇ πρὸς Θεὸν νεύσει θεούμενον.

for to this, I think, tends that light of Truth which here we possess but in measure; that we should both see and experience the Splendour of God, which is worthy of Him Who made us, and will dissolve us, and remake us after a loftier fashion.

Εἰς τοῦτο γὰρ ἐμοὶ φέρει τὸ μέτριον ἐνταῦθα φέγγος τῆς ἀληθείας͵ λαμπρότητα Θεοῦ καὶ ἰδεῖν καὶ παθεῖν ἀξίαν τοῦ καὶ συνδήσαντος͵ καὶ λύσοντος͵ καὶ αὖθις συνδήσοντος ὑψηλότερον.





8. This being He placed in paradise—whatever that paradise may have been (having honoured him with the gift of free will, in order that good might belong to him as the result of his choice, no less than to Him Who had implanted the seeds of it)—to till the immortal plants, by which is perhaps meant the Divine conceptions, both the simpler and the more perfect; naked in his simplicity and inartificial life; and without any covering or screen; for it was fitting that he who was from the beginning should be such. And He gave Him a Law, as material for his free will to act upon. This Law was a commandment as to what plants he might partake of, and which one he might not touch. This latter was the Tree of Knowledge; not, however, because it was evil from the beginning when planted; nor was it forbidden because God grudged it to men—let not the enemies of God wag their tongues in that direction, or imitate the serpent. But it would have been good if partaken of at the proper time; for the Tree was, according to my theory, Contemplation, which it is only safe for those who have reached maturity of habit to enter upon; but which is not good for those who are still somewhat simple and greedy; just as neither is solid food good for those who are yet tender and have need of milk. But when through the devil’s malice and the woman’s caprice, (Wisd. ii. 24). to which she succumbed as the more tender, and which she brought to bear upon the man, as she was the more apt to persuade—alas for my weakness, for that of my first father was mine; he forgot the commandment which had been given him, and yielded to the baleful fruit; and for his sin was banished at once from the tree of life, and from paradise, and from God; and put on the coats of skins, that is, perhaps, the coarser flesh, both mortal and contradictory. And this was the first thing which he learnt—his own shame—and he hid himself from God. Yet here too he makes a gain, namely death and the cutting off of sin, in order that evil may not be immortal. Thus, his punishment is changed into a mercy, for it is in mercy, I am persuaded, that God inflicts punishment.

Η. Τοῦτον ἔθετο μὲν ἐν τῷ παραδείσῳ͵ ὅστις ποτὲ ἦν ὁ παράδεισος οὗτος͵ τῷ αὐτεξουσίῳ τιμή σας͵ ἵν΄ ᾖ τοῦ ἑλομένου τὸ ἀγαθὸν οὐχ ἧττον ἢ τοῦ παρασχόντος τὰ σπέρματα͵ φυτῶν ἀθανάτων γεωρ γὸν͵ θείων ἐννοιῶν ἴσως͵ τῶν τε ἀπλουστέρων͵ καὶ τῶν τελεωτέρων͵ γυμνὸν τῇ ἁπλότητι͵ καὶ ζωῇ τῇ ἀτέχνῳ͵ καὶ δίχα παντὸς ἐπικαλύμματος καὶ προ βλήματος· τοιοῦτον γὰρ ἔπρεπεν εἶναι τὸν ἀπ΄ ἀρ χῆς· καὶ δίδωσι νόμον͵ ὕλην τῷ αὐτεξουσίῳ. Ὁ δὲ νόμος ἦν ἐντολὴ͵ ὧν τε μεταληπτέον αὐτῷ φυτῶν͵ καὶ οὗ μὴ προσαπτέον. Τὸ δὲ ἦν͵ τὸ ξύλον τῆς γνώ σεως͵ οὔτε φυτευθὲν ἀπ΄ ἀρχῆς κακῶς͵ οὔτε ἀπ αγορευθὲν φθονερῶς (μὴ πεμπέτωσαν ἐκεῖ τὰς γλώσσας οἱ θεομάχοι͵ μηδὲ τὸν ὄφιν μιμείσθωσαν)· ἀλλὰ καλὸν μὲν εὐκαίρως μεταλαμβανόμενον (θεωρία γὰρ ἦν τὸ φυτὸν͵ ὡς ἡ ἐμὴ θεωρία͵ ἧς μόνοις ἐπι βαίνειν ἀσφαλὲς͵ τοῖς τὴν ἕξιν τελεωτέροις͵ 36.633 οὐ καλὸν δὲ τοῖς ἁπλουστέροις ἔτι͵ καὶ τὴν ἔφεσιν λιχνοτέροις· ὥσπερ οὐδὲ τροφὴ τελεία λυσιτελὴς τοῖς ἁπαλοῖς ἔτι͵ καὶ δεομένοις γάλακτος. Ἐπεὶ δὲ φθόνῳ διαβόλου͵ καὶ γυναικὸς ἐπηρείᾳ͵ ἥν τε ἔπα θεν͵ ὡς ἁπαλωτέρα͵ καὶ ἣν προσήγαγεν͵ ὡς πιθα νωτέρα (φεῦ τῆς ἐμῆς ἀσθενείας ἐμὴ γὰρ ἡ τοῦ προπάτορος)͵ τῆς μὲν ἐντολῆς ἐπελάθετο τῆς δοθεί σης͵ καὶ ἡττήθη τῆς μικρᾶς γεύσεως· ὁμοῦ δὲ τοῦ τῆς ζωῆς ξύλου͵ καὶ τοῦ παραδείσου͵ καὶ τοῦ Θεοῦ διὰ τὴν κακίαν ἐξόριστος γίνεται͵ καὶ τοὺς δερμα τίνους ἀμφιέννυται χιτῶνας͵ ἴσως τὴν παχυτέραν σάρκα͵ καὶ θνητὴν͵ καὶ ἀντίτυπον· καὶ τοῦτο πρῶ τον γινώσκει τὴν ἰδίαν αἰσχύνην͵ καὶ ἀπὸ Θεοῦ κρύ πτεται. Κερδαίνει μέν τι κἀνταῦθα͵ τὸν θάνατον͵ καὶ τὸ διακοπῆναι τὴν ἁμαρτίαν͵ ἵνα μὴ ἀθάνατον ᾖ τὸ κακόν. Καὶ γίνεται φιλανθρωπία͵ ἡ τιμωρία. Οὕτω γὰρ πείθομαι κολάζειν Θεόν.





9. And having first been chastened by many means because his sins were many, whose root of evil sprang up through divers causes and sundry times, by word, by law, by prophets, by benefits, by threats, by plagues, by waters, by fires, by wars, by victories, by defeats, by signs in heaven, and signs in the air, and in the earth, and in the sea; by unexpected changes of men, of cities, of nations (the object of which was the destruction of wickedness) at last he needed a stronger remedy, for his diseases were growing worse; mutual slaughters, adulteries, perjuries, unnatural crimes, and that first and last of all evils, idolatry, and the transfer of worship from the Creator to the creatures.

Θ. Πολλοῖς δὲ παιδευθεὶς πρότερον ἀντὶ πολλῶν τῶν ἁμαρτημάτων͵ ὧν ἡ τῆς κακίας ῥίζα ἐβλάστησε͵ κατὰ διαφόρους αἰτίας καὶ χρόνους͵ λόγῳ͵ νόμῳ͵ προφήταις͵ εὐεργεσίαις͵ ἀπειλαῖς͵ πληγαῖς͵ ὕδασιν͵ ἐμπρησμοῖς͵ πολέμοις͵ νίκαις͵ ἥτταις͵ σημείοις ἐξ οὐρανοῦ͵ σημείοις ἐξ ἀέρος͵ ἐκ γῆς͵ ἐκ θαλάττης͵ ἀνδρῶν͵ πόλεων͵ ἐθνῶν͵ ἀνελπίστοις μεταβολαῖς͵ ὑφ΄ ὧν ἐκτριβῆναι τὴν κακίαν τὸ σπουδαζόμενον ἦν· τέλος͵ ἰσχυροτέρου δεῖται φαρμάκου ἐπὶ δεινοτέροις τοῖς ἀῤῥωστήμασιν͵ ἀλληλοφονίαις͵ μοιχείαις͵ ἐπιορ κίαις͵ ἀνδρομανίαις͵ τὸ πάντων ἔσχατον τῶν κα κῶν καὶ πρῶτον͵ εἰδωλολατρίαις͵ καὶ τῇ μετα θέσει τῆς προσκυνήσεως ἀπὸ τοῦ πεποιηκότος ἐπὶ τὰ κτίσματα.

As these required a greater aid, so they also obtained a greater. And that was that the Word of God Himself, Who is before all worlds, the Invisible, the Incomprehensible, the Bodiless, the Beginning of beginning, the Light of Light, the Source of Life and Immortality, the Image of the Archetype, the Immovable Seal, the Unchangeable Image, the Father’s Definition and Word, came to His own Image, and took on Him Flesh for the sake of our flesh, and mingled Himself with an intelligent soul for my soul’s sake, purifying like by like; and in all points except sin was made Man; conceived by the Virgin, who first in body and soul was purified by the Holy Ghost, for it was needful both That Child-bearing should be honoured and that Virginity should receive a higher honour.

Ταῦτα͵ ἐπειδὴ μείζονος ἐδεῖτο τοῦ βοηθήματος͵ μείζονος καὶ τυγχάνει. Τὸ δὲ ἦν͵ αὐτὸς ὁ τοῦ Θεοῦ Λόγος͵ ὁ προαιώνιος͵ ὁ ἀόρατος͵ ὁ ἀπερίληπτος͵ ὁ ἀσώματος͵ ἡ ἐκ τῆς ἀρχῆς ἀρχὴ͵ τὸ ἐκ τοῦ φωτὸς φῶς͵ ἡ πηγὴ τῆς ζωῆς καὶ τῆς ἀθανασίας͵ τὸ ἐκμαγεῖον τοῦ ἀρχετύπου͵ ἡ μὴ κινουμένη σφραγὶς͵ ἡ ἀπαράλλακτος εἰκὼν͵ ὁ τοῦ Πατρὸς ὅρος καὶ λόγος͵ ἐπὶ τὴν ἰδίαν εἰκόνα χωρεῖ͵ καὶ σάρκα φορεῖ διὰ τὴν σάρκα͵ καὶ ψυχῇ νοερᾷ διὰ τὴν ἐμὴν ψυχὴν μίγνυται͵ τῷ ὁμοίῳ τὸ ὅμοιον ἀνακαθαίρων. καὶ πάντα γίνεται͵ πλὴν τῆς ἁμαρτίας͵ ἄνθρωπος· κυηθεὶς μὲν ἐκ τῆς Παρθένου͵ καὶ ψυχὴν καὶ σάρκα προκαθαρθείσης τῷ Πνεύματι (ἔδει γὰρ͵ καὶ γέννησιν τιμηθῆναι͵ καὶ παρθενίαν προτιμηθῆ ναι)͵

He came forth then, as God, with That which He had assumed; one Person in two natures, flesh and Spirit, of which the latter deified the former.

προελθὼν δὲ Θεὸς μετὰ τῆς προσλήψεως͵ ἓν ἐκ δύο τῶν ἐναντίων͵ σαρκὸς καὶ πνεύματος͵ ὧν τὸ μὲν ἐθέωσε͵ τὸ δὲ ἐθεώθη.

O new commingling; O strange conjunction! the Self-existent comes into Being, the Uncreated is created, That which cannot be contained is contained by the intervention of an intellectual soul mediating between the Deity and the corporeity of the flesh. And He who gives riches becomes poor; for He assumes the poverty of my flesh, that I may assume the riches of His Godhead (cf. 2Cor 8:9). He that is full empties Himself; for He empties Himself of His Glory for a short while, that I may have a share in His Fulness. What is the riches of His Goodness?

Ὢ τῆς καινῆς μίξεως Ὢ τῆς παραδόξου κράσεως Ὁ ὢν͵ γίνεται· καὶ ὁ 36.636 ἄκτιστος͵ κτίζεται· καὶ ὁ ἀχώρητος͵ χωρεῖται͵ διὰ μέσης ψυχῆς νοερᾶς μεσιτευούσης θεότητι καὶ σαρ κὸς παχύτητι· καὶ ὁ πλουτίζων͵ πτωχεύει· πτωχεύει γὰρ τὴν ἐμὴν σάρκα͵ ἵν΄ ἐγὼ πλουτήσω τὴν αὐτοῦ θεότητα. Καὶ ὁ πλήρης͵ κενοῦται· κενοῦται γὰρ τῆς ἑαυτοῦ δόξης ἐπὶ μικρὸν͵ ἵν΄ ἐγὼ τῆς ἐκείνου μεταλάβω πληρώσεως.

What is this mystery that is around me? I had a share in the Image and I did not keep it; He partakes of my flesh that He may both save the Image and make the flesh immortal. He communicates a Second Communion, far more marvellous than the first, inasmuch as then He imparted the better nature, but now He Himself assumes the worse. This is more godlike than the former action; this is loftier in the eyes of all men of understanding.

Τίς ὁ πλοῦτος τῆς ἀγα θότητος; τί τὸ περὶ ἐμὲ τοῦτο μυστήριον; Μετέλα βον τῆς εἰκόνος͵ καὶ οὐκ ἐφύλαξα· μεταλαμβάνει τῆς ἐμῆς σαρκὸς͵ ἵνα καὶ τὴν εἰκόνα σώσῃ͵ καὶ τὴν σάρ κα ἀθανατίσῃ. Δευτέραν κοινωνεῖ κοινωνίαν͵ πολὺ τῆς προτέρας παραδοξοτέραν· ὅσῳ τότε μὲν τοῦ κρείττονος μετέδωκε͵ νῦν δὲ μεταλαμβάνει τοῦ χείρονος. Τοῦτο τοῦ προτέρου θεοειδέστερον· τοῦτο τοῖς νοῦν ἔχουσιν ὑψηλότερον.





10. But perhaps some one of those who are too impetuous and festive may say, “What has all this to do with us? Spur on your horse to the goal; talk to us about the Festival and the reasons for our being here to-day.” Yes, this is what I am about to do, although I have begun at a somewhat previous point, being compelled to do so by the needs of my argument. There will be no harm in the eyes of scholars and lovers of the beautiful if we say a few words about the word Pascha itself, for such an addition will not be useless in their ears.

Ι. Ἀλλὰ τί τούτων ἡμῖν͵ τάχα ἂν εἴποι τις τῶν λίαν φιλεόρτων καὶ θερμοτέρων; Κέντει τὸν πῶλον περὶ τὴν νύσσαν· τὰ τῆς ἑορτῆς ἡμῖν φιλο σόφει͵ καὶ οἷς προκαθεζόμεθα σήμερον. Τοῦτο δὴ καὶ ποιήσω͵ καὶ εἰ μικρὸν ἄνωθεν ἠρξάμην͵ οὕτω τοῦ λόγου καὶ τοῦ πόθου βιασαμένων. Οὐ χεῖρον δὲ ἴσως τοῖς φιλομαθέσι καὶ φιλοκάλοις περὶ τῆς προσ ηγορίας αὐτῆς τοῦ Πάσχα βραχέα διαλαβεῖν. Γέ νοιτο γὰρ ἂν οὐ φαῦλον τοῦτο ταῖς ἀκοαῖς ἐπεισόδιον.

This great and venerable Pascha is called Phaska by the Hebrews in their own language; and the word means Passing Over. Historically, from their flight and migration from Egypt into the Land of Canaan; spiritually, from the progress and ascent from things below to things above and to the Land of Promise. And we observe that a thing which we often find to have happened in Scripture, the change of certain nouns from an uncertain to a clearer sense, or from a coarser to a more refined, has taken place in this instance.

Τὸ Πάσχα τοῦτο͵ τὸ μέγα τε καὶ σεβάσμιον͵ Φάσκα τοῖς Ἑβραίοις προσαγορεύεται͵ κατὰ τὴν ἐκεί νων φωνήν· δηλοῖ δὲ ἡ φωνὴ τὴν διάβασιν· ἱστορι κῶς μὲν͵ διὰ τὴν ἐξ Αἰγύπτου πρὸς τὴν Χαναναίαν φυγὴν καὶ μετανάστασιν· πνευματικῶς δὲ͵ διὰ τὴν ἐκ τῶν κάτω πρὸς τὰ ἄνω͵ καὶ τὴν γῆν τῆς ἐπαγγελίας πρόοδον καὶ ἀνάβασιν. Ὅπερ δὲ πολλα χοῦ τῆς Γραφῆς συμβὰν εὕρομεν͵ ἀπὸ τῶν ἀσαφε στέρων μεταποιηθέντα τινὰ τῶν ὀνομάτων ἐπὶ τὸ σαφέστερον͵ ἢ τῶν ἀγροικοτέρων ἐπὶ τὸ εὐσχη μονέστερον͵ τοῦτο κἀνταῦθα τεθεωρήκαμεν.

For some people, supposing this to be a name of the Sacred Passion, and in consequence Grecizing the word by changing Phi and Kappa into Pi and Chi, called the Day Pascha. [6] And custom took it up and confirmed the word, with the help of the ears of most people, to whom it had a more pious sound.

Τοῦ γὰρ σωτηρίου πάθους ὄνομα τοῦτο εἶναί τινες νομί σαντες͵ εἶτα ἐξελληνίζοντες τὴν φωνὴν͵ κατὰ τὴν τοῦ φῖ πρὸς τὸ πῖ͵ καὶ τοῦ κάππα πρὸς τὸ χῖ μεταποίησιν͵ Πάσχα τὴν ἡμέραν προσηγορεύκασιν. Παραλαβοῦσα δὲ ἡ συνήθεια τὴν φωνὴν͵ ἰσχυροτέραν 36.637 ἐποίησε͵ προστρεχούσης τῆς τῶν πολλῶν ἀκοῆς͵ ὡς εὐσεβεστέρῳ τῷ ῥήματι.





11. But before our time the Holy Apostle declared that the Law was but a shadow of things to come, (Heb. x. 1). which are conceived by thought. And God too, who in still older times gave oracles to Moses, said when giving laws concerning these things, See thou make all things according to the pattern shewed thee in the Mount, (Exod. xxv. 40). when He shewed him the visible things as an adumbration of and design for the things that are invisible. And I am persuaded that none of these things has been ordered in vain, none without a reason, none in a grovelling manner or unworthy of the legislation of God and the ministry of Moses, even though it be difficult in each type to find a theory descending to the most delicate details, to every point about the Tabernacle itself, and its measures and materials, and the Levites and Priests who carried them, and all the particulars which were enacted about the Sacrifices and the purifications and the Offerings; [7] and though these are only to be understood by those who rank with Moses in virtue, or have made the nearest approach to his learning. For in that Mount itself God is seen by men; on the one hand through His own descent from His lofty abode, on the other through His drawing us up from our abasement on earth, that the Incomprehensible may be in some degree, and as far as is safe, comprehended by a mortal nature. For in no other way is it possible for the denseness of a material body and an imprisoned mind to come into consciousness of God, except by His assistance. Then therefore all men do not seem to have been deemed worthy of the same rank and position; but one of one place and one of another, each, I think, according to the measure of his own purification. Some have even been altogether driven away, and only permitted to hear the Voice from on high, namely those whose dispositions are altogether like wild beasts, and who are unworthy of divine mysteries.

ΙΑ. Πάντα μὲν οὖν τὸν νόμον͵ σκιὰν εἶναι τῶν μελλόντων καὶ νοουμένων͵ ὁ θεῖος Ἀπόστολος πρὸ ἡμῶν ἀπεφήνατο. Καὶ ὁ χρηματίσας πρὸ τούτου τῷ Μωϋσεῖ Θεὸς͵ ἡνίκα περὶ τούτων ἐνομοθέτει· Ὅρα γὰρ͵ φησὶ͵ ποιήσεις πάντα κατὰ τὸν τύπον τὸν δειχθέντα σοι ἐν τῷ ὄρει· σκιαγραφίαν τινὰ καὶ προχάραγμα τῶν ἀοράτων παραδεικνὺς τὰ ὁρώμενα. Καὶ πείθομαι͵ μηδὲν εἰκῆ͵ μηδὲ ἀλογίστως͵ μηδὲ χα μερπῶς τούτων διατετάχθαι͵ μηδὲ ἀναξίως τῆς τοῦ Θεοῦ νομοθεσίας͵ καὶ τῆς Μωϋσέως ὑπουργίας· εἰ καὶ χαλεπὸν ἑκάστῃ τῶν σκιῶν͵ ἑκάστην ἐφευρεῖν θεωρίαν εἰς λεπτὸν καταβαίνοντα͵ ὅσα τε περὶ τῆς σκηνῆς αὐτῆς͵ καὶ μέτρων͵ καὶ ὕλης͵ καὶ τῶν αἰρόντων ταῦτα Λευϊτῶν τε καὶ λειτουργῶν͵ ὅσα τε περὶ θυσιῶν͵ καὶ καθαρσίων͵ καὶ ἀφαιρεμάτων νενομοθέτηται· καὶ μόνοις εἶναι θεωρητὰ τοῖς κατὰ Μωϋσέα τὴν ἀρετὴν͵ ἢ ὅτι ἐγγυτάτω τῆς ἐκείνου παιδεύσεως. Ἐπεὶ καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ ὄρει Θεὸς ἀνθρώ ποις φαντάζεται͵ τὸ μέν τι καταβαίνων αὐτὸς τῆς οἰκείας περιωπῆς͵ τὸ δὲ ἡμᾶς ἀνάγων ἐκ τῆς κάτω θεν ταπεινώσεως͵ ἵνα χωρηθῇ μετρίως γοῦν θνητῇ φύσει͵ καὶ ὅσον ἀσφαλὲς͵ ὁ ἀχώρητος. Οὐ γὰρ οἷόν τε ἄλλως ἐν περινοίᾳ Θεοῦ γενέσθαι σώμα τος ὑλικοῦ καὶ δεσμίου νοῦ πάχος μὴ βοηθούμενον. Τότε τοίνυν͵ οὐ πάντες τῆς αὐτῆς ἀξιωθέντες φαί νονται τάξεώς τε καὶ στάσεως· ἀλλ΄ ὁ μὲν τῆς͵ ὁ δὲ τῆς͵ πρὸς μέτρον͵ οἶμαι͵ τῆς ἑαυτοῦ καθάρσεως ἕκαστος· οἱ δὲ καὶ παντάπασιν ἀπεληλαμένοι͵ καὶ μόνης ἀκούειν τῆς ἄνωθεν φωνῆς συγχωρούμενοι͵ ὅσοι θηριώδεις τὸν τρόπον͵ καὶ θείων μυστηρίων ἀνάξιοι.





12. But we, standing midway between those whose minds are utterly dense on the one side, and on the other those who are very contemplative and exalted, that we may neither remain quite idle and immovable, nor yet be more busy than we ought, and fall short of and be estranged from our purpose—for the former course is Jewish and very low, and the latter is only fit for the dream-soothsayer, and both alike are to be condemned—let us say our say upon these matters, so far as is within our reach, and not very absurd, or exposed to the ridicule of the multitude. Our belief is that since it was needful that we, who had fallen in consequence of the original sin, and had been led away by pleasure, even as far as idolatry and unlawful bloodshed, should be recalled and raised up again to our original position through the tender mercy of God [Lk. 1:78] our Father, Who could not endure that such a noble work of His own hands as Man should be lost to Him; the method of our new creation, and of what should be done, was this:

ΙΒ. Ὅμως δὲ μέσην χωροῦντες ἡμεῖς τῶν τε πάντη παχυτέρων τὴν διάνοιαν͵ καὶ τῶν ἄγαν θεωρητι κῶν τε καὶ ἀνηγμένων͵ ἵνα μήτε παντελῶς ἀρ γοὶ καὶ ἀκίνητοι μένωμεν͵ μήτε περιεργότεροι τοῦ δέοντος ὦμεν͵ καὶ τῶν προκειμένων ἔκπτωτοι καὶ ἀλλότριοι (τὸ μὲν γὰρ Ἰουδαϊκόν πως καὶ ταπεινὸν͵ τὸ δὲ ὀνειροκριτικὸν͵ καὶ ὁμοίως ἀμφότερα κατεγνω σμένα)· οὕτω περὶ τούτων διαλεξόμεθα͵ κατὰ τὸ ἡμῖν ἐφικτὸν͵ καὶ οὐ λίαν ἔκτοπον͵ οὐδὲ τοῖς πολλοῖς καταγέλαστον. Ἡγούμεθα γὰρ͵ ἐπειδὴ πεσόντας 36.640 ἡμᾶς ἐκ τῆς ἁμαρτίας τὸ ἀπ΄ ἀρχῆς͵ καὶ διὰ τῆς ἡδο νῆς κλαπέντας μέχρις εἰδωλολατρείας͵ καὶ τῶν ἀθέ σμων αἱμάτων͵ ἔδει πάλιν ἀνακληθῆναι͵ καὶ πρὸς τὸ ἀρχαῖον ἐπαναχθῆναι͵ διὰ σπλάγχνα ἐλέους Θεοῦ Πατρὸς ἡμῶν͵ οὐκ ἀνασχομένου ζημιωθῆναι τοσοῦτον ἔργον τῆς οἰκείας χειρὸς τὸν ἄνθρωπον. Πῶς οὖν ἀναπλασθῆναι͵ καὶ τί γενέσθαι;

—that all violent remedies were disapproved, as not likely to persuade us, and as quite possibly tending to add to the plague, through our chronic pride; but that God disposed things to our restoration by a gentle and kindly method of cure.

Τὸ μὲν σφοδρὸν τῆς ἰατρείας ἀποδοκιμασθῆναι͵ ὡς οὔτε πεῖσον͵ καὶ προσπλῆξαι δυνάμενον͵ διὰ τὴν ἐκ τοῦ χρόνου φυσίω σιν͵ τῷ δὲ ἡμέρῳ καὶ φιλανθρώπῳ τῆς θεραπείας οἰκονομηθῆναι πρὸς ἐπανόρθωσιν.

For a crooked sapling will not bear a sudden bending the other way, or violence from the hand that would straighten it, but will be more quickly broken than straightened; and a horse of a hot temper and above a certain age will not endure the tyranny of the bit without some coaxing and encouragement. Therefore the Law is given to us as an assistance, like a boundary wall between God and idols, drawing us away from one and to the Other. And it concedes a little at first, that it may receive that which is greater. It concedes the Sacrifices for a time, that it may establish God in us, and then when the fitting time shall come may abolish the Sacrifices also; thus wisely changing our minds by gradual removals, and bringing us over to the Gospel when we have already been trained to a prompt obedience.

Μηδὲ γὰρ ἂν πτόρθον λοξὸν ἐνεγκεῖν ἀθρόαν μετάκλισιν καὶ βίαν χειρὸς ἀπευθυνούσης (θᾶττον μέν τ΄ ἂν πληγῆ ναι͵ ἢ ὀρθωθῆναι)͵ μήτε ἵππον θερμὸν καὶ ὑπερ ήλικα χαλινοῦ τυραννίδα͵ δίχα τινὸς κολακείας καὶ ποππυσμάτων. Διὰ τοῦτο δίδοται νόμος ἡμῖν εἰς βοή θειαν͵ οἷόν τι διατείχισμα͵ μέσον Θεοῦ καὶ εἰδώλων͵ τῶν μὲν ἀπάγων ἡμᾶς͵ πρὸς δὲ τὸν ἐπανάγων. Καὶ συγχωρεῖ τι μικρὸν ἀπ΄ ἀρχῆς͵ ἵνα τὸ μεῖζον λάβῃ. Συγχωρεῖ τὰς θυσίας τέως͵ ἵν΄ ἐγκαταστήσῃ Θεόν· ἔπειτα͵ ἡνίκα καιρὸς͵ καταλύσῃ καὶ τὰς θυ σίας͵ σοφῶς ὑπαλλάττων ἡμᾶς ταῖς κατὰ μικρὸν ὑφαιρέσεσι͵ καὶ μετάγων ἐπὶ τὸ Εὐαγγέλιον ἤδη γεγυμνασμένους πρὸς εὐπείθειαν.





13. Thus then and for this cause the written Law came in, gathering us into Christ; and this is the account of the Sacrifices as I account for them. And that you may not be ignorant of the depth of His Wisdom and the riches of His unsearchable judgments, (Rom. xi. 33). He did not leave even these unhallowed altogether, or useless, or with nothing in them but mere blood. [8] But that great, and if I may say so, in Its first nature unsacrificeable Victim, was intermingled with the Sacrifices of the Law, and was a purification, not for a part of the world, nor for a short time, but for the whole world and for all time. For this reason a Lamb was chosen for its innocence, and its clothing of the original nakedness. For such is the Victim, That was offered for us, Who is both in Name and fact the Garment of incorruption. And He was a perfect Victim not only on account of His Godhead, than which nothing is more perfect; but also on account of that which He assumed having been anointed with Deity, and having become one with That which anointed It, and I am bold to say, made equal with God. A Male, because offered for Adam; or rather the Stronger for the strong, when the first Man had fallen under sin; and chiefly because there is in Him nothing feminine, nothing unmanly; but He burst from the bonds of the Virgin-Mother’s womb with much power, and a Male was brought forth by the Prophetess, (Isa. xiii. 3). as Isaiah declares the good tidings. And of a year old, because He is the Sun of Righteousness (Mal. iv. 2). setting out from heaven, and circumscribed by His visible Nature, and returning unto Himself. [9] And “The blessed crown of Goodness,”—being on every side equal to Himself and alike; and not only this, but also as giving life to all the circle of the virtues, gently commingled and intermixed with each other, according to the Law of Love and Order. [10] And Immaculate and guileless, as being the Healer of faults, and of the defects and taints that come from sin. For though He both took on Him our sins and bare our diseases, (Isa. liii. 4). yet He did not Himself suffer aught that needed healing. For He was tempted in all points like as we are yet without sin. (Heb. iv. 15). For he that persecuted the Light that shineth in darkness could not overtake Him.

ΙΓ. Οὕτω μὲν οὖν καὶ διὰ ταῦτα͵ εἱσῆλθεν ὁ γρα πτὸς νόμος͵ συνάγων ἡμᾶς εἰς Χριστὸν͵ καὶ οὗτος τῶν θυσιῶν ὁ λόγος͵ ὡς ὁ ἐμὸς λόγος. Ὡς ἂν δὲ τὸ τῆς σοφίας βάθος μὴ ἀγνοῇς͵ καὶ τὸν πλοῦτον τῶν ἀνεξιχνιάστων αὐτοῦ κριμάτων͵ οὐδὲ ταύτας παντε λῶς ἀνιέρους ἀφῆκεν͵ οὐδὲ ἀσυντελεῖς͵ οὐδὲ μέχρι ψιλοῦ προϊούσας τοῦ αἵματος· ἀλλὰ τὸ μέγα καὶ ἄθυτον ἱερεῖον͵ ἵν΄ οὕτως εἴπω͵ ὅσον ἐπὶ τῇ πρώτῃ φύσει͵ ταῖς νομικαῖς θυσίαις ἐγκαταμέμικται͵ καὶ οὐ μικροῦ μέρους τῆς οἰκουμένης͵ οὐδὲ πρὸς ὀλίγον͵ ἀλλὰ παντὸς τοῦ κόσμου καὶ διαιωνίζον καθάρσιον. Διὰ τοῦτο λαμβάνεται πρόβατον μὲν͵ διὰ τὴν ἀκακίαν͵ καὶ τὸ ἔνδυμα τῆς ἀρχαίας γυμνώσεως. Τοιοῦτον γὰρ τὸ ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν σφάγιον͵ ἔνδυμα ἀφθαρ σίας͵ καὶ ὂν͵ καὶ καλούμενον. Τέλειον δὲ͵ οὐ διὰ τὴν θεότητα μόνον͵ ἧς οὐδὲν τελεώτερον͵ ἀλλὰ 36.641 καὶ διὰ τὴν πρόσληψιν τὴν χρισθεῖσαν θεότητι͵ καὶ γενομένην ὅπερ τὸ χρῖσαν͵ καὶ θαῤῥῶ λέγειν͵ ὁμόθεον. Ἄῤῥεν δὲ͵ ὡς ὑπὲρ τοῦ Ἀδὰμ προσ αγόμενον͵ μᾶλλον δὲ τοῦ στεῤῥοῦ τὸ στεῤῥότερον͵ τοῦ πρώτου πεσόντος ὑπὸ τὴν ἁμαρτίαν͵ καὶ ὅτι μά λιστα μηδὲν θῆλυ͵ μηδὲ ἄνανδρον ἐν ἑαυτῷ φέρον· ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐκραγὲν βίᾳ δεσμῶν παρθενικῶν τε καὶ μητρικῶν͵ κατὰ πολλὴν ἐξουσίαν͵ καὶ τεχθὲν ἄρσεν ἐκ τῆς προφήτιδος͵ ὡς Ἡσαΐας εὐαγγελίζεται. Ἐνιαύσιον δὲ͵ ὡς ἥλιον δικαιοσύνης͵ ἢ ἐκεῖθεν ὁρ μώμενον͵ ἢ τῷ ὁρωμένῳ περίγραπτον͵ καὶ εἰς ἑαυτὸν ἐπιστρέφοντα· στέφανόν τε χρηστότητος εὐλογούμενον͵ καὶ πανταχόθεν ἴσον ἑαυτῷ καὶ ὅμοιον· οὐ μόνον δὲ͵ ἀλλὰ καὶ ὡς ζωογονοῦν τὸν τῶν ἀρε τῶν κύκλον͵ ἠπίως ἐπιμιγνυμένων καὶ κιρνα μένων ἀλλήλαις͵ νόμῳ φιλίας καὶ τάξεως. Ἄμωμον δὲ καὶ ἀκίβδηλον͵ ὡς θεραπευτικὸν μώμων͵ καὶ τῶν ἀπὸ κακίας ἐλαττωμάτων καὶ μολυσμάτων. Εἰ γὰρ καὶ τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἡμῶν ἀνέλαβε͵ καὶ τὰς νόσους ἐβάστασεν͵ ἀλλ΄ οὐκ αὐτός τι πέπονθε τῶν θεραπείας ἀξίων. Ἐπειράσθη μὲν γὰρ κατὰ πάντα͵ καθ΄ ὁμοιότητα τὴν ἡμετέραν͵ χωρὶς ἁμαρ τίας δέ. Ὁ γὰρ διώξας τὸ φαῖνον ἐν τῇ σκοτίᾳ φῶς͵ οὐ κατέλαβεν.





14. What more? The First Month is introduced, or rather the beginning of months, whether it was so among the Hebrews from the beginning, or was made so later on this account, and became the first in consequence of the Mystery; and the tenth of the Month, for this is the most complete number, of units the first perfect unit, and the parent of perfection. And it is kept until the fifth day, perhaps because the Victim, of Whom I am speaking, purifies the five senses, from which comes falling into sin, and around which the war rages, inasmuch as they are open to the incitements to sin. And it was chosen, not only out of the lambs, but also out of the inferior species, which are placed on the left hand (Matt. xxv. 33).—the kids; because He is sacrificed not only for the righteous, but also for sinners; and perhaps even more for these, inasmuch as we have greater need of His mercy. And we need not be surprised that a lamb for a house should be required as the best course, but if that could not be, then one might be obtained by contributions (owing to poverty) for the houses of a family; because it is clearly best that each individual should suffice for his own perfecting, and should offer his own living sacrifice holy unto God Who called him, being consecrated at all times and in every respect. But if that cannot be, then that those who are akin in virtue and of like disposition should be made use of as helpers. For I think this provision means that we should communicate of the Sacrifice to those who are nearest, if there be need.

ΙΔ. Τί ἔτι; Μὴν μὲν εἰσάγεται πρῶτος͵ μᾶλλον δὲ͵ ἀρχὴ μηνῶν· εἴτε τις τοῦτο παρ΄ Ἑβραίοις ὢν ἀπ΄ ἀρχῆς͵ εἴτε ὕστερον ἐντεῦθεν γενόμενος͵ καὶ παρὰ τοῦ μυστηρίου τὸ εἶναι πρῶτος λαβών. Τῇ δε κάτῃ δὲ τοῦ μηνός· οὗτος γὰρ ἀριθμῶν πληρέστατος͵ ἐκ μονάδων πρώτη μονὰς τελεία͵ καὶ γεννητικὴ τε λειότητος. Διατηρεῖται δὲ εἰς πέμπτην ἡμέραν͵ ἴσως ὅτι καθαρτικὸν αἰσθήσεων τὸ ἐμὸν θῦμα͵ ἐξ ὧν τὸ πταίειν͵ καὶ περὶ ἃς ὁ πόλεμος͵ εἰσδεχομένας τὸ κέντρον τῆς ἁμαρτίας. Ἐκλέγεται δὲ͵ οὐκ ἀπὸ τῶν ἀρνῶν μόνον͵ ἀλλὰ καὶ τοῦ χείρονος εἴδους͵ καὶ τῆς ἀριστερᾶς χειρὸς τῶν ἐρίφων͵ ὅτι μὴ ὑπὲρ τῶν δι καίων μόνον͵ ἀλλὰ καὶ τῶν ἁμαρτωλῶν σφαγιά ζεται· τάχα δὲ ὑπὲρ τούτων καὶ πλέον͵ ὅσῳ καὶ μεί ζονος χρῄζομεν τῆς φιλανθρωπίας. Θαυμαστὸν δὲ οὐδὲν͵ εἰ μάλιστα μὲν κατ΄ οἶκον ἕκαστον ἐπιζητεῖται τὸ πρόβατον͵ εἰ δὲ μὴ͵ καὶ κατ΄ οἴκους πατριῶν͵ διὰ πενίαν ἐρανιζόμενον· ἐπειδὴ κράτιστον͵ μάλιστα μὲν αὐτὸν ἕκαστον ἀρκεῖν ἑαυτῷ πρὸς τελείωσιν͵ καὶ θυ σίαν ζῶσαν͵ ἁγίαν προσάγειν τῷ καλοῦντι Θεῷ͵ πάντοτε καὶ διὰ πάντων καθιερούμενον· εἰ δὲ μὴ͵  36.644 καὶ συνεργοῖς εἰς τοῦτο κεχρῆσθαι͵ τοῖς κατ΄ ἀρετὴν ὁμογενέσι καὶ ὁμοτρόποις. Τοῦτο γάρ μοι δοκεῖ βούλεσθαι͵ τὸ κοινωνεῖν τοῖς ἔγγιστα τοῦ θύματος͵ εἰ δεήσειεν.





15. Then comes the Sacred Night, the Anniversary of the confused darkness of the present life, into which the primæval darkness is dissolved, and all things come into life and rank and form, and that which was chaos is reduced to order. Then we flee from Egypt, that is from sullen persecuting sin; and from Pharaoh the unseen tyrant, and the bitter taskmasters, changing our quarters to the world above; and are delivered from the clay and the brickmaking, and from the husks and dangers of this fleshly condition, which for most men is only not overpowered by mere husklike calculations. Then the Lamb is slain, and act and word are sealed with the Precious Blood; that is, habit and action, the sideposts of our doors; I mean, of course, of the movements of mind and opinion, which are rightly opened and closed by contemplation, since there is a limit even to thoughts. Then the last and gravest plague upon the persecutors, truly worthy of the night; and Egypt mourns the first-born of her own reasonings and actions which are also called in the Scripture the Seed of the Chaldeans (Judith v. 6). removed, and the children of Babylon dashed against the rocks and destroyed; (Ps. cxxxviii. 9). and the whole air is full of the cry and clamour of the Egyptians; and then the Destroyer of them shall withdraw from us in reverence of the Unction. Then the removal of leaven; that is, of the old and sour wickedness, not of that which is quickening and makes bread; for seven days, a number which is of all the most mystical, [11] and is co-ordinate with this present world, that we may not lay in provision of any Egyptian dough, or relic of Pharisaic or ungodly teaching.

ΙΕ. Ἐντεῦθεν ἡ ἱερὰ νὺξ͵ καὶ τοῦ παρόντος βίου τῆς κεχυμένης͵ τῆσδε νυκτὸς ἀντίπαλος͵ καθ΄ ἣν τὸ πρωτόγονον λύεται σκότος͵ καὶ εἰς φῶς ἅπαντα͵ καὶ τάξιν͵ καὶ εἶδος ἔρχεται͵ καὶ κόσμον ἡ πρὶν ἀκοσμία λαμβάνει. Ἐντεῦθεν Αἴγυπτον φεύγομεν͵ τὴν σκυθρωπὴν καὶ διώκτριαν ἁμαρτίαν͵ καὶ Φαραὼ τὸν ἀόρατον τύραννον͵ καὶ τοὺς πικροὺς ἐργοδότας͵ πρὸς τὸν ἄνω μετασκευαζόμενοι κόσμον· καὶ τοῦ πη λοῦ καὶ τῆς πλινθείας ἐλευθερούμεθα͵ τῆς τε τοῦ ἀχύρου καὶ σφαλερᾶς τοῦ σαρκίου τοῦδε συστά σεως͵ καὶ μηδ΄ ὅσον ἀχυρώδεσι λογισμοῖς ἐπὶ τῶν πολλῶν κρατουμένης. Ἐντεῦθεν ὁ ἀμνὸς σφαγιάζε ται͵ καὶ σφραγίζονται τῷ τιμίῳ αἵματι πρᾶξις καὶ λόγος͵ εἴτουν ἕξις καὶ ἐνέργεια͵ αἱ τῶν ἡμετέ ρων θυρῶν παραστάτιδες͵ λέγω δὴ τῶν τοῦ νοῦ κινημάτων τε καὶ δογμάτων͵ καλῶς ἀνοιγομέ νων καὶ κλειομένων ἐκ θεωρίας͵ ἐπειδὴ μέτρον ἐστί τι καὶ καταλήψεων. Ἐντεῦθεν ἡ τελευταία καὶ βα ρυτάτη τοῖς διώκταις πληγὴ͵ καὶ νυκτὸς ὄντως ἀξία· καὶ θρηνεῖ τὰ πρωτότοκα τῶν οἰκείων λογισμῶν καὶ πράξεων Αἴγυπτος (ὃ καὶ σπέρμα Χαλδαϊκὸν ἐξαι ρόμενον τῇ Γραφῇ καλεῖται͵ καὶ νήπια Βαβυ λώνια τῇ πέτρᾳ προσκροτούμενα καὶ λυόμενα)͵ καὶ βοῆς πάντα μεστὰ καὶ κραυγῆς Αἰγυπτίοις· καὶ ἡμῶν ἀποχωρήσει τηνικαῦτα ὁ ἐκείνων ὀλο θρευτὴς͵ αἰδοῖ καὶ φόβῳ τοῦ χρίσματος. Ἐντεῦθεν ἄρσις τῆς ζύμης ἑπταήμερος (οὗτος γὰρ μυστικώ τατος ἀριθμῶν͵ καὶ τῷ κόσμῳ τούτῳ σύστοιχος͵ τῆς παλαιᾶς καὶ ὀξώδους κακίας (οὐ γὰρ τῆς ἀρτο ποιοῦ τε καὶ ζωτικῆς)· ἵνα μηδὲν Αἰγύπτιον ἐπισιτι ζώμεθα φύραμα͵ καὶ λείψανον Φαρισαϊκῆς καὶ ἀθέου διδασκαλίας.





XVI. Well, let them lament; we will feed on the Lamb toward evening—for Christ’s Passion was in the completion of the ages; because too He communicated His Disciples in the evening with His Sacrament, destroying the darkness of sin; and not sodden, but roast—that our word may have in it nothing that is unconsidered or watery, or easily made away with; but may be entirely consistent and solid, and free from all that is impure and from all vanity. And let us be aided by the good coals, (Isa. vi. 6). kindling and purifying our minds from Him That cometh to send fire on the earth, (Luke xii. 49). that shall destroy all evil habits, and to hasten its kindling. Whatsoever then there be, of solid and nourishing in the Word, shall be eaten with the inward parts and hidden things of the mind, and shall be consumed and given up to spiritual digestion; aye, from head to foot, that is, from the first contemplations of Godhead to the very last thoughts about the Incarnation. Neither let us carry aught of it abroad, nor leave it till the morning; because most of our Mysteries may not be carried out to them that are outside, nor is there beyond this night any further purification; and procrastination is not creditable to those who have a share in the Word. For just as it is good and well-pleasing to God not to let anger last through the day, (Ephes. iv. 26). but to get rid of it before sunset, whether you take this of time or in a mystical sense, for it is not safe for us that the Sun of Righteousness should go down upon our wrath; so too we ought not to let such Food remain all night, nor to put it off till to-morrow. But whatever is of bony nature and not fit for food and hard for us even to understand, this must not be broken; that is, badly divined and misconceived (I need not say that in the history not a bone of Jesus was broken, even though His death was hastened by His crucifiers on account of the Sabbath); [12] nor must it be stripped off and thrown away, lest that which is holy should be given to the dogs, (Matt. vii. 6). that is, to the evil hearers of the Word; just as the glorious pearl of the Word is not to be cast before swine; but it shall be consumed with the fire with which the burnt offerings also are consumed, being refined and preserved by the Spirit That searcheth and knoweth all things, not destroyed in the waters, nor scattered abroad as the calf’s head which was hastily made by Israel was by Moses, (Exod. xxxii. 20). for a reproach for their hardness of heart.

Ι. Καὶ οἱ μὲν θρηνείτωσαν· ἡμῖν δὲ ὁ ἀμνὸς βρωθήσεται· τὸ πρὸς ἑσπέραν μὲν͵ ὅτι ἐπὶ συν τελείᾳ τῶν αἰώνων τὸ Χριστοῦ πάθος· ἐπεὶ καὶ κοινωνεῖ τοῦ μυστηρίου τοῖς μαθηταῖς ἐν ἑσπέρᾳ͵ λύων τὸν σκότον τῆς ἁμαρτίας. Οὐχ ἑψόμενος δὲ͵ ἀλλ΄ ὀπτώμενος· ὡς ἂν μηδὲν ἀθεώρητον͵ μηδ΄ ὑδα 36.645 ρὲς ὁ λόγος ἡμῖν ἂν ἔχῃ͵ μηδ΄ εὐδιάλυτον͵ ἀλλ΄ ὅλος συνεστὼς ᾖ͵ καὶ στεῤῥὸς͵ καὶ τῷ καθ αρτικῷ πυρὶ δεδοκιμασμένος͵ καὶ παντὸς ὑλώδους ἐλεύθερος͵ καὶ ἀπέριττος͵ καὶ τοῖς καλοῖς ἄνθραξι βοηθώμεθα͵ τὸ διανοητικὸν ἡμῶν ἀνάπτουσι καὶ καθ αίρουσι͵ παρὰ τοῦ πῦρ ἐλθόντος βαλεῖν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς͵ τὸ τῶν μοχθηρῶν ἕξεων ἀναλωτικὸν͵ καὶ τὴν ἄναψιν ἐπισπεύδοντος. Ὅσον μὲν οὖν σαρκῶδες τοῦ λόγου καὶ τρόφιμον͵ μετὰ τῶν ἐντοσθίων καὶ τῶν κρυ φίων τοῦ νοῦ βρωθήσεται καὶ ἀναλωθήσεται͵ καὶ εἰς πέψιν πνευματικὴν ἀναδοθήσεται͵ ἄχρι κεφαλῆς καὶ ποδῶν͵ τῶν τε πρώτων περὶ θεότητος θεωρημά των͵ καὶ τῶν τελευταίων τῆς σαρκώσεως φρον τισμάτων. Οὐκ ἐξοίσομεν δὲ οὐδὲν͵ οὐδὲ εἰς τὸ πρωὶ καταλείψομεν· ὅτι μηδὲ ἐκφορὰ τοῖς ἔξω τὰ πολλὰ τῶν ἡμετέρων μυστηρίων͵ μηδὲ ὑπὲρ τὴν νύκτα ταύτην ἔστι τις κάθαρσις͵ καὶ τὸ τῆς ἀναβολῆς οὐκ ἐπαινετὸν τοῖς τοῦ Λόγου μεταλαμβάνουσιν. Ὥσπερ γὰρ τὴν ὀργὴν μὴ διημερεύειν͵ ἀλλὰ προκα ταλύειν ἡλίου καλὸν͵ καὶ τῷ Θεῷ φίλον͵ χρονικῶς τε καὶ ἀναγωγικῶς (ἐπιδύεσθαι γὰρ ὀργιζομένοις ἡμῖν οὐκ ἀσφαλὲς τὸν τῆς δικαιοσύνης ἥλιον)· οὕτω τὴν τοιαύτην βρῶσιν μὴ διανυκτερεύειν͵ μηδὲ εἰς τὴν ἑξῆς ἀποτίθεσθαι. Ὅσον δὲ ὀστῶδες καὶ ἄβρω τον͵ καὶ ἡμῖν δυσθεώρητον͵ οὐδὲ συντριβήσεται͵ κακῶς διαιρούμενον καὶ νοούμενον (ἐῶ γὰρ λέγειν͵ ὅτι μηδὲ͵ κατὰ τὴν ἱστορίαν͵ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ συν ετρίβη͵ καί τοί γε τοῦ θανάτου τοῖς σταυρωταῖς ἐπι σπευδομένου͵ διὰ τὸ Σάββατον)· οὐδὲ ἀποῤῥι φήσεται καὶ περισυρήσεται· ἵνα μὴ δοθῇ τὰ ἅγια τοῖς κυσὶ καὶ κακοῖς τοῦ Λόγου σπαράκταις͵ ὥσπερ οὐδὲ τοῖς χοίροις τὸ λαμπρὸν τοῦ Λόγου καὶ μαργαρῶδες· ἀλλὰ πυρὶ καταναλωθήσεται͵ τῷ καὶ τὰ ὁλοκαυτώματα͵ τὰ πάντα ἐρευνῶντι καὶ εἰ δότι Πνεύματι λεπτυνόμενα καὶ σωζόμενα͵ οὐκ ἀπολ λύμενα καθ΄ ὑδάτων͵ οὐδὲ σπειρόμενα· ὥσπερ ἡ κε φαλὴ τοῦ μόσχου παρὰ Μωϋσέως͵ ἡ σχεδιασθεῖσα τῷ Ἰσραὴλ͵ εἰς ὀνειδισμὸν τῆς σκληρότητος.





17. Nor would it be right for us to pass over the manner of this eating either, for the Law does not do so, but carries its mystical labour even to this point in the literal enactment. Let us consume the Victim in haste, eating It with unleavened bread, with bitter herbs, and with our loins girded, and our shoes on our feet, and leaning on staves like old men; with haste, that we fall not into that fault which was forbidden to Lot (Gen. xix. 17). by the commandment, that we look not around, nor stay in all that neighbourhood, but that we escape to the mountain, that we be not overtaken by the strange fire of Sodom, nor be congealed into a pillar of salt in consequence of our turning back to wickedness; for this is the result of delay. With bitter herbs, for a life according to the Will of God is bitter and arduous, especially to beginners, and higher than pleasures. For although the new yoke is easy and the burden light, (Matt. xi. 20). as you are told, yet this is on account of the hope and the reward, which is far more abundant than the hardships of this life. If it were not so, who would not say that the Gospel is more full of toil and trouble than the enactments of the Law? For, while the Law prohibits only the completed acts of sin, we are condemned for the causes also, almost as if they were acts. The Law says, Thou shalt not commit adultery; but you may not even desire, kindling passion by curious and earnest looks. Thou shalt not kill, says the Law; but you are not even to return a blow, but on the contrary are to offer yourself to the smiter. How much more ascetic is the Gospel than the Law! Thou shalt not forswear thyself is the Law; but you are not to swear at all, either a greater or a lesser oath, for an oath is the parent of perjury. Thou shalt not join house to house, nor field to field, oppressing the poor; (Isa. v. 8). but you are to set aside willingly even your just possessions, and to be stripped for the poor, that without encumbrance you may take up the Cross (Mark x. 21). and be enriched with the unseen riches.

ΙΖ. Ἄξιον δὲ μηδὲ τὸν τῆς βρώσεως τρόπον πα ραδραμεῖν͵ ὅτι μηδὲ ὁ νόμος͵ ἄχρι καὶ τούτου͵ τὴν θεωρίαν φιλοπονῶν ἐν τῷ γράμματι. Ἀναλώσο μεν γὰρ τὸ θῦμα κατὰ σπουδὴν͵ καὶ ἄζυμα ἐπὶ πικρίδων συνεσθίοντες͵ καὶ τὰς ὀσφύας περιεζω σμένοι͵ καὶ τὰ ὑποδήματα περικείμενοι͵ καὶ πρεσβυ τικῶς βακτηρεύοντες. Κατὰ σπουδὴν μὲν͵ ἵνα μὴ πάθωμεν ὅπερ ὁ Λὼτ ἐκεῖνος ἀπηγόρευται παρὰ τῆς 36.648 ἐντολῆς· μὴ περιβλεψώμεθα͵ μὴ στῶμεν ἐν πάσῃ τῇ περιχώρῳ· εἰς τὸ ὅρος ἀποσωθῶμεν͵ μὴ συμ παραληφθῶμεν τῷ Σοδομιτικῷ καὶ ξένῳ πυρὶ͵ μηδ΄ εἰς στήλην ἀλὸς παγῶμεν͵ ἐκ τῆς ἐπὶ τὸ χεῖρον ἐπιστροφῆς͵ ὅπερ ἐργάζεται μέλλησις. Ἐπὶ δὲ πι κρίδων͵ διὰ τὸ πικρὸν τοῦ κατὰ Θεὸν βίου͵ καὶ πρόσαντες͵ τοῖς ἀρχομένοις μάλιστα͵ καὶ ἡδονῶν ὑψηλότερον. Εἰ γὰρ καὶ χρηστὸς ὁ νέος ζυγὸς͵ καὶ τὸ φορτίον ἐλαφρὸν͵ ὥσπερ ἀκούεις· ἀλλὰ διὰ τὴν ἐλπί δα τοῦτο καὶ τὴν ἀντίδοσιν͵ πολλῷ τῆς ἐνταῦθα κα κοπαθείας οὖσαν δαψιλεστέραν· ἐπεὶ ἄλλως γε͵ τίς οὐκ ἂν εἴποι͵ πολὺ τῶν νομικῶν διατάξεων τὸ Εὐαγ γέλιον ἐργωδέστερον εἶναι καὶ μοχθηρότερον; Τοῦ γὰρ νόμον τὰ τέλη τῶν ἀμαρτημάτων κωλύον τος͵ ἡμεῖς καὶ τὰς αἰτίας͵ ὡς πράξεις σχεδὸν͵ ἐγκα λούμεθα. Οὐ μοιχεύσεις͵ φησὶν ὁ νόμος· σὺ δὲ͵ οὐδὲ ἐπιθυμήσεις͵ ἐκ περιέργου θέας καὶ φιλοπόνου φλέγων τὸ πάθος. Οὐ φονεύσεις͵ ἐκεῖνος· σὺ δὲ͵ οὐδὲ ἀντιπλήξεις͵ ἀλλὰ καὶ σεαυτὸν ἐμπαρέξεις τῷ παίοντι. Ὅσον ταῦτα ἐκείνων φιλοσοφώτε ρα Οὐκ ἐπιορκήσεις͵ ἐκεῖνος· σὺ δὲ͵ οὐδὲ ὁμῇ τὴν ἀρχὴν͵ οὐ μικρὸν͵ οὐ μεῖζον͵ ὡς τοῦ ὅρκου τὴν ἐπιορκίαν τίκτοντος. Οὐ συνάψεις οἰκίαν πρὸς οἰ κίαν͵ ἐκεῖνος͵ καὶ ἀγρὸν πρὸς ἀγρὸν͵ καταδυνα στεύων τοῦ πένητος· σὺ δὲ͵ ἀποθήσῃ καὶ τὰ δικαίως κτηθέντα προθύμως͵ καὶ γυμνωθήσῃ τοῖς πένησιν͵ ἵνα κούφως τὸν σταυρὸν αἴρῃς͵ καὶ πλουτήσῃς τὰ μὴ ὁρώμενα.





18. And let the loins of the unreasoning animals be unbound and loose, for they have not the gift of reason which can overcome pleasure (it is not needful to say that even they know the limit of natural movement). But let that part of your being which is the seat of passion, and which neighs, (Jer. v. 8). as Holy Scripture calls it, when sweeping away this shameful passion, be restrained by a girdle of continence, so that you may eat the Passover purely, having mortified your members which are upon the earth, (Col. iii. 5). and copying the girdle (Matt. iii. 4). of John, the Hermit and Forerunner and great Herald of the Truth. Another girdle I know, the soldierly and manly one, I mean, from which the Euzoni of Syria and certain Monozoni  take their name. [The expression is often used in the LXX. to represent the word דודג, translated A Band, especially in 2 Kings.]And it is in respect of this too that God saith in an oracle to Job, “Nay, but gird up thy loins like a man, and give a manly answer.” (Job xxxviii. 3). With this also holy David boasts that he is girded with strength from God, (Ps. xviii. 32). and speaks of God Himself as clothed with strength (Ib. xciii. 1). and girded about with power—against the ungodly of course—though perhaps some may prefer to see in this a declaration of the abundance of His power, and, as it were, its restraint, just as also He clothes Himself with Light as with a garment. (Ib. civ. 2). For who shall endure His unrestrained power and light? Do I enquire what there is common to the loins and to truth? What then is the meaning to S. Paul of the expression, “Stand, therefore, having your loins girt about with truth?” (Eph. v. 14). Is it perhaps that contemplation is to restrain concupiscence, and not to allow it to be carried in another direction? For that which is disposed to love in a particular direction will not have the same power towards other pleasures.

ΙΗ. Ὀσφὺς δὲ͵ τοῖς μὲν ἀλόγοις͵ ἄνετος ἔστω καὶ ἄδετος· οὐδὲ γὰρ λόγον ἔχουσι͵ τὸν κρατοῦντα τῶν ἡδονῶν· οὔπω λέγω͵ ὅτι κἀκεῖνα ὅρον οἶδε τῆς φυσι κῆς κινήσεως· σοὶ καὶ ἀναστελλέσθω ζώνῃ καὶ σω φροσύνῃ τὸ ἐπιθυμητικὸν καὶ χρεμετιστικὸν (ὡς ἡ θεία φησὶ Γραφὴ͵ τὸ τοῦ πάθους αἰσχρὸν δια σύρουσα)͵ ἵνα καθαρῶς ἐσθίῃς τὸ Πάσχα͵ νεκρώσας τὰ μέλη τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς͵ καὶ τὴν Ἰωάννου ζώνην μιμούμενος͵ τοῦ ἐρημικοῦ͵ καὶ προδρόμου͵ καὶ με γάλου τῆς ἀληθείας κήρυκος. Οἶδα καὶ ζώνην ἄλλην͵ τὴν στρατιωτικὴν λέγω καὶ ἀνδρικὴν͵ καθ΄ ἣν Εὔζω νοι Συρίας καὶ Μονόζωνοί τινες ὀνομάζονται· καθ΄ ἣν καὶ τῷ Ἰὼβ χρηματίζων φησὶν ὁ Θεός· Μὴ͵ ἀλλὰ ζῶσαι ὥσπερ ἀνὴρ τὴν ὀσφύν σου͵ καὶ δὸς ἀπόκρι σιν ἀνδρικήν· ἣν καὶ ὁ θεῖος Δαβὶδ περιεζῶσθαι δύναμιν ἐκ Θεοῦ μεγαλαυχεῖ͵ καὶ τὸν Θεὸν αὐτὸν 36.649 εἰσάγει ἐνδεδυμένον δύναμιν καὶ περιεζωσμένον͵ δη λαδὴ κατὰ τῶν ἀσεβῶν· εἰ μή τῳ φίλον͵ τὸ περιὸν τῆς δυνάμεως͵ καὶ οἷον ἀνεσταλμένον͵ οὕτω παραδη λοῦσθαι͵ καθὸ καὶ φῶς ἀναβάλλεται͵ ὡς ἱμάτιον. Τὸ γὰρ ἄσχετον αὐτοῦ τῆς δυνάμεως καὶ τοῦ φωτὸς τίς ὑποστήσεται; Ζητῶ͵ τί κοινὸν ὀσφύϊ καὶ ἀληθείᾳ; τί δαὶ τῷ ἁγίῳ Παύλῳ νοεῖται τὸ φάσκειν· Στῆτε οὖν περιεζωσμένοι τὴν ὀσφὺν ὑμῶν ἐν ἀληθείᾳ; Μήποτε ὡς τοῦ θεωρητικοῦ τὸ ἐπιθυμητικὸν περι σφίγγοντος͵ καὶ οὐκ ἐῶντος ἀλλαχοῦ φέρεσθαι; Οὐ γὰρ ἐθέλει τὸ περί τι διακείμενον ἐρωτικῶς͵ πρὸς τὰς ἄλλας ἡδονὰς τὴν αὐτὴν ἔχειν δύναμιν.





19. And as to shoes, let him who is about to touch the Holy Land which the feet of God have trodden, put them off, as Moses did upon the Mount, (Exod. iii. 5). that he may bring there nothing dead; nothing to come between Man and God. So too if any disciple is sent to preach the Gospel, let him go in a spirit of philosophy and without excess, inasmuch as he must, besides being without money and without staff and with but one coat, also be barefooted, (Matt. x. 9). that the feet of those who preach the Gospel of Peace and every other good may appear beautiful. (Isa. lii. 7). But he who would flee from Egypt and the things of Egypt must put on shoes for safety’s sake, especially in regard to the scorpions and snakes in which Egypt so abounds, so as not to be injured by those which watch the heel (Gen. iii. 15). which also we are bidden to tread under foot. (Luke x. 19). And concerning the staff and the signification of it, my belief is as follows. There is one I know to lean upon, and another which belongs to Pastors and Teachers, and which corrects human sheep. Now the Law prescribes to you the staff to lean upon, that you may not break down in your mind when you hear of God’s Blood, and His Passion, and His death; and that you may not be carried away to heresy in your defence of God; but without shame and without doubt may eat the Flesh and drink the Blood, if you are desirous of true life, neither disbelieving His words about His Flesh, nor offended at those about His Passion. Lean upon this, and stand firm and strong, in nothing shaken by the adversaries nor carried away by the plausibility of their arguments. Stand upon thy High Place; in the Courts of Jerusalem (Ps. cxxii. 2). place thy feet; lean upon the Rock, that thy steps in God be not shaken.

ΙΘ. Τὰ δὲ ὑποδήματα͵ ὁ μὲν τῆς ἁγίας γῆς καὶ θεοστιβοῦς ψαύειν μέλλων͵ ὑπολυέσθω͵ καθὰ καὶ Μωϋσῆς ἐκεῖνος ἐπὶ τοῦ ὄρους͵ ἵνα μηδὲν νεκρὸν φέ ρῃ͵ μηδὲ μέσον Θεοῦ καὶ ἀνθρώπων. Ὡς δὲ καὶ εἴ τις μαθητὴς ἐπὶ τὸ Εὐαγγέλιον πέμπεται͵ φιλοσόφως καὶ ἀπερίττως· ὃν δεῖ πρὸς τῷ ἀχάλκῳ͵ καὶ ἀράβδῳ͵ καὶ μονοχίτωνι͵ ἔτι καὶ γυμνοπο δεῖν͵ ἵνα φανῶσιν οἱ πόδες ὡραῖοι τῶν εὐαγγελι ζομένων εἰρήνην͵ καὶ ἄλλο πᾶν ἀγαθόν. Ὁ δὲ φεύγων Αἴγυπτόν τε καὶ τὰ Αἰγύπτια͵ ὑποδεδέσθω͵ τῆς τε ἄλλης ἀσφαλείας ἕνεκα καὶ τῆς πρὸς τοὺς σκορπίους καὶ τοὺς ὄφεις͵ οὓς καὶ πολλοὺς Αἴγυπτος τρέφει͵ ὥστε μὴ βλάπτεσθαι παρὰ τῶν τηρούντων τὴν πτέρ ναν͵ οὓς πατεῖν ἐκελεύσθημεν. Περὶ δὲ τῆς βακτη ρίας οὕτως ἔχω͵ καὶ τοῦ περὶ ταύτην αἰνίγμα τος. Τὴν μὲν ὑπερειστικὴν οἶδα͵ τὴν δὲ ποιμαντικήν τε καὶ διδασκαλικὴν͵ καὶ τὰ λογικὰ πρόβατα ἐπιστρέ φουσαν. Ἀλλὰ σοὶ νῦν τὴν ὑπερείδουσαν ὁ νόμος δια κελεύεται͵ μήπου τὸν λογισμὸν ὀκλάσῃς͵ αἷμα Θεοῦ͵ καὶ πάθος ἀκούων͵ καὶ θάνατον͵ μήπου περιενεχθῇς ἀθέως͵ ὡς Θεοῦ συνήγορος· ἀλλ΄ ἀνεπαισχύντως καὶ ἀνενδοιάστως͵ φάγε τὸ σῶμα͵ πίε τὸ αἷμα͵ εἰ τῆς ζωῆς ἐπιθυμητικῶς ἔχεις͵ μήτε τοῖς περὶ σαρ κὸς ἀπιστῶν λόγοις͵ μήτε τοῖς περὶ τὸ πάθος βλαπτόμενος. Ἐρηρεισμένος ἵστατο͵ πάγιος͵ βεβη κὼς͵ ἐν μηδενὶ σαλευόμενος ὑπὸ τῶν ἀντικειμένων͵ μηδὲ πιθανότητος λόγοις παρασυρόμενος. Ἐπὶ τὸ ὕψος σεαυτοῦ στῆθι͵ ἐν ταῖς αὐλαῖς Ἱερουσα λὴμ στῆσον τοὺς πόδας͵ ἐπὶ τῆς πέτρας ἔρει σον͵ ἵνα μὴ σαλεύηταί σου τὰ κατὰ Θεὸν διαβή ματα.





20. What do you say? Thus it has pleased Him that you should come forth [13] out of Egypt, the iron furnace; that you should leave behind the idolatry of that country, and be led by Moses and his lawgiving and martial rule. I give you a piece of advice which is not my own, or rather which is very much my own, if thou consider the matter spiritually. Borrow from the Egyptians vessels of gold and silver; (Exod. xi. 2). with these take your journey; supply yoursaelf for the road with the goods of strangers, or rather with thine own. There is money owing to you, the wages of thy bondage and of your brickmaking; be clever on your side too in asking retribution; be an honest robber. You suffered wrong there while you were fighting with the clay (that is, this troublesome and filthy body) and were building cities foreign and unsafe, whose memorial perishes with a cry. (Ps. ix. 6). What then? Do you come out for nothing and without wages? But why will you leave to the Egyptians and to the powers of your adversaries that which they have gained by wickedness, and will spend with yet greater wickedness? It does not belong to them: they have ravished it, and have sacrilegiously taken it as plunder from Him who says, The silver is Mine and the gold is Mine, (Hag. ii. 8). and I give it to whom I will. Yesterday it was theirs, for it was permitted to be so; to-day the Master takes it and gives it to you, (Matt. xx. 14). that you may make a good and saving use of it. Let us make friends for ourselves of the Mammon of unrighteousness, (Luke xvi. 9). that when we fail, they may receive us in the time of judgment.

Κ. Τί φῄς; Οὕτω ταῦτα ἔδοξεν͵ Αἴγυπτον ἐξελ θεῖν͵ τὴν σιδηρᾶν κάμινον͵ καταλιπεῖν σε τὴν ἐκεῖσε πολυθεΐαν͵ καὶ ὑπὸ Μωϋσέως ἀχθῆναι͵ καὶ τῆς 36.652 ἐκείνου νομοθεσίας καὶ στρατηγίας; Εἰσηγοῦμαι τι καὶ τῶν οὐκ ἐμῶν͵ μᾶλλον δὲ καὶ λίαν ἐμῶν͵ ἂν πνευματικῶς θεωρῇς. Χρῆσαι παρ΄ Αἰγυπτίων σκεύη χρυσᾶ καὶ ἀργυρᾶ· μετὰ τούτων ὅδευσον· ἐκ τῶν ἀλλοτρίων ἐφοδιάσθητι͵ μᾶλλον δὲ τῶν σῶν· χρεω στεῖταί σοι μισθὸς τῆς δουλείας καὶ τῆς πλινθείας· σόφισαί τι καὶ σὺ περὶ τὴν ἀπαίτησιν· καλῶς ἀπο στέρησον. Ἔστω͵ τεταλαιπώρηκας ἐνταῦθα͵ τῷ πηλῷ μαχόμενος͵ τῷ μοχθηρῷ τούτῳ καὶ ῥυπαρῷ σώ ματι͵ καὶ πόλεις οἰκοδομῶν ἀλλοτρίας καὶ σφαλερὰς͵ ὧν ἀπολεῖται τὸ μνημόσυνον μετ΄ ἤχου. Τί δαί; προῖκα ἐξέρχῃ καὶ ἀμισθί; Τί δαί; καταλείψεις Αἰγυπτίοις καὶ ταῖς ἀντικειμέναις δυνάμεσιν͵ ἃ κα κῶς ἐκτήσαντο͵ καὶ χεῖρον δαπανήσουσιν; Οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκείνων· ἐσύλησαν͵ ἥρπασαν τοῦ εἰπόντος· Ἐμόν ἐστι τὸ ἀργύριον͵ καὶ ἐμόν ἐστι τὸ χρυσίον͵ καὶ δώσω αὐτὸ ᾧ βούλομαι. Χθὲς ἦν ἐκείνων· συν εχωρεῖτο γάρ. Σήμερον σοὶ προσάγει καὶ δίδωσιν ὁ Δεσπότης͵ καλῶς χρησομένῳ καὶ σωτηρίως. Κτη σώμεθα ἡμῖν αὐτοῖς φίλους ἐκ τοῦ μαμμωνᾶ τῆς ἀδι κίας͵ ἵν΄ ὅταν ἐκλίπωμεν͵ ἀντιλάβωμεν ἐν καιρῷ κρίσεως.





21. If you are a Rachel or a Leah, a patriarchal and great soul, steal whatever idols of your father you can find; (Gen. xxxi. 19). not, however, that you may keep them, but that you may destroy them; and if you are a wise Israelite remove them to the Land of the Promise, and let the persecutor grieve over the loss of them, and learn through being outwitted that it was vain for him to tyrannize over and keep in bondage better men than himself. If thou doest this, and comest out of Egypt thus, I know well that thou shalt be guided by the pillar of fire and cloud by night and day. (Exod. xiii. 20). The wilderness shall be tamed for thee, and the Sea divided; (Ib. xiv. 21). Pharaoh shall be drowned; (Exod. xiv. 28). bread shall be rained down: (Ib. xvi. 15). the rock shall become a fountain; (Ib. xvii. 6). Amalek shall be conquered, not with arms alone, but with the hostile hand of the righteous forming both prayers and the invincible trophy of the Cross; (Ib. xvii. 10, 11). the River shall be cut off; the sun shall stand still; and the moon be restrained; (Josh. iii. 15, 16). walls shall be overthrown even without engines; (Ib. x. 13). swarms of hornets shall go before thee to make a way for Israel, and to hold the Gentiles in check; (Ib. vi. 20). and all the other events which are told in the history after these and with these (not to make a long story) shall be given thee of God. Such is the feast thou art keeping to-day; and in this manner I would have thee celebrate both the Birthday and the Burial of Him Who was born for thee and suffered for thee. Such is the Mystery of the Passover; such are the mysteries sketched by the Law and fulfilled by Christ, the Abolisher of the letter, the Perfecter of the Spirit, who by His Passion taught us how to suffer, and by His glorification grants us to be glorified with Him.

ΚΑ. Εἰ μέν τις εἶ Ραχὴλ͵ ἢ Λεία͵ ψυχὴ πατριαρ χικὴ καὶ μεγάλη͵ καὶ τὰ εἴδωλα κλέψον͵ ἅπερ ἂν εὕρῃς͵ τοῦ σοῦ πατρὸς͵ οὐχ ἵνα φυλάξῃς͵ ἀλλ΄ ἵν΄ ἀφανίσῃς· εἰ δὲ Ἰσραηλίτης σοφὸς͵ πρὸς τὴν γῆν τῆς ἐπαγγελίας μετένεγκε· καὶ περὶ τούτων ὁ διώ κτης ἀλγησάτω͵ καὶ γνώτω κατασοφισθεὶς͵ ὅτι μά την ἐτυράννει καὶ κατεδουλοῦτο τοὺς κρείττονας. Ἂν οὕτω ποιῇς͵ καὶ οὕτως ἐξέλθῃς Αἴγυπτον͵ εὖ οἶδα͵ στύλῳ πυρὸς καὶ νεφέλης ὁδηγηθήσῃ νυκτὸς καὶ ἡμέρας͵ ἔρημος ἡμερωθήσεται͵ θάλασσά σοι τμηθήσεται͵ Φαραὼ βαπτισθήσεται͵ ἄρτος ὀμβρήσει͵ πέτρα πηγάσει͵ Ἀμαλὴκ καταπολεμηθήσεται· οὐχ ὅπλοις μόνον͵ ἀλλὰ καὶ πολεμίαις χερσὶ δικαίων͵ εὐχὴν ὁμοῦ τυπούσαις͵ καὶ σταυροῦ τρόπαιον τὸ ἀήττητον· ποταμὸς ἀνακοπήσεται͵ ἥλιος στήσεται σελήνη σχεθήσεται͵ τείχη κατενεχθήσεται͵ καὶ δίχα μηχανημάτων͵ σφηκίαι προδραμοῦνται͵ ὁδοποιοῦσαι τῷ Ἰσραὴλ͵ καὶ τοὺς ἀλλοφύλους ἀνείργουσαι· τἄλλα τε ὅσα ἐπὶ τούτοις καὶ σὺν τούτοις ἱστόρηται͵ ἵνα μὴ μακρὸν ἀποτείνω λόγον͵ παρὰ Θεοῦ σοι δοθή σεται. Τοιαύτην ἑορτὴν ἑορτάζεις σήμερον· τοιοῦ τον ἑστιᾷ τὸ ἐπὶ σοὶ τοῦ γεννηθέντος γενέθλιον͵ καὶ τοῦ παθόντος ἐπιτάφιον· τοιοῦτόν σοι τὸ τοῦ Πάσχα μυστήριον. Ταῦτα ὁ νόμος ὑπέγραψε· ταῦτα Χριστὸς ἐτελείωσεν͵ ὁ τοῦ γράμματος καταλυτὴς͵ ὁ τελειωτὴς τοῦ Πνεύματος͵ ὃς οἷς ἔπαθε͵ τὸ πάσχειν διδάσκων͵ οἷς ἐδοξάσθη͵ τὸ συνδοξασθῆναι χαρίζεται.





22. (Ib. xxiv. 12). Now we are to examine another fact and dogma, neglected by most people, but in my judgment well worth enquiring into. To Whom was that Blood offered that was shed for us, and why was It shed? I mean the precious and famous Blood of our God and High priest and Sacrifice. We were detained in bondage by the Evil One, sold under sin, and receiving pleasure in exchange for wickedness. Now, since a ransom belongs only to him who holds in bondage, I ask to whom was this offered, and for what cause? If to the Evil One, fie upon the outrage! If the robber receives ransom, not only from God, but a ransom which consists of God Himself, and has such an illustrious payment for his tyranny, a payment for whose sake it would have been right for him to have left us alone altogether. But if to the Father, I ask first, how? For it was not by Him that we were being oppressed; and next, On what principle did the Blood of His Only begotten Son delight the Father, Who would not receive even Isaac, when he was being offered by his Father, but changed the sacrifice, putting a ram in the place of the human victim? (Gen. xxii. 11), &c. Is it not evident that the Father accepts Him, but neither asked for Him nor demanded Him; but on account of the Incarnation, and because Humanity must be sanctified by the Humanity of God, [14] that He might deliver us Himself, and overcome the tyrant, and draw us to Himself by the mediation of His Son, Who also arranged this to the honour of the Father, Whom it is manifest that He obeys in all things? So much we have said of Christ; the greater part of what we might say shall be reverenced with silence. But that brazen serpent (Num. xxi. 9). was hung up as a remedy for the biting serpents, not as a type of Him that suffered for us, but as a contrast; and it saved those that looked upon it, not because they believed it to live, but because it was killed, and killed with it the powers that were subject to it, being destroyed as it deserved. And what is the fitting epitaph for it from us? “O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory?” (Hos. 13. 14 & 1 Cor. 15. 55). Thou art overthrown by the Cross; thou art slain by Him who is the Giver of life; thou art without breath, dead, without motion, even though thou keepest the form of a serpent lifted up on high on a pole.

36.653 ΚΒ. Ἔστι τοίνυν ἐξετάσαι πρᾶγμα καὶ δόγμα͵ τοῖς μὲν πολλοῖς παρορώμενον͵ ἐμοὶ δὲ͵ καὶ λίαν ἐξεταζόμενον. Τίνι γὰρ τὸ ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν αἷμα͵ καὶ περὶ τίνος ἐχέθη͵ τὸ μέγα καὶ περιβόητον τοῦ Θεοῦ͵ καὶ ἀρχιερέως͵ καὶ θύματος; Κατειχόμεθα μὲν γὰρ ὑπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ͵ πεπραμένοι ὑπὸ τὴν ἁμαρ τίαν͵ καὶ ἀντιλαβόντες τῆς κακίας τὴν ἡδονήν. Εἰ δὲ τὸ λύτρον οὐκ ἄλλου τινὸς͵ ἢ τοῦ κατέχοντος γίνε ται͵ ζητῶ τίνι τοῦτο εἰσηνέχθη͵ καὶ δι΄ ἥντινα τὴν αἰτίαν; Εἰ μὲν τῷ πονηρῷ͵ φεῦ τῆς ὕβρεως· εἰ μὴ παρὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ μόνον͵ ἀλλὰ καὶ τὸν Θεὸν αὐτὸν λύ τρον ὁ λῃστὴς λαμβάνει͵ καὶ μισθὸν οὕτως ὑπερ φυῆ τῆς ἑαυτοῦ τυραννίδος͵ δι΄ ὃν καὶ ἡμῶν φείδεσθαι δίκαιον ἦν· εἰ δὲ τῷ Πατρὶ͵ πρῶτον μὲν πῶς; Οὐχ ὑπ΄ ἐκείνου γὰρ ἐκρατούμεθα. Δεύτερον δὲ͵ τίς ὁ λόγος͵ Μονογενοῦς αἷμα τέρπειν Πατέρα͵ ὃς οὐδὲ τὸν Ἰσαὰκ ἐδέξατο παρὰ τοῦ πατρὸς προσ φερόμενον͵ ἀλλ΄ ἀντηλλάξατο τὴν θυσίαν͵ κριὸν ἀντι δοὺς τοῦ λογικοῦ θύματος; ῍Η δῆλον͵ ὅτι λαμβάνει μὲν ὁ Πατὴρ͵ οὐκ αἰτήσας͵ οὐδὲ δεηθεὶς͵ ἀλλὰ διὰ τὴν οἰκονομίαν͵ καὶ τὸ χρῆναι ἁγιασθῆναι τῷ ἀνθρωπίνῳ τοῦ Θεοῦ τὸν ἄνθρωπον· ἵν΄ αὐτὸς ἡμᾶς ἐξέληται͵ τοῦ τυράννου βίᾳ κρατήσας͵ καὶ πρὸς ἑαυτὸν ἐπαναγάγῃ διὰ τοῦ Υἱοῦ μεσιτεύσαν τος͵ καὶ εἰς τιμὴν τοῦ Πατρὸς τοῦτο οἰκονομήσαν τος͵ ᾧ τὰ πάντα παραχωρῶν φαίνεται. Τὰ μὲν δὴ Χριστοῦ τοιαῦτα͵ καὶ τὰ πλείω σιγῇ σεβέσθω. Ὁ δὲ χαλκοῦς ὄφις κρεμᾶτοι μὲν κατὰ τῶν δα κνόντων ὄφεων͵ οὐχ ὡς τύπος δὲ τοῦ ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν παθόντος͵ ἀλλ΄ ὡς ἀντίτυπος· καὶ σώζει τοὺς εἰς αὐτὸν ὁρῶντας͵ οὐχ ὅτι ζῇ πιστευόμενος͵ ἀλλ΄ ὅτι νενέκρωται͵ καὶ συννεκροῖ τὰς ὑπ΄ αὐτὸν δυνά μεις͵ καταλυθεὶς͵ ὥσπερ ἦν ἄξιος. Καὶ τίς ὁ πρέ πων αὐτῷ παρ΄ ἡμῶν ἐπιτάφιος; Ποῦ σου͵ θά νατε͵ τὸ κέντρον; Ποῦ σου͵ ᾅδη͵ τὸ νῖκος; Τῷ σταυρῷ βέβλησαι͵ τῷ ζωοποιῷ τεθανάτωσαι. Ἄ πνους͵ νεκρὸς͵ ἀκίνητος͵ ἀνενέργητος͵ καὶ͵ εἰ τὸ σχῆμα σώζεις ὄφεως͵ ἐν ὕψει στηλιτευόμε νος.





23. Now we will partake of a Passover which is still typical; though it is plainer than the old one.

ΚΓ. Μεταληψόμεθα δὲ τοῦ Πάσχα͵ νῦν μὲν 36.656 τυπικῶς ἔτι͵ καὶ εἰ τοῦ παλαιοῦ γυμνότερον

because, under the law, the Passover was, if I may dare to say so, only a symbol of a symbol. Before long, however, when the Word drinks the new wine with us in the kingdom of his Father, we shall be keeping the Passover in a yet more perfect way, and with deeper understanding. He will then reveal to us and make clear what he has so far only partially disclosed.

 (τὸ γὰρ νομικὸν Πάσχα͵ τολμῶ καὶ λέγω͵ τύπου τύπος ἦν ἀμυδρότερος)· μικρὸν δὲ ὕστερον͵ τελεώτερον καὶ καθαρώτερον͵ ἡνίκα ἂν αὐτὸ πίνῃ καινὸν μεθ΄ ἡμῶν ὁ Λόγος ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ Πατρὸς͵ ἀποκα λύπτων καὶ διδάσκων͵ ἃ νῦν μετρίως παρέδειξε.

For that is ever new which is now becoming known. It is ours to learn what is that drinking and that enjoyment, and His to teach and communicate the Word to His disciples.

Καινὸν γάρ ἐστιν ἀεὶ τὸ νῦν γνωριζόμενον. Τίς δὲ ἡ πόσις καὶ ἡ ἀπόλαυσις͵ ἡμῶν μὲν τὸ μαθεῖν͵ ἐκεί νου δὲ τὸ διδάξαι͵ καὶ κοινώσασθαι τοῖς ἑαυτοῦ μαθη ταῖς τὸν λόγον.

For teaching is food, even to the Giver of food. Come hither then, and let us partake of the Law, but in a Gospel manner, not a literal one; perfectly, not imperfectly; eternally, not temporarily.

Τροφὴ γάρ ἐστιν ἡ δίδαξις͵ καὶ τοῦ τρέφοντος. Ἀλλὰ δεῦρο͵ καὶ ἡμεῖς τοῦ νόμου μεταλά βωμεν εὐαγγελικῶς͵ ἀλλὰ μὴ γραπτῶς· τελείως͵ ἀλλὰ μὴ ἀτελῶς· ἀϊδίως͵ ἀλλὰ μὴ προσκαίρως͵

Let us make our Head, not the earthly Jerusalem, but the heavenly City; (Heb. xii. 22). not that which is now trodden under foot by armies, (Luke xxi. 20–24). but that which is glorified by Angels.

Ποιησώ μεθα κεφαλὴν͵ μὴ τὴν κάτω Ἱερουσαλὴμ͵ ἀλλὰ τὴν ἄνω μητρόπολιν· μὴ τὴν ὑπὸ στρατοπέδων νῦν πα τουμένην͵ ἀλλὰ τὴν ὑπ΄ ἀγγέλων δοξαζομένην.

Let us sacrifice not young calves, nor lambs that put forth horns and hoofs, (Ps. lxiv. 32). in which many parts are destitute of life and feeling; but let us sacrifice to God the sacrifice of praise upon the heavenly Altar, with the heavenly dances; let us hold aside the first veil; let us approach the second, and look into the Holy of Holies. (Heb. 13. 15 & 10. 20).

Θύσωμεν͵ μὴ μόσχους νέους͵ μηδὲ ἀμνοὺς κέρατα ἐκ φέροντας καὶ ὁπλὰς͵ παρ΄ οἷς πολὺ τὸ νεκρὸν καὶ ἀναίσθητον· ἀλλὰ θύσωμεν τῷ Θεῷ θυσίαν αἰνέ σεως͵ ἐπὶ τὸ ἄνω θυσιαστήριον͵ μετὰ τῆς ἄνω χο ροστασίας. Διάσχωμεν τὸ πρῶτον καταπέτασμα͵ τῷ δευτέρῳ προσέλθωμεν͵ εἰς τὰ Ἅγια τῶν ἁγίων πα ρακύψωμεν.

Shall I say that which is a greater thing yet? Let us sacrifice ourselves to God; or rather let us go on sacrificing throughout every day and at every moment. Let us accept anything for the Word’s sake. By sufferings let us imitate His Passion: by our blood let us reverence His Blood: let us gladly mount upon the Cross. Sweet are the nails, though they be very painful. For to suffer with Christ and for Christ is better than a life of ease with others.

Εἴπω τὸ μεῖζον͵ ἡμᾶς αὐτοὺς θύσωμεν τῷ Θεῷ· μᾶλλον δὲ͵ θύωμεν καθ΄ ἑκάστην ἡμέραν καὶ πᾶσαν κίνησιν. Πάντα ὑπὲρ τοῦ Λόγου δεχώμε θα͵ πάθεσι τὸ πάθος μιμώμεθα͵ αἵματι τὸ αἷμα σε μνύνωμεν͵ ἐπὶ τὸν σταυρὸν ἀνίωμεν πρόθυμοι. Γλυ κεῖς οἱ ἧλοι͵ καὶ εἰ λίαν ὀδυνηροί. Τὸ γὰρ μετὰ Χριστοῦ πάσχειν͵ καὶ ὑπὲρ Χριστοῦ͵ τοῦ μετ΄ ἄλλων τρυφᾷν αἱρετώτερον.





24. If you are a Simon of Cyrene, (Mark xv. 21). take up the Cross and follow. If you are crucified with Him as a robber, (Luke xxiii. 42). acknowledge God as a penitent robber. If even He was numbered among the transgressors (Isa. liii. 12). for you and your sin, do you become law-abiding for His sake. Worship Him Who was hanged for you, even if you yourself are hanging; make some gain even from your wickedness; purchase salvation by your death; enter with Jesus into Paradise, (Luke xxiii. 43). so that you may learn from what you have fallen. (Rev. ii. 5). Contemplate the glories that are there; let the murderer die outside with his blasphemies; and if you be a Joseph of Arimathæa, (Luke xxiii. 52). beg the Body from him that crucified Him, make thine own that which cleanses the world. (1 John i. 7). If you be a Nicodemus, the worshipper of God by night, bury Him with spices. (John xix. 39). If you be a Mary, or another Mary, or a Salome, or a Joanna, weep in the early morning. Be first to see the stone taken away, (Ib. xx. 11), etc. and perhaps you will see the Angels and Jesus Himself. Say something; hear His Voice. If He say to you, Touch Me not, (Ib. xxi. 17). stand afar off; reverence the Word, but grieve not; for He knoweth those to whom He appeareth first. Keep the feast of the Resurrection; come to the aid of Eve who was first to fall, of Her who first embraced the Christ, and made Him known to the disciples. Be a Peter or a John; hasten to the Sepulchre, running together, running against one another, vying in the noble race. (Ib. xx. 3, 4). And even if you be beaten in speed, win the victory of zeal; not Looking into the tomb, but Going in. And if, like a Thomas, you were left out when the disciples were assembled to whom Christ shews Himself, when you do see Him be not faithless; (Ib. xx. 25). and if you do not believe, then believe those who tell you; and if you cannot believe them either, then have confidence in the print of the nails. If He descend into Hell, (1 Pet. iii. 19). descend with Him. Learn to know the mysteries of Christ there also, what is the providential purpose of the twofold descent, to save all men absolutely by His manifestation, or there too only them that believe.

ΚΔ. Ἂν Σίμων ἦς Κυρηναῖος͵ τὸν σταυρὸν ἆρον͵ καὶ ἀκολούθησον. Ἂν συσταυρωθῇς ὡς λῃστὴς͵ ὡς εὐγνώμων τὸν Θεὸν γνώρισον· εἰ κἀκεῖνος μετὰ ἀνόμων ἐλογίσθη διὰ σὲ καὶ τὴν σὴν ἁμαρτίαν͵ σὺ γενοῦ δι΄ ἐκεῖνον ἔννομος. Προσκύνησον τὸν διὰ σὲ κρεμασθέντα͵ καὶ κρεμάμενος· κέρδανόν τι καὶ παρὰ τῆς κακίας· ὤμνησαι τῷ θανάτῳ τὴν σωτη ρίαν· εἰς τὸν παράδεισον εἴσελθε μετὰ Ἰησοῦ͵ ὥστε μαθεῖν ὧν ἐκπέπτωκας· Τὰ ἐκεῖ κάλλη θεώρησον· τὸν γογγυστὴν ἄφες ἀποθανεῖν ἔξω͵ μετὰ τῆς βλα σφημίας. Κἂν Ἰωσὴφ ᾖς ὁ ἀπὸ Ἀριμαθαίας͵ αἴ τησαι τὸ σῶμα παρὰ τοῦ σταυροῦντος· σὸν γενέσθω τὸ τοῦ κόσμου καθάρσιον. Κἂν Νικόδημος ᾖς͵ ὁ νυ κτερινὸς θεοσεβὴς͵ μύροις αὐτὸν ἐνταφίασον. Κἂν Μαρία τις ᾖς͵ κἂν ἡ ἄλλη Μαρία͵ κἂν Σαλώμη͵ κἂν Ἰωάννα͵ δάκρυσον ὀρθρία. Ἴδε πρώτη τὸν λίθον ἡρμένον͵ τυχὸν δὲ καὶ τοὺς ἀγγέλους͵ καὶ Ἰη σοῦν αὐτόν. Φθέγξαι τι· φωνῆς ἄκουσον. Ἂν ἀκού 36.657 σῃς. Μή μου ἅπτου͵ πόῤῥω στῆθι͵ σεβάσθητι τὸν Λόγον͵ ἀλλὰ μὴ λυπηθῇς. Οἶδε γὰρ οἷς ὀφθῇ πρῶ τον. Ἐγκαίνισον τὴν ἀνάστασιν· τῇ Εὔᾳ βοήθησον͵ τῇ πρώτῃ πεσούσῃ͵ τῇ πρώτῃ Τριστὸν ἀσπά σασθαι͵ καὶ γνωρίσαι τοῖς μαθηταῖς. Γενοῦ Πέτρος͵ ἢ Ἰωάννης· ἐπὶ τὸν τάφον ἐπείχθητι͵ ἀντιτρέ χων͵ συντρέχων͵ τὴν καλὴν ἅμιλλαν ἁμιλλώμε νος. Κἂν προληφθῇς τῷ τάχει͵ τῇ σπουδῇ νί κησον μὴ παρακύψας εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον͵ ἀλλ΄ ἔνδον γενόμενος. Κἂν ὡς Θωμᾶς ἀπολειφθῇς͵ τῶν μαθητῶν συνηγμένων͵ οἷς Χριστὸς ἐμφανίζεται͵ ὅταν ἴδῃς͵ μὴ ἀπιστήσῃς· κἂν ἀπιστήσῃς͵ τοῖς λέγουσι πίστευσον· εἰ δὲ μηδὲ τούτοις͵ τοῖς τύποις τῶν ἥλων πιστώθητι. Ἂν εἰς ᾅδου κατίῃ͵ συγκάτελθε. Γνῶθι καὶ τὰ ἐκεῖσε τοῦ Χριστοῦ μυστήρια͵ τίς ἡ οἰκονομία τῆς δι πλῆς καταβάσεως͵ τίς ὁ λόγος· ἁπλῶς σώζει πάντας ἐπιφανεὶς͵ ἢ κακεῖ τοὺς πιστεύοντας.





25. And if He ascend up into Heaven, (Luke xxiv. 51). ascend with Him. Be one of those angels who escort Him, or one of those who receive Him. Bid the gates be lifted up, (Ps. xxiv. 7, 10). or be made higher, that they may receive Him, exalted after His Passion. Answer to those who are in doubt because He bears up with Him His body and the tokens of His Passion, which He had not when He came down, and who therefore inquire, “Who is this King of Glory?” that it is the Lord strong and mighty, as in all things that He hath done from time to time and does, so now in His battle and triumph for the sake of Mankind. And give to the doubting of the question the twofold answer. And if they marvel and say as in Isaiah’s drama Who is this that cometh from Edom and from the things of earth? Or How are the garments red of Him that is without blood or body, as of one that treads in the full wine-press? (Isa. lxiii. 1). set forth the beauty of the array of the Body that suffered, adorned by the Passion, and made splendid by the Godhead, than which nothing can be more lovely or more beautiful.

ΚΕ. Κἂν εἰς οὐρανοὺς ἀνίῃ͵ συνάνελθε· γενοῦ μετὰ τῶν παραπεμπόντων ἀγγέλων͵ ἢ τῶν δεχομέ νων. Ἀρθῆναι ταῖς πύλαις διακέλευσαι͵ ὑψηλοτέ ραις γενέσθαι͵ ἵν΄ ἐκ τοῦ παθεῖν ὑψηλότερον δέξωνται. Ἀπόκριναι τοῖς ἀποροῦσι διὰ τὸ σῶμα͵ καὶ τὰ τοῦ Πάθους σύμβολα͵ οἷς μὴ κατελθὼν συν ανέρχεται͵ καὶ διὰ τοῦτο πυνθανομένοις· Τίς ἐστιν οὗτος ὁ βασιλεὺς τῆς δόξης; ὅτι Κύριος κραταιὸς καὶ δυνατὸς ἐν πᾶσί τε οἷς ἀεὶ πεποίηκε͵ καὶ ποιεῖ͵ καὶ τῷ νῦν πολέμῳ καὶ τροπαίῳ περὶ τῆς ἀνθρωπό τητος· καὶ δὸς τῷ διπλῷ τῆς ἐρωτήσεως διπλῆν τὴν ἀπόκρισιν. Κἂν θαυμάζωσι͵ λέγοντες͵ κατὰ τὴν Ἡσαΐου δραματουργίαν· Τίς οὗτος ὁ παραγενό μενος ἐξ Ἐδὼμ͵ καὶ τῶν γηίνων; ἢ͵ Πῶς ἐρυθρὰ τὰ ἱμάτια τοῦ ἀναίμου καὶ ἀσωμάτου͵ ὡς ληνοβάτου͵ καὶ πλήρη ληνὸν πατήσαντος; προβαλοῦ τὸ ὡραῖον τῆς στολῆς τοῦ πεπονθότος σώματος͵ τῷ Πάθει καλλω πισθέντος͵ καὶ τῇ Θεότητι λαμπρυνθέντος͵ ἧς οὐδὲν ἐρασιμιώτερον͵ οὐδὲ ὡραιότερον.





26.[15] To this what will those cavillers say, those bitter reasoners about Godhead, those detractors of all things that are praiseworthy, those darkeners of Light, uncultured in respect of Wisdom, for whom Christ died in vain, unthankful creatures, the work of the Evil One. Do you turn this benefit into a reproach to God? Will you deem Him little on this account, that He humbled Himself for your sake, and because to seek for that which had wandered the Good Shepherd, He who layeth down His life for the sheep, (John x. 11). came upon the mountains and hills upon which you used to sacrifice, (John v. 35). and found the wandering one; and having found it, took it upon His shoulders, (Hos. iv. 13). on which He also bore the wood; and having borne it, brought it back to the life above; and having brought it back, numbered it among those who have never strayed. That He lit a candle, (Luke xv. 4, 5). His own flesh, and swept the house, by cleansing away the sin of the world, and sought for the coin, the Royal Image that was all covered up with passions, and calls together His friends, the Angelic Powers, at the finding of the coin, and makes them sharers of His joy, as He had before made them sharers of the secret of His Incarnation? That the Light that is exceeding bright should follow the Candle—Forerunner, (Ib. xv. 8, 9). and the Word, the Voice, and the Bridegroom, the Bridegroom’s friend, (Ib. 1. 23; 3. 9, 29). that prepared for the Lord a peculiar people (cf (Luke i. 17)) . and cleansed them by the water (Matt. iii. 11). in preparation for the Spirit? Do you Reproach God with this? Do you conceive of Him as less because He girds Himself with a towel and washes His disciples, (John xiii. 4, 5). and shows that humiliation is the best road to exaltation; (Matt. xxiii. 12). because He humbles Himself for the sake of the soul that is bent down to the ground, (Luke xiii. 10), etc. that He may even exalt with Himself that which is bent double under a weight of sin? How comes it that you do not also charge it upon Him as a crime that He eateth with Publicans (Mark ii. 15, 16). and at Publicans’ tables, and makes disciples of Publicans (Luke xv. 2). that He too may make some gain. And what gain? The salvation of sinners. If so, one must blame the physician for stooping over suffering and putting up with evil smells in order to give health to the sick; and him also who leans over the ditch, that he may, according to the Law, save the beast that has fallen into it.

Κ. Πρὸς ταῦτα τί φασιν ἡμῖν οἱ συκοφάνται͵ οἱ πικροὶ τῆς Θεότητος λογισταὶ͵ οἱ κατήγοροι τῶν ἐπαινουμένων͵ οἱ σκοτεινοὶ περὶ τὸ φῶς͵ οἱ περὶ τὴν σοφίαν ἀπαίδευτοι͵ ὑπὲρ ὧν Χριστὸς δωρεὰν ἀπέθανε͵ τὰ ἀχάριστα κτίσματα͵ τὰ τοῦ πονηροῦ πλάσματα; Τοῦτο ἐγκαλεῖς Θεῷ τὴν εὐεργεσίαν; διὰ τοῦτο μι κρὸς͵ ὅτι διὰ σὲ ταπεινός; ὅτι ἐπὶ τὸ πλανώμενον ἦλθεν ὁ Ποιμὴν ὁ καλὸς͵ ὁ τιθεὶς τὴν ψυχὴν ὑπὲρ τῶν προβάτων͵ ἐπὶ τὰ ὄρη καὶ τοὺς βουνοὺς͵ ἐφ΄ ὧν 36.660 ἐθυσίαζες͵ καὶ πλανώμενον εὗρε͵ καὶ εὑρὼν ἐπὶ τῶν ὤμων ἀνέλαβεν͵ ἐφ΄ ὧν καὶ τὸ ξύλον͵ καὶ λαβὼν ἐπανήγαγεν ἐπὶ τὴν ἄνω ζωὴν͵ καὶ ἀναγαγὼν τοῖς μένουσι συνηρίθμησεν; ὅτι λύχνον ἧψε͵ τὴν ἑαυτοῦ σάρκα͵ καὶ τὴν οἰκίαν ἐσάρωσε͵ τῆς ἁμαρτίας τὸν κόσμον ἀποκαθαίρων͵ καὶ τὴν δραχμὴν ἐζήτησε͵ τὴν βασιλικὴν εἰκόνα συγκεχωσμένην τοῖς πάθεσι͵ καὶ συγκαλεῖ τὰς φίλας αὐτῷ δυνάμεις ἐπὶ τῇ τῆς δρα χμῆς εὑρέσει͵ καὶ κοινωνοὺς ποιεῖται τῆς εὐφροσύ νης͵ ἃς καὶ τῆς οἰκονομίας μύστιδας πεποίητο͵ ὅτι τῷ προδρόμῳ λύχνῳ τὸ φῶς ἀκολουθεῖ τὸ ὑπέρ λαμπρον͵ καὶ τῇ φωνῇ ὁ Λόγος͵ καὶ τῷ νυμφαγωγῷ ὁ νυμφίος͵ κατασκευάζοντι Κυρίῳ λαὸν περιούσιον͵ καὶ προκαθαίροντι ἐπὶ τὸ Πνεῦμα διὰ τοῦ ὕδατος; Ταῦτα ἐγκαλεῖς τῷ Θεῷ; διὰ ταῦτα ὑπο λαμβάνεις χείρονα͵ ὅτι λεντίῳ διαζώννυται͵ καὶ νί πτει τοὺς πόδας τῶν μαθητῶν͵ καὶ δείκνυσιν ἀρίστην ὁδὸν ὑψώσεως͵ τὴν ταπείνωσιν; ὅτι διὰ τὴν συγκύ πτουσαν χαμαὶ ψυχὴν ταπεινοῦται͵ ἵνα καὶ συν υψώσῃ τὸ κάτω νεῦον ὑπὸ τῆς ἁμαρτίας; Ἐκεῖνο δὲ πῶς οὐ κατηγορεῖς͵ ὅτι καὶ μετὰ τελωνῶν ἐσθίει͵ καὶ παρὰ τελώναις͵ καὶ μαθητεύει τελώνας͵ ἵνα καὶ αὐτός τι κερδάνῃ; Τί τοῦτο; Τὴν τῶν ἁμαρτωλῶν σωτηρίαν. Εἰ μὴ καὶ τὸν ἰατρὸν αἰτιῷτό τις͵ ὅτι συγκύπτει ἐπὶ τὰ πάθη͵ καὶ δυσωδίας ἀνέχεται͵ ἵνα δῷ τὴν ὑγίειαν τοῖς κάμνουσι· καὶ τὸν ἐπικλινόμενον βόθρῳ διὰ φιλανθρωπίαν͵ ἵνα τὸ ἐμπεπτωκὸς κτῆνος κατὰ τὸν νόμον ἀνασώσηται.





27. He was sent, but sent according to His Manhood (for He was of two Natures), since He was hungry and thirsty and weary, and was distressed and wept, according to the Laws of human nature. But even if He were sent also as God, what of that? Consider the Mission to be the good pleasure of the Father, to which He refers all that concerns Himself, both that He may honour the Eternal Principle, and that He may avoid the appearance of being a rival God. For He is said on the one hand to have been betrayed, and on the other it is written that He gave Himself up; and so too that He was raised and taken up by the Father, and also that of His own power He rose and ascended. The former belongs to the Good Pleasure, the latter to His own Authority; but you dwell upon all that diminishes Him, while you ignore all that exalts Him. For instance, you score that He suffered, but you do not add “of His own Will.” Ah, what things has the Word even now to suffer! By some He is honoured as God but confused with the Father; by others He is dishonoured as Flesh, and is severed from God. With whom shall He be most angry—or rather which shall He forgive—those who falsely contract Him, or those who divide Him? For the former ought to have made a distinction, and the latter to have made a Union, the one in number, the other in Godhead. Do you stumble at His Flesh? So did the Jews. Do you call Him a Samaritan, (Jn 8. 48). and the rest which I will not utter? This did not even the demons, O man more unbelieving than demons, and more stupid than Jews. The Jews recognized the title Son as expressing equal rank; and the demons knew that He who drove them out was God, for they were persuaded by their own experience. But you will not either admit the equality or confess the Godhead. It would have been better for you to have been circumcised and a demoniac—to reduce the matter to an absurdity—than in uncircumcision and robust health to be thus ill and ungodly disposed. But for our war with such men, let it be brought to an end by their returning, however late, to a sound mind, if they will; or else if they will not, let it be postponed to another occasion, if they continue as they are. Anyhow, we will have no fear when contending for the Trinity with the help of the Trinity.

ΚΖ. Ἀπεστάλη μὲν͵ ἀλλ΄ ὡς ἄνθρωπος· διπλοῦς γὰρ ἦν· ἐπεὶ καὶ ἐκοπίασε͵ καὶ ἐπείνησε͵ καὶ ἐδίψησε͵ καὶ ἠγωνίασε͵ καὶ ἐδάκρυσε͵ νόμῳ φύσεως. Εἰ δὲ καὶ ὡς Θεὸς͵ τί τοῦτο; Τὴν εὐδοκίαν τοῦ Πατρὸς ἀποστολὴν εἶναι νόμισον͵ ἐφ΄ ὃν ἀναφέρει τὰ ἑαυτοῦ͵ καὶ ὡς ἀρχὴν τιμῶν ἄχρονον͵ καὶ τοῦ μὴ δοκεῖν εἶναι ἀντίθεος. Ἐπεὶ καὶ παραδεδόσθαι λέγεται͵ ἀλλὰ καὶ ἑαυτὸν παραδεδωκέναι γέγραπται· καὶ ἐγηγέρ θαι παρὰ τοῦ Πατρὸς καὶ ἀνειλῆφθαι͵ ἀλλὰ καὶ ἑαυ τὸν ἀνεστακέναι͵ καὶ ἀνεληλυθέναι πάλιν· ἐκεῖνα τῆς εὐδοκίας͵ ταῦτα τῆς ἐξουσίας. Σὺ δὲ τὰ μὲν ἐλαττοῦντα λέγεις͵ τὰ ὑψοῦντα δὲ παρατρέχεις· καὶ ὅτι μὲν ἔπαθε͵ λογίζῃ· ὅτι δὲ ἑκὼν͵ οὐ προστίθης. Οἷα πάσχει καὶ νῦν ὁ Λόγος Ὑπὸ μὲν τῶν ὡς Θεὸς τιμᾶται καὶ συναλείφεται· ὑπὸ δὲ τῶν ὡς σὰρξ ἀτιμάζεται καὶ χωρίζεται. Τίσιν ὀργισθῆ πλέον; 36.661 μᾶλλον δὲ͵ τίσιν ἀφῇ͵ τοῖς συναιροῦσι κακῶς͵ ἢ τοῖς τέμνουσι; Καὶ γὰρ κἀκείνους διαιρεῖν ἔδει͵ καὶ τού τους συνάπτειν· τοὺς μὲν τῷ ἀριθμῷ͵ τοὺς δὲ τῇ Θεότητι. Προσκόπτεις τῇ σαρκί; τοῦτο καὶ Ἰουδαῖοι. ῍Η καὶ Σαμαρείτην ἀποκαλεῖς (καὶ τὸ ἑξῆς σιωπή σομαι); ἀπιστεῖς τῇ Θεότητι; τοῦτο οὐδὲ οἱ δαίμονες. Ὦ καὶ δαιμόνων ἀπιστότερε σὺ͵ καὶ Ἰουδαίων ἀγνω μονέστερε Ἐκεῖνοι τὴν τοῦ Υἱοῦ προσηγορίαν ὁμο τιμίας φωνὴν ἐνόμισαν· οὗτοι τὸν ἐλαύνοντα Θεὸν ᾔδεσαν· ἐπείθοντο γὰρ ἐξ ὧν ἔπασχον. Σὺ δὲ͵ οὐδὲ τὴν ἰσότητα δέχῃ͵ οὐδὲ ὁμολογεῖς τὴν Θεότητα. Κρεῖτ τον ἦν σοι περιτετμῆσθαι καὶ δαιμονᾷν͵ ἵν΄ εἴπω τι καὶ γελοίως͵ ἢ ἐν ἀκροβυστίᾳ καὶ ὑγιείᾳ διακεῖσθαι πονηρῶς καὶ ἀθέως. Ἀλλ΄ ὁ μὲν πρὸς ἐκείνους πόλε μος ἢ καταλυέσθω͵ ὀψὲ γοῦν σωφρονήσαντας εἴπερ ἐθέλοιεν͵ ἢ ἀναβεβλήσθω͵ μὴ βουλομένων͵ ἀλλ΄ ἐχόν των ὡς ἔχουσιν. Πάντως δὲ οὐδὲν δείσομεν͵ ὑπὲρ τῆς Τριάδος͵ μετὰ τῆς Τριάδος ἀγωνιζόμενοι.





28. It is now needful for us to sum up our discourse as follows: We were created that we might be made happy. We were made happy when we were created. We were entrusted with Paradise that we might enjoy life. We received a Commandment that we might obtain a good repute by keeping it; not that God did not know what would take place, but because He had laid down the law of Free Will. We were deceived because we were the objects of envy. We were cast out because we transgressed. We fasted because we refused to fast, being overpowered by the Tree of Knowledge. For the Commandment was ancient, coeval with ourselves, and was a kind of education of our souls and curb of luxury, to which we were reasonably made subject, in order that we might recover by keeping it that which we had lost by not keeping it. We needed an Incarnate God, a God put to death, that we might live. We were put to death together with Him, that we might be cleansed; we rose again with Him because we were put to death with Him; we were glorified with Him, because we rose again with Him.

ΚΗ. Νῦν δὲ ἀναγκαῖον ἡμῖν οὕτω κεφαλαιῶσαι τὸν λόγον· Γεγόναμεν͵ ἵν΄ εὖ πάθωμεν· εὖ πεπόνθα μεν͵ ἐπειδὴ γεγόναμεν. Τὸν παράδεισον ἐπιστεύ θημεν͵ ἵνα τρυφήσωμεν. Ἐντολὴν ἐλάβομεν͵ ἵν΄ εὐδο κιμήσωμεν ταύτην φυλάξαντες· οὐκ ἀγνοοῦντος τοῦ Θεοῦ τὸ ἐσόμενον͵ ἀλλὰ νομοθετοῦντος τὸ αὐτεξού σιον. Ἠπατήθημεν͵ ἐπειδὴ ἐφθονήθημεν· ἐκπεπτώκαμεν͵ ἐπειδὴ παρέβημεν· ἐνηστεύσαμεν͵ ἐπειδὴ μὴ ἐνηστεύσαμεν͵ τοῦ ξύλου τῆς γνώσεως ὑποκρατηθέντες. Ἀρχαία γὰρ ἦν ἡ ἐντολὴ͵ καὶ ἡμῖν ὁμόχρονος ψυχῆς τις οὖσα παιδαγωγία͵ καὶ τρυφῆς σωφρόνισμα· ἣν ἐπετάχθημεν εἰκότως͵ ἵν΄ ὃ μὴ φυ λάξαντες ἀποβεβλήκαμεν͵ φυλάξαντες ἀπολάβωμεν. Ἐδεήθημεν Θεοῦ σαρκουμένου καὶ νεκρουμένου͵ ἵνα ζήσωμεν· συνενεκρώθημεν͵ ἵνα καθαρῶμεν· συναν έστημεν͵ ἐπειδὴ συνενεκρώθημεν· συνεδοξάσθημεν͵ ἐπειδὴ συνανέστημεν.





29. Many indeed are the miracles of that time: God crucified; the sun darkened and again rekindled; for it was fitting that the creatures should suffer with their Creator; the veil rent; the Blood and Water shed from His Side; the one as from a man, the other as above man; the rocks rent for the Rock’s sake; the dead raised for a pledge of the final Resurrection of all men; the Signs at the Sepulchre and after the Sepulchre, which none can worthily celebrate; and yet none of these equal to the Miracle of my salvation. A few drops of Blood recreate the whole world, and become to all men what rennet is to milk, drawing us together and compressing us into unity.

ΚΘ. Πολλὰ μὲν δὴ τοῦ τότε καιροῦ τὰ θαύματα· Θεὸς σταυρούμενος͵ ἥλιος σκοτιζόμενος͵ καὶ πάλιν ἀναφλεγόμενος (ἔδει γὰρ τῷ Κτίστῃ συμπαθεῖν καὶ τὰ κτίσματα)· καταπέτασμα σχιζόμενον͵ αἷμα καὶ ὕδωρ τῆς πλευρᾶς χεόμενον· τὸ μὲν͵ ὡς ἀνθρώπου͵ τὸ δὲ͵ ὡς ὑπὲρ ἄνθρωπον· γῆ σειομένη͵ πέτραι ὑπὲρ τῆς πέτρας ῥηγνύμεναι͵ νεκροὶ ἀνιστάμενοι εἰς πί στιν τῆς τελευταίας καὶ κοινῆς ἀναστάσεως· τὰ ἐπὶ 36.664 τῷ τάφῳ σημεῖα͵ τὰ μετὰ τὸν τάφον͵ ἃ τίς ἂν ἀξίως ὑμνήσειεν; Οὐδὲν δὲ οἷον τὸ θαῦμα τῆς ἐμῆς σωτηρίας· ῥανίδες αἵματος ὀλίγαι κόσμον ὅλον ἀνα πλάττουσαι͵ καὶ γίνονται καθάπερ ὀπὸς γάλακτι πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις͵ εἰς ἓν ἡμᾶς συνδέουσαι καὶ συνάγουσαι.





30. But, O Pascha, great and holy and purifier of all the world—for I will speak to thee as to a living person—O Word of God and Light and Life and Wisdom and Might—for I rejoice in all Thy names—O Offspring and Expression and Signet of the Great Mind; O Word conceived and Man contemplated, Who bearest all things, binding them by the Word of Thy power; receive this discourse, not now as firstfruits, but perhaps as the completion of my offerings, a thanksgiving, and at the same time a supplication, that we may suffer no evil beyond those necessary and sacred cares in which our life has been passed; and stay the tyranny of the body over us;

Λ. Ἀλλ΄͵ ὦ Πάσχα͵ τὸ μέγα καὶ ἱερὸν͵ καὶ παν τὸς τοῦ κόσμου καθάρσιον ὡς γὰρ ἐμψύχῳ σοι δια λέξομαι. Ὦ Λόγε Θεοῦ͵ καὶ φῶς͵ καὶ ζωὴ͵ καὶ σοφία͵ καὶ δύναμις χαίρω γὰρ πᾶσί σου τοῖς ὀνόμασιν. Ὦ νοῦ τοῦ μεγάλου γέννημα͵ καὶ ὅρμημα͵ καὶ ἐκσφρά γισμα ὦ Λόγε νοούμενε͵ καὶ ἄνθρωπε θεωρούμενε͵ ὃς πάντα φέρεις ἀναδησάμενος τῷ ῥήματι τῆς δυνάμεώς σου νῦν μὲν ἔχοις τὸν λόγον τοῦτον͵ οὐκ ἀπαρχὴν͵ ἀλλὰ συμπλήρωσιν ἵσως τῆς ἡμετέρας καρποφορίας͵ χαριστήριον τὸν αὐτὸν καὶ ἱκέσιον μη δὲν κακοπαθεῖν ἡμᾶς ἔξω τῶν ἀναγκαίων καὶ ἱερῶν͵ οἷς συνεζήσαμεν· καὶ στήσαις τῷ σώματι τὴν καθ΄ ἡμῶν τυραννίδα

 (Thou seest, O Lord, how great it is and how it bows me down) or Thine own sentence, if we are to be condemned by Thee. But if we are to be released, in accordance with our desire, and be received into the Heavenly Tabernacle, there too it may be we shall offer Thee acceptable Sacrifices upon Thine Altar, to Father and Word and Holy Ghost; for to Thee belongeth all glory and honour and might, world without end. Amen.

(ὁρᾷς ὅσην͵ Κύριε͵ καὶ ὡς κάμπτουσαν)͵ ἢ τὴν σὴν ψῆφον͵ εἰ παρὰ σοῦ καθαι ροίμεθα. Εἰ δὲ καταλύσαιμεν ἀξίως τοῦ πόθου͵ καὶ δεχθείημεν ταῖς οὐρανίαις σκηναῖς͵ τάχα σοι καὶ αὐτόθι θύσομεν δεκτὰ ἐπὶ τὸ ἅγιόν σου θυσιαστήριον͵ ὦ Πάτερ͵ καὶ Λόγε͵ καὶ Πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον· ὅτι σοὶ πρέπει πᾶσα δόξα͵ τιμὴ͵ καὶ κράτος͵ εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων. Ἀμήν. 36.665





The Office of Readings
, Saturday, Lent Week 5. Oration 45, 23-24; PG 36, 654-655. 

We are soon going to share in the Passover


23. We are soon going to share in the Passover, and although we still do so only in a symbolic way, the symbolism already has more clarity than it possessed in former times because, under the law, the Passover was, if I may dare to say so, only a symbol of a symbol. Before long, however, when the Word drinks the new wine with us in the kingdom of his Father, we shall be keeping the Passover in a yet more perfect way, and with deeper understanding. He will then reveal to us and make clear what he has so far only partially disclosed. For this wine, so familiar to us now, is eternally new.

ΚΓ. Μεταληψόμεθα δὲ τοῦ Πάσχα͵ νῦν μὲν 36.656 τυπικῶς ἔτι͵ καὶ εἰ τοῦ παλαιοῦ γυμνότερον (τὸ γὰρ νομικὸν Πάσχα͵ τολμῶ καὶ λέγω͵ τύπου τύπος ἦν ἀμυδρότερος)· μικρὸν δὲ ὕστερον͵ τελεώτερον καὶ καθαρώτερον͵ ἡνίκα ἂν αὐτὸ πίνῃ καινὸν μεθ΄ ἡμῶν ὁ Λόγος ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ Πατρὸς͵ ἀποκα λύπτων καὶ διδάσκων͵ ἃ νῦν μετρίως παρέδειξε. Καινὸν γάρ ἐστιν ἀεὶ τὸ νῦν γνωριζόμενον.

  It is for us to learn what this drinking is, and for him to teach us. He has to communicate this knowledge to his disciples, because teaching is food, even for the teacher.

Τίς δὲ ἡ πόσις καὶ ἡ ἀπόλαυσις͵ ἡμῶν μὲν τὸ μαθεῖν͵ ἐκεί νου δὲ τὸ διδάξαι͵ καὶ κοινώσασθαι τοῖς ἑαυτοῦ μαθη ταῖς τὸν λόγον.Τροφὴ γάρ ἐστιν ἡ δίδαξις͵ καὶ τοῦ τρέφοντος.

  So let us take our part in the Passover prescribed by the law, not in a literal way, but according to the teaching of the Gospel; not in an imperfect way, but perfectly; not only for a time, but eternally. Let us regard as our home the heavenly Jerusalem, not the earthly one; the city glorified by angels, not the one laid waste by armies. We are not required to sacrifice young bulls or rams, beasts with horns and hoofs that are more dead than alive and devoid of feeling; but instead, let us join the choirs of angels in offering God upon his heavenly altar a sacrifice of praise. We must now pass through the first veil and approach the second, turning our eyes toward the Holy of Holies.

Ἀλλὰ δεῦρο͵ καὶ ἡμεῖς τοῦ νόμου μεταλάβωμεν εὐαγγελικῶς͵ ἀλλὰ μὴ γραπτῶς· τελείως͵ ἀλλὰ μὴ ἀτελῶς· ἀϊδίως͵ ἀλλὰ μὴ προσκαίρως͵ Ποιησώ μεθα κεφαλὴν͵ μὴ τὴν κάτω Ἱερουσαλὴμ͵ ἀλλὰ τὴν ἄνω μητρόπολιν· μὴ τὴν ὑπὸ στρατοπέδων νῦν πα τουμένην͵ ἀλλὰ τὴν ὑπ΄ ἀγγέλων δοξαζομένην. Θύ σωμεν͵ μὴ μόσχους νέους͵ μηδὲ ἀμνοὺς κέρατα ἐκ φέροντας καὶ ὁπλὰς͵ παρ΄ οἷς πολὺ τὸ νεκρὸν καὶ ἀναίσθητον· ἀλλὰ θύσωμεν τῷ Θεῷ θυσίαν αἰνέ σεως͵ ἐπὶ τὸ ἄνω θυσιαστήριον͵ μετὰ τῆς ἄνω χο ροστασίας. Διάσχωμεν τὸ πρῶτον καταπέτασμα͵ τῷ δευτέρῳ προσέλθωμεν͵ εἰς τὰ Ἅγια τῶν ἁγίων πα ρακύψωμεν.

I will say more: we must sacrifice ourselves to God, each day and in everything we do, accepting all that happens to us for the sake of the Word, imitating his passion by our sufferings, and honouring his blood by shedding our own. We must be ready to be crucified.

Εἴπω τὸ μεῖζον͵ ἡμᾶς αὐτοὺς θύσωμεν τῷ Θεῷ· μᾶλλον δὲ͵ θύωμεν καθ΄ ἑκάστην ἡμέραν καὶ πᾶσαν κίνησιν. Πάντα ὑπὲρ τοῦ Λόγου δεχώμε θα͵ πάθεσι τὸ πάθος μιμώμεθα͵ αἵματι τὸ αἷμα σε μνύνωμεν͵ ἐπὶ τὸν σταυρὸν ἀνίωμεν πρόθυμοι..


Γλυκεῖς οἱ ἧλοι͵ καὶ εἰ λίαν ὀδυνηροί. Τὸ γὰρ μετὰ Χριστοῦ πάσχειν͵ καὶ ὑπὲρ Χριστοῦ͵ τοῦ μετ΄ ἄλλων τρυφᾷν αἱρετώτερον

24. If you are a Simon of Cyrene, take up your cross and follow Christ. If you are crucified beside him like one of the thieves, now, like the good thief, acknowledge your God. For your sake, and because of your sin, Christ himself was regarded as a sinner; for his sake, therefore, you must cease to sin. Worship him who was hung on the cross because of you, even if you are hanging there yourself. Derive some benefit from the very shame; purchase salvation with your death. Enter paradise with Jesus, and discover how far you have fallen. Contemplate the glories there, and leave the other scoffing thief to die outside in his blasphemy.

ΚΔ. Ἂν Σίμων ἦς Κυρηναῖος͵ τὸν σταυρὸν ἆρον͵ καὶ ἀκολούθησον. Ἂν συσταυρωθῇς ὡς λῃστὴς͵ ὡς εὐγνώμων τὸν Θεὸν γνώρισον· εἰ κἀκεῖνος μετὰ ἀνόμων ἐλογίσθη διὰ σὲ καὶ τὴν σὴν ἁμαρτίαν͵ σὺ γενοῦ δι΄ ἐκεῖνον ἔννομος. Προσκύνησον τὸν διὰ σὲ κρεμασθέντα͵ καὶ κρεμάμενος· κέρδανόν τι καὶ παρὰ τῆς κακίας· ὤμνησαι τῷ θανάτῳ τὴν σωτη ρίαν· εἰς τὸν παράδεισον εἴσελθε μετὰ Ἰησοῦ͵ ὥστε μαθεῖν ὧν ἐκπέπτωκας· Τὰ ἐκεῖ κάλλη θεώρησον· τὸν γογγυστὴν ἄφες ἀποθανεῖν ἔξω͵ μετὰ τῆς βλα σφημίας.

  If you are a Joseph of Arimathea, go to the one who ordered his crucifixion, and ask for Christ’s body. Make your own the expiation for the sins of the whole world. If you are a Nicodemus, like the man who worshipped God by night, bring spices and prepare Christ’s body for burial. If you are one of the Marys, or Salome, or Joanna, weep in the early morning. Be the first to see the stone rolled back, and even the angels perhaps, and Jesus himself.

Κἂν Ἰωσὴφ ᾖς ὁ ἀπὸ Ἀριμαθαίας͵ αἴ τησαι τὸ σῶμα παρὰ τοῦ σταυροῦντος· σὸν γενέσθω τὸ τοῦ κόσμου καθάρσιον. Κἂν Νικόδημος ᾖς͵ ὁ νυ κτερινὸς θεοσεβὴς͵ μύροις αὐτὸν ἐνταφίασον. Κἂν Μαρία τις ᾖς͵ κἂν ἡ ἄλλη Μαρία͵ κἂν Σαλώμη͵ κἂν Ἰωάννα͵ δάκρυσον ὀρθρία. Ἴδε πρώτη τὸν λίθον ἡρμένον͵ τυχὸν δὲ καὶ τοὺς ἀγγέλους͵ καὶ Ἰη σοῦν αὐτόν. Φθέγξαι τι· φωνῆς ἄκουσον.










[1] The reading εὐδοκία of the Received Text is pronounced by Tischendorf to have less authority than εὐδοκίας, which he adopts on the testimony of important mss., but chiefly on the strength of a citation and comment three times in Origen, and because all the Latin Fathers read bonæ voluntatis.  Lachmann, Tregelles, Westcott, and with some hesitation Alford follow him; though Tregelles and Westcott allow εὐδοκίας a place in the margin.  Wordsworth (giving no reason); and Scrivener because he thinks it makes better sense, read εὐδοκία, and scout εὐδοκίας; which, however, is found in four of the five oldest mss., and in all the Latin versions and Fathers.  The Greek Fathers, however, all but unanimously support the Received Text.

[2] ἑορτὴ ἑορτῶν, καὶ πανήγυρις πανηγύριον.ἑορτή says Nicetas, is one thing, πανήγυρις another.  ἑορτή is the Commemoration of a Saint; πανήγυρις is Easter, or Ascension, or some other mystical festival.  Thus Synesius calls the Paschal Letters of the Alexandrian Patriarch πανηγυρικὰ γράμματα.

[3] This passage to the end of c. 9. occurs verbatim in the oration on the Theophany, cc. vii.–xiii.

[4] “There is no Past in Eternity, and no Future; for that which is past has ceased to be, and that which is future has not yet come into existence; but Eternity is only Present; it has no Past which does not still exist nor any Future which does not yet exist” (S. Augustine de Vera Rel., c. 49).

[5] The Environment here spoken of seems to mean those created Existences of which God is the Self-Existent Cause.

[6] Pascha represents the Hebrew PHSKH.  Throughout 2 Chron. the LXX. represents the word by Phasek, which like Pascha is a transliteration of the Hebrew word.  The form which the transliteration takes is due to the fact that the Greek language does not tolerate these two aspirates in juxtapostion.  S. Gregory is correct in remarking that Pascha has no real connection with πάσχω (to suffer), though it might appear to unlearned ears that it has. 

[7] ἀφαίρεμα is given by the Lexicons as the Heave-Offering, and it is certainly used in that sense among others (all sacrificial) in the LXX.  Suicer, however, follows Suidas in regarding the word as quite general; he also quotes Zonaras’ definition, “Quod offertur ἀφαίρεμα dicitur, quod a toto mactatæ animantis corpore abstractum sit.”  Balsamon, according to the same authority, makes it the portion which was severed from the carcase of the victim and set apart for the Priest (i.e., the heave-offering, Lev. 7. 14, 32).

[8] The Jewish Sacrifices had a deep inner meaning and mystery.  In a limited sense they may be called Sacraments of the future Atonement, which they prefigured and appealed to.  But only in a limited sense can they be so called, because they did not convey grace to the soul, but only appealed to the grace to come; and so the Sin-offerings of the Law are only said to cover, not to take away sin.  They removed the spiritual disqualification for worship; but they did not restore full Spiritual Communion with God.  Still they were not altogether unhallowed or useless like those of the heathen, inasmuch as they did point forward and plead the merits of the One true Sacrifice. 

[9] The Greek here is very obscure.  The meaning seems to be that which Nicetas suggests, viz.:—that our Lord in coming to earth and becoming Incarnate did not in His Divine Nature leave Heaven, but was, while still here on earth in His own words, “The Son of Man Which is in Heaven.”

[10] Christ is “a blessed crown of goodness” according to the saying of David, Thou shalt bless the crown of the year with Thy goodness (Ps. 45. 11).  The idea of a year is taken from the Sun; that of the crown from the year (for the year is a circle guarded with four seasons), and from the circle again equality.  Therefore the crown is Christ, as adorning and beautifying the minds of believers.  But the year of Goodness was that time when Christ moved by goodness was declaring the Gospel, as Isaiah saith of Him, “He hath sent Me to preach the Gospel to the poor, to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord” (Isa. 41. 1, 2).  Thus the Crown is on every side equal.  For if one draw a line from the upper side to the lower, and the same in a transverse direction, all the intervals will be equal.  And the Crown is like itself, because its figure is seen alike on every side, for on every side it is seen as a round.  Therefore Christ as to His Humanity is called a Crown of Righteousness, as composed of all the virtues, and having no end of His goodness and righteousness; and of that righteousness one quality is equality, that is, it allows neither excess nor defect.  For excess and defect do not arise from virtue and righteousness, but from fault and unrighteousness (Nicetas). 

[11] We are to part with leaven for seven days (Exod. 12. 15), that is, with sin for the whole week of this life.  The number Seven Days signifies the passing of time which revolves in weeks.  And this number is mystical, because it is virgin and signifies virginity and the angelic life; for it alone, as arithmeticians teach, of all the numbers within the decade, is neither a multiple nor a measure, and also contains in itself the Four and the Three.  For there are four elements of the world, and the Trinity is their Creator.  He calls it co-ordinate with the world, because the world was made in seven days, and again because when seven thousand years are completed the end of the world is to come (Nicetas).  S. Augustine (Civ. Dei. c. ii. 31) says that the number Seven often stands for the Universe, because it is made up of Four which is altogether even (2 and 2 the sum of two even numbers) and Three which is altogether uneven (1 and 1 and 1).

[12] S. Gregory does not mean to say that our Lord’s death was actually hastened by violent actions on the part of the Jews, which we know was not the case; but that they were anxious that it should take place before the Sabbath began.  The two thieves, who were still living, received the coup de grace from the Roman soldiers, who broke their legs; but our Lord, much to their astonishment was dead already, so this course was not taken with Him, but His side was pierced with a spear.

[13] ἐξελθεῖν c. acc. loci; a very rare use, but found in classical authors.

[14] Have we not here the germ of the idea, afterwards known as the Scotist, that the Incarnation was the purpose of God independently of the Fall, for the perfecting of Humanity; but that the Passion and death of Incarnate God were the direct result of the sin of man?

[15] This passage, to nearly the end of c. XXVII., is taken from the Oration on the Nativity, cc. XIII–XIV.

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