188; 199; 217


 St. Basil, 18th c. Rus. Icon

ENGLISH tr. based on : The Nicene And Post-Nicene Fathers,  second series. Vol. 8  Basil:  Letters and Select Works tr. Rev. Blomfield Jackson (T&T Clark, Edinburgh, 1895) Letters 188, 199, 217; pp. 223-228; 236-240, 255-259. GREEK: Saint Basile. Lettres, vol. 2 , ed,  Y. Courtonne, ser. Les Belles Lettres (Paris, 1961),

See CANON 22 for a good example of how years of penance are divided into progressive readmission to communion






NPNF 8, pp. 223-228

223-228; 236-240, 255-259





(Canonica Prima. Canons 1-16)




To Amphilochius, concerning the Canons. ΑΜΦΙΛΟΧΙΩ ΠΕΡΙ ΚΑΝΟΝΩΝ



EVEN a fool,” it is said, “when he asks questions,” is counted wise. (Prov. 17. 28, lxx.)  But when a wise man asks questions, he makes even a fool wise.  And this, thank God, is my case, as often as I receive a letter from your industrious self.  For we become more learned and wiser than we were before, merely by asking questions, because we are taught many things which we did not know; and our anxiety to answer them acts as a teacher to us.  Assuredly at the present time, though I have never before paid attention to the points you raise, I have been forced to make accurate enquiry, and to turn over in my mind both whatever I have heard from the elders, and all that I have been taught in conformity with their lessons.

Ἀνοήτῳ͵ φησίν͵ ἐπερωτήσαντι σοφία λογισθήσεται. Σοφοῦ δέ͵ ὡς ἔοικεν͵ ἐπερώτημα καὶ τὸν ἀνόητον σοφίζει· ὅπερ τῇ τοῦ Θεοῦ χάριτι συμβαίνει ἡμῖν͵ ὁσάκις ἂν δεξώ μεθά σου τῆς φιλοπόνου ψυχῆς τὰ γράμματα. Ἐπιστα τικώτεροι γὰρ ἑαυτῶν καὶ ἐμφρονέστεροι γινόμεθα ἀπ΄ αὐτῆς τῆς ἐρωτήσεως πολλὰ ὧν οὐκ ἐπιστάμεθα διδασκό μενοι͵ καὶ γίνεται ἡμῶν διδάσκαλος ἡ περὶ τὸ ἀκριβὲς μέριμνα. Ἀμέλει καὶ νῦν͵ οὐδέποτε λαβόντες ἐν φροντίδι τὰ ἐπερωτήματά σου͵ ἠναγκάσθημεν καὶ ἐπισκέψασθαι ἀκριβῶς καὶ εἴ τέ τι ἠκούσαμεν παρὰ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων ἀναμνησθῆναι καὶ τὰ συγγενῆ ὧν ἐδιδάχθημεν παρ΄ ἑαυτῶν ἐπιλογίσασθαι.





1.  As to your enquiry about the Cathari, a statement has already been made, and you have properly reminded me that it is right to follow the custom obtaining in each region, because those, who at the time gave decision on these points, held different opinions concerning their baptism.  But the baptism of the Pepuzeni seems to me to have no authority; and I am astonished how this can have escaped Dionysius, acquainted as he was with the canons.  The old authorities decided to accept that baptism which in nowise errs from the faith.  Thus they used the names of heresies, of schisms, and of unlawful congregations.  By heresies they meant men who were altogether broken off and alienated in matters relating to the actual faith; by schisms men who had separated for some ecclesiastical reasons and questions capable of mutual solution; by unlawful congregations gatherings held by disorderly presbyters or bishops or by uninstructed laymen.  As, for instance, if a man be convicted of crime, and prohibited from discharging ministerial functions, and then refuses to submit to the canons, but arrogates to himself episcopal and ministerial rights, and persons leave the Catholic Church and join him, this is unlawful assembly.  To disagree with members of the Church about repentance, is schism.  Instances of heresy are those of the Manichæans, of the Valentinians, of the Marcionites, and of these Pepuzenes; for with them there comes in at once their disagreement concerning the actual faith in God.  So it seemed good to the ancient authorities to reject the baptism of heretics altogether, but to admit that of schismatics, on the ground that they still belonged to the Church.

Τὸ μὲν οὖν περὶ τοὺς Καθαροὺς ζήτημα καὶ εἴρηται πρότερον καὶ καλῶς ἀπεμνημόνευσας ὅτι δεῖ τῷ ἔθει τῶν καθ΄ ἑκάστην χώραν ἕπεσθαι͵ διὰ τὸ διαφόρως ἐνεχθῆναι περὶ τοῦ βαπτίσματος αὐτῶν τοὺς τότε περὶ τούτων διαλαβόντας. Τὸ δὲ τῶν Πεπουζηνῶν οὐδένα μοι λόγον ἔχειν δοκεῖ͵ καὶ ἐθαύμασα πῶς κανονικὸν ὄντα τὸν Διονύσιον παρῆλθεν. Ἐκεῖνο γὰρ ἔκριναν οἱ παλαιοὶ δέχεσθαι βάπ τισμα τὸ μηδὲν τῆς πίστεως παρεκβαῖνον· ὅθεν τὰς μὲν αἱρέσεις ὠνόμασαν͵ τὰ δὲ σχίσματα͵ τὰς δὲ παρασυνα γωγάς. Αἱρέσεις μὲν τοὺς παντελῶς ἀπερρηγμένους καὶ κατ΄ αὐτὴν τὴν πίστιν ἀπηλλοτριωμένους͵ σχίσματα δὲ τοὺς δι΄ αἰτίας τινὰς ἐκκλησιαστικὰς καὶ ζητήματα ἰάσιμα πρὸς ἀλλήλους διενεχθέντας͵ παρασυναγωγὰς δὲ τὰς συνάξεις τὰς παρὰ τῶν ἀνυποτάκτων πρεσβυτέρων ἢ ἐπισκόπων καὶ παρὰ τῶν ἀπαιδεύτων λαῶν γινομένας. Οἷον εἴ τις ἐν πταίσματι ἐξετασθεὶς ἐπεσχέθη τῆς λειτουργίας καὶ μὴ ὑπέκυψε τοῖς κανόσιν͵ ἀλλ΄ ἑαυτῷ ἐξεδίκησε τὴν προεδρίαν καὶ τὴν λειτουργίαν καὶ συνα πῆλθον τούτῳ τινὲς καταλιπόντες τὴν καθολικὴν Ἐκκλησίαν͵ παρασυναγωγὴ τὸ τοιοῦτο. Σχίσμα δὲ τὸ περὶ τῆς μετανοίας διαφόρως ἔχειν πρὸς τοὺς ἀπὸ τῆς Ἐκκλησίας Αἱρέσεις δὲ οἷον ἡ τῶν Μανιχαίων͵ καὶ Οὐαλεντίνων͵ καὶ Μαρκιωνιστῶν͵ καὶ αὐτῶν τούτων τῶν Πεπουζηνῶν· εὐθὺς γὰρ περὶ αὐτῆς τῆς εἰς Θεὸν πίστεως ἡ διαφορά. Ἔδοξε τοίνυν τοῖς ἐξ ἀρχῆς τὸ μὲν τῶν αἱρετικῶν παν τελῶς ἀθετῆσαι· τὸ δὲ τῶν ἀποσχισάντων͵ ὡς ἔτι ἐκ τῆς Ἐκκλησίας ὄντων͵ παραδέξασθαι·

As to those who assembled in unlawful congregations, their decision was to join them again to the Church, after they had been brought to a better state by proper repentance and rebuke, and so, in many cases, when men in orders had rebelled with the disorderly, to receive them on their repentance, into the same rank.  Now the Pepuzeni are plainly heretical, for, by unlawfully and shamefully applying to Montanus and Priscilla the title of the Paraclete, they have blasphemed against the Holy Ghost.  They are, therefore, to be condemned for ascribing divinity to men; and for outraging the Holy Ghost by comparing Him to men.  They are thus also liable to eternal damnation, inasmuch as blasphemy against the Holy Ghost admits of no forgiveness.  What ground is there, then, for the acceptance of the baptism of men who baptize into the Father and the Son and Montanus or Priscilla?  For those who have not been baptized into the names delivered to us have not been baptized at all.  So that, although this escaped the vigilance of the great Dionysius, we must by no means imitate his error.  The absurdity of the position is obvious in a moment, and evident to all who are gifted with even a small share of reasoning capacity.

τοὺς δὲ ἐν ταῖς παρασυ ναγωγαῖς͵ μετανοίᾳ ἀξιολόγῳ καὶ ἐπιστροφῇ βελτιωθέντας͵ συνάπτεσθαι πάλιν τῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ͵ ὥστε πολλάκις καὶ τοὺς ἐν βαθμῷ συναπελθόντας τοῖς ἀνυποτάκτοις͵ ἐπειδὰν μεταμεληθῶσιν͵ εἰς τὴν αὐτὴν παραδέχεσθαι τάξιν. Οἱ τοίνυν Πεπουζηνοὶ προδήλως εἰσὶν αἱρετικοί· εἰς γὰρ τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον ἐβλασφήμησαν͵ Μοντανῷ καὶ Πρισκίλλῃ τὴν τοῦ Παρακλήτου προσηγορίαν ἀθεμίτως καὶ ἀναισ χύντως ἐπιφημίσαντες. Εἴτε οὖν ὡς ἀνθρώπους θεοποι οῦντες͵ κατάκριτοι· εἴτε ὡς τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον τῇ πρὸς ἀνθρώπους συγκρίσει καθυβρίζοντες͵ καὶ οὕτω τῇ αἰωνίῳ καταδίκῃ ὑπεύθυνοι͵ διὰ τὸ ἀσυγχώρητον εἶναι τὴν εἰς τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον βλασφημίαν. Τίνα οὖν λόγον ἔχει τὸ τούτων βάπτισμα ἐγκριθῆναι τῶν βαπτιζόντων εἰς Πατέρα καὶ Υἱὸν καὶ Μοντανὸν ἢ Πρίσκιλλαν; Οὐ γὰρ ἐβαπ τίσθησαν οἱ εἰς τὰ μὴ παραδεδομένα ἡμῖν βαπτισθέντες. Ὥστε͵ εἰ καὶ τὸν μέγαν Διονύσιον τοῦτο παρέλαθεν͵ ἀλλ΄ ἡμῖν οὐ φυλακτέον τὴν μίμησιν τοῦ σφάλματος. Τὸ γὰρ ἄτοπον αὐτόθεν πρόδηλον καὶ πᾶσιν ἐναργὲς οἷς τι καὶ μικρὸν τοῦ λογίζεσθαι μέτεστιν.

The Cathari are schismatics; but it seemed good to the ancient authorities, I mean Cyprian and our own Firmilianus, to reject all these, Cathari, Encratites, and Hydroparastatæ, by one common condemnation, because the origin of separation arose through schism, and those who had apostatized from the Church had no longer on them the grace of the Holy Spirit, for it ceased to be imparted when the continuity was broken.  The first separatists had received their ordination from the Fathers, and possessed the spiritual gift by the laying on of their hands.  But they who were broken off had become laymen, and, because they are no longer able to confer on others that grace of the Holy Spirit from which they themselves are fallen away, they had no authority either to baptize or to ordain.  And therefore those who were from time to time baptized by them, were ordered, as though baptized by laymen, to come to the church to be purified by the Church’s true baptism.  Nevertheless, since it has seemed to some of those of Asia that, for the sake of management of the majority, their baptism should be accepted, let it be accepted.  We must, however, perceive the iniquitous action of the Encratites; who, in order to shut themselves out from being received back by the Church have endeavoured for the future to anticipate readmission by a peculiar baptism of their own, violating, in this manner even their own special practice. 

Οἱ Καθαροὶ καὶ αὐτοὶ τῶν ἀπεσχισμένων εἰσί. Πλὴν ἀλλ΄ ἔδοξε τοῖς ἀρχαίοις͵ τοῖς περὶ Κυπριανὸν λέγω καὶ Φιρμιλιανὸν τὸν ἡμέτερον͵ τούτους πάντας μιᾷ ψήφῳ ὑποβαλεῖν͵ Καθαροὺς καὶ Ἐγκρατίτας καὶ Ὑδροπαραστάτας͵ διότι ἡ μὲν ἀρχὴ τοῦ χωρισμοῦ διὰ σχίσματος γέγονεν· οἱ δὲ τῆς Ἐκκλησίας ἀποστάντες οὐκέτι ἔσχον τὴν χάριν τοῦ Ἁγίου Πνεύ ματος ἐφ΄ ἑαυτοῖς· ἐπέλιπε γὰρ ἡ μετάδοσις τῷ διακο πῆναι τὴν ἀκολουθίαν. Οἱ μὲν γὰρ πρῶτοι ἀναχωρήσαντες παρὰ τῶν Πατέρων ἔσχον τὰς χειροτονίας͵ καὶ διὰ τῆς ἐπιθέσεως τῶν χειρῶν αὐτῶν εἶχον τὸ χάρισμα τὸ πνευ ματικόν· οἱ δὲ ἀπορραγέντες͵ λαϊκοὶ γενόμενοι͵ οὔτε τοῦ βαπτίζειν οὔτε τοῦ χειροτονεῖν εἶχον τὴν ἐξουσίαν͵ οὐκέτι δυνάμενοι χάριν Πνεύματος Ἁγίου ἑτέροις παρέχειν ἧς αὐτοὶ ἐκπεπτώκασι. Διὸ ὡς παρὰ λαϊκῶν βαπτιζομένους τοὺς παρ΄ αὐτῶν ἐκέλευσαν ἐρχομένους ἐπὶ τὴν Ἐκκλησίαν τῷ ἀληθινῷ βαπτίσματι τῷ τῆς Ἐκ κλησίας ἀνακαθαίρεσθαι. Ἐπειδὴ δὲ ὅλως ἔδοξέ τισι τῶν κατὰ τὴν Ἀσίαν οἰκονομίας ἕνεκα τῶν πολλῶν δεχθῆναι αὐτῶν τὸ βάπτισμα͵ ἔστω δεκτόν. Τὸ δὲ τῶν Ἐγκρατιτῶν κακούργημα νοῆσαι ἡμᾶς δεῖ͵ ὅτι͵ ἵν΄ αὑτοὺς ἀπροσδέκτους ποιήσωσι τῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ͵ ἐπεχείρησαν λοιπὸν ἰδίῳ προκα ταλαμβάνειν βαπτίσματι· ὅθεν καὶ τὴν συνήθειαν τὴν ἑαυτῶν παρεχάραξαν.

My opinion, therefore, is that nothing being distinctly laid down concerning them, it is our duty to reject their baptism, and that in the case of any one who has received baptism from them, we should, on his coming to the church, baptize him.  If, however, there is any likelihood of this being detrimental to general discipline, we must fall back upon custom, and follow the fathers who have ordered what course we are to pursue.  For I am under some apprehension lest, in our wish to discourage them from baptizing, we may, through the severity of our decision, be a hindrance to those who are being saved.  If they accept our baptism, do not allow this to distress us.  We are by no means bound to return them the same favour, but only strictly to obey canons.  On every ground let it be enjoined that those who come to us from their baptism be anointed in the presence of the faithful, and only on these terms approach the mysteries.  I am aware that I have received into episcopal rank Izois and Saturninus from the Encratite following.  I am precluded therefore from separating from the Church those who have been united to their company, inasmuch as, through my acceptance of the bishops, I have promulgated a kind of canon of communion with them.

Νομίζω τοίνυν ὅτι͵ ἐπειδὴ οὐδέν ἐστι περὶ αὐτῶν εἰληφὸς διηγορευμένον͵ ἡμᾶς προσῆκεν ἀθετεῖν αὐτῶν τὸ βάπτισμα· κἄν τις ᾖ παρ΄ αὐτῶν εἰληφώς͵ προσιόντα τῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ βαπτίζειν. Ἐὰν μέντοι μέλλοι τῇ καθόλου οἰκονομίᾳ ἐμπόδιον ἔσεσθαι τοῦτο͵ πάλιν τῷ ἔθει χρηστέον καὶ τοῖς οἰκονομήσασι τὰ καθ΄ ἡμᾶς Πατράσιν ἀκο λουθητέον. Ὑφορῶμαι γὰρ μήποτε͵ ὡς βουλόμεθα ὀκνηροὺς αὐτοὺς περὶ τὸ βαπτίζειν ποιῆσαι͵ ἐμποδίσωμεν τοῖς σωζομένοις διὰ τὸ τῆς προτάσεως αὐστηρόν. Εἰ δὲ ἐκεῖνοι φυλάσσουσι τὸ ἡμέτερον βάπτισμα͵ τοῦτο ἡμᾶς μὴ δυσω πείτω. Οὐ γὰρ ἀντιδιδόναι αὐτοῖς ὑπεύθυνοι χάριν ἐσμέν͵ ἀλλὰ δουλεύειν ἀκριβείᾳ κανόνων. Παντὶ δὲ λόγῳ τυπω θήτω τοὺς ἐπὶ τὸν βαπτισμὸν ἐκεῖνον προσερχομένους χρίεσθαι ἐπὶ τῶν πιστῶν δηλονότι καὶ οὕτω προσιέναι τοῖς μυστηρίοις. Οἶδα δὲ ὅτι τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς τοὺς περὶ Ἰζοῒν καὶ Σατορνῖνον͵ ἀπ΄ ἐκείνης ὄντας τῆς τάξεως͵ προσεδεξάμεθα εἰς τὴν καθέδραν τῶν ἐπισκόπων. Ὥστε τοὺς τῷ τάγματι ἐκείνων συνημμένους οὐκέτι δυνάμεθα διακρίνειν ἀπὸ τῆς Ἐκκλησίας͵ οἷον κανόνα τινὰ τῆς πρὸς αὐτοὺς κοινωνίας ἐκθέμενοι διὰ τῆς τῶν ἐπισκόπων παραδοχῆς.





2.  The woman who purposely destroys her unborn child is guilty of murder.  With us there is no nice enquiry as to its being formed or unformed.  In this case it is not only the being about to be born who is vindicated, but the woman in her attack upon herself; because in most cases women who make such attempts die.  The destruction of the embryo is an additional crime, a second murder, at all events if we regard it as done with intent.  The punishment, however, of these women should not be for life, but for the term of ten years.  And let their treatment depend not on mere lapse of time, but on the character of their repentance.

188.2 Ἡ φθείρασα κατ΄ ἐπιτήδευσιν φόνου δίκην ὑπέχει. Ἀκριβολογία ἐκμεμορφωμένου καὶ ἀνεξεικονίστου παρ΄ ἡμῖν οὐκ ἔστιν. Ἐνταῦθα γὰρ ἐκδικεῖται οὐ μόνον τὸ γενη σόμενον͵ ἀλλὰ καὶ αὐτὸς ὁ ἑαυτῷ ἐπιβουλεύσας͵ διότι ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πολὺ ἐναποθνήσκουσι ταῖς τοιαύταις ἐπιχειρήσεσιν αἱ γυναῖκες. Πρόσεστι δὲ τούτῳ καὶ ἡ φθορὰ τοῦ ἐμβρύου͵ ἕτερος φόνος͵ κατά γε τὴν ἐπίνοιαν τῶν ταῦτα τολμών των. Δεῖ μέντοι μὴ μέχρι τῆς ἐξόδου παρατείνειν αὐτῶν τὴν ἐξομολόγησιν͵ ἀλλὰ δέχεσθαι μὲν τὸ μέτρον τῶν δέκα ἐτῶν· ὁρίζειν δὲ μὴ χρόνῳ͵ ἀλλὰ τρόπῳ τῆς μετανοίας τὴν θεραπείαν.





3.  A deacon who commits fornication after his appointment to the diaconate is to be deposed.  But, after he has been rejected and ranked among the laity, he is not to be excluded from communion.  For there is an ancient canon that those who have fallen from their degree are to be subjected to this kind of punishment alone.

188.3 Διάκονος μετὰ τὴν διακονίαν πορνεύσας ἀπόβλητος μὲν τῆς διακονίας ἔσται͵ εἰς δὲ τὸν τῶν λαϊκῶν ἀπωσθεὶς τόπον τῆς κοινωνίας οὐκ εἰρχθήσεται͵ διότι ἀρχαῖός ἐστι κανών͵ τοὺς ἀπὸ βαθμοῦ πεπτωκότας τούτῳ μόνῳ τῷ τρόπῳ τῆς κολάσεως ὑποβάλλεσθαι͵ ἀκολουθησάντων͵





Herein, as I suppose, the ancient authorities followed the old rule “Thou shalt not avenge twice for the same thing.” (Nahum 1. 9, lxx) There is this further reason too, that laymen, when expelled from the place of the faithful, are from time to time restored to the rank whence they have fallen; but the deacon undergoes once for all the lasting penalty of deposition.  His deacon’s orders not being restored to him, they rested at this one punishment.  So far is this as regards what depends on law laid down.  But generally a truer remedy is the departure from sin.  Wherefore that man will give me full proof of his cure who, after rejecting grace for the sake of the indulgence of the flesh, has then, through bruising of the flesh and the enslaving of it (cf. 1 Cor. 9. 27) by means of self control, abandoned the pleasures whereby he was subdued.  We ought therefore to know both what is of exact prescription and what is of custom; and, in cases which do not admit of the highest treatment, to follow the traditional direction.

ὡς οἶμαι͵ τῶν ἐξ ἀρχῆς τῷ νόμῳ ἐκείνῳ τῷ Οὐκ ἐκδικήσεις δὶς ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό͵ καὶ δι΄ ἑτέραν δὲ αἰτίαν͵ ὅτι οἱ μὲν ἐν τῷ λαϊκῷ ὄντες τάγματι͵ ἐκβεβλημένοι τοῦ τόπου τῶν πιστῶν͵ πάλιν εἰς τὸν ἀφ΄ οὗ ἐξέπεσον τόπον ἀναλαμβά νονται͵ ὁ δὲ διάκονος ἅπαξ ἔχει διαρκῆ τὴν δίκην τῆς καθαιρέσεως. Ὡς οὖν οὐκ ἀποδιδομένης αὐτῷ τῆς διακονίας ἐπὶ ταύτης ἔστησαν μόνης τῆς ἐκδικήσεως. Ταῦτα μὲν οὖν τὰ ἐκ τῶν τύπων. Καθόλου δὲ ἀληθέστερον ἴαμα ἡ τῆς ἁμαρτίας ἀναχώρησις. Ὥστε ὁ διὰ σαρκὸς ἡδονὴν ἀθετήσας τὴν χάριν͵ διὰ τοῦ συντριμμοῦ τῆς σαρκὸς καὶ πάσης δουλαγωγίας τῆς κατ΄ ἐγκράτειαν ἀποστὰς τῶν ἡδονῶν ὑφ΄ ὧν κατεστράφη͵ τελείαν ἡμῖν παρέξει τῆς ἰατρεύσεως αὐτοῦ τὴν ἀπόδειξιν. Ἀμφότερα τοίνυν εἰδέναι ἡμᾶς δεῖ͵ καὶ τὰ τῆς ἀκριβείας καὶ τὰ τῆς συνηθείας͵ ἕπεσθαι δὲ ἐπὶ τῶν μὴ καταδεξαμένων τὴν ἀκρότητα τῷ παραδοθέντι τύπῳ.





4.  In the case of trigamy and polygamy they laid down the same rule, in proportion, as in the case of digamy; namely one year for digamy (some authorities say two years); for trigamy men are separated for three and often for four years; but this is no longer described as marriage at all, but as polygamy; nay rather as limited fornication.  It is for this reason that the Lord said to the woman of Samaria, who had five husbands, “he whom thou now hast is not thy husband.” (John 4. 18)  He does not reckon those who had exceeded the limits of a second marriage as worthy of the title of husband or wife.  In cases of trigamy we have accepted a seclusion of five years, not by the canons, but following the precept of our predecessors.  Such offenders ought not to be altogether prohibited from the privileges of the Church; they should be considered deserving of hearing after two or three years, and afterwards of being permitted to stand in their place; but they must be kept from the communion of the good gift, and only restored to the place of communion after showing some fruit of repentance.

188.4 Περὶ τριγάμων καὶ πολυγάμων τὸν αὐτὸν ὥρισαν κανόνα ὃν καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν διγάμων ἀναλόγως· ἐνιαυτὸν μὲν γὰρ ἐπὶ τῶν διγάμων͵ ἄλλοι δὲ δύο ἔτη. Τοὺς δὲ τριγάμους ἐν τρισί͵ καὶ τετράσι πολλάκις ἔτεσιν ἀφορίζουσιν. Ὀνο μάζουσι δὲ τὸ τοιοῦτον οὐκ ἔτι γάμον͵ ἀλλὰ πολυγαμίαν͵ μᾶλλον δὲ πορνείαν κεκολασμένην. Διὸ καὶ ὁ Κύριος τῇ Σαμαρείτιδι πέντε ἄνδρας διαμειψάσῃ· Ὃν νῦν͵ φησίν͵ ἔχεις οὐκ ἔστι σου ἀνήρ͵ ὡς οὐκέτι ἀξίων ὄντων τῶν ὑπερεκπεσόντων τοῦ μέτρου τῆς διγαμίας τῷ τοῦ ἀνδρὸς ἢ τῆς γυναικὸς καλεῖσθαι προσρήματι. Συνήθειαν δὲ κατε λάβομεν ἐπὶ τῶν τριγάμων πενταετίας ἀφορισμόν͵ οὐκ ἀπὸ κανόνων͵ ἀλλ΄ ἀπὸ τῆς τῶν προειληφότων ἀκολουθίας. Δεῖ δὲ μὴ πάντη αὐτοὺς ἀπείργειν τῆς Ἐκκλησίας͵ ἀλλ΄ ἀκροάσεως αὐτοὺς ἀξιοῦν ἐν δύο που ἔτεσιν ἢ τρισί͵ καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα ἐπιτρέπειν συστήκειν μέν͵ τῆς δὲ κοινωνίας τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ ἀπέχεσθαι͵ καὶ οὕτως ἐπιδειξαμένους καρπόν τινα μετανοίας ἀποκαθιστᾶν τῷ τόπῳ τῆς κοινωνίας.





5.  Heretics repenting at death ought to be received; yet to be received, of course, not indiscriminately, but on trial of exhibition of true repentance and of producing fruit in evidence of their zeal for salvation.

188.5 Τοὺς δὲ ἐπὶ ἐξόδῳ μετανοοῦντας τῶν αἱρετικῶν δέχεσθαι χρή͵ δέχεσθαι δὲ δηλονότι οὐκ ἀκρίτως͵ ἀλλὰ δοκιμάζοντας εἰ ἀληθινὴν ἐπιδείκνυνται τὴν μετάνοιαν καὶ εἰ τοὺς καρποὺς ἔχουσι μαρτυροῦντας τῇ πρὸς τὸ σωθῆναι σπουδῇ.





6.  The fornication of canonical persons is not to be reckoned as wedlock, and their union is to be completely dissolved, for this is both profitable for the security of the Church and will prevent the heretics from having a ground of attack against us, as though we induced men to join us by the attraction of liberty to sin.

188.6 Τῶν κανονικῶν τὰς πορνείας εἰς γάμον μὴ καταλο γίζεσθαι͵ ἀλλὰ παντὶ τρόπῳ διασπᾶν αὐτῶν τὴν συνάφειαν. Τοῦτο γὰρ καὶ τῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ πρὸς ἀσφάλειαν λυσιτελὲς καὶ τοῖς αἱρετικοῖς οὐ δώσει καθ΄ ἡμῶν λαβὴν ὡς διὰ τὴν τοῦ ἁμαρτάνειν ἄδειαν ἐπισπωμένων πρὸς ἑαυτούς͵





7.  Abusers of themselves with mankind, and with beasts, as also murderers, wizards, adulterers, and idolaters, are deserving of the same punishment.  Whatever rule you have in the case of the rest, observe also in their case.  There can, however, be no doubt that we ought to receive those who have repented of impurity committed in ignorance for thirty years.  In this case there is ground for forgiveness in ignorance, in the spontaneity of confession, and the long extent of time.  Perhaps they have been delivered to Satan for a whole age of man that they may learn not to behave unseemly; (cf. 1 Tim. 1. 20) wherefore order them to be received without delay, specially if they shed tears to move your mercy, and shew a manner of living worthy of compassion.

188.7 Ἀρρενοφθόροι καὶ ζωοφθόροι καὶ φονεῖς καὶ φαρ μακοὶ καὶ μοιχοὶ καὶ εἰδωλολάτραι τῆς αὐτῆς καταδίκης εἰσὶν ἠξιωμένοι. Ὥστε ὃν ἔχεις ἐπὶ τῶν ἄλλων τύπον͵ καὶ ἐπὶ τούτων φύλαξον. Τοὺς δὲ ἐν τριάκοντα ἔτεσι μετα νοήσαντας ἐπὶ τῇ ἀκαθαρσίᾳ ἣν ἐν ἀγνοίᾳ ἔπραξαν͵ οὐδ΄ ἀμφιβάλλειν ἡμᾶς προσῆκεν εἰς τὸ παραδέξασθαι. ῞Η τε γὰρ ἄγνοια συγγνώμης αὐτοὺς ἀξίους ποιεῖ καὶ τὸ ἑκούσιον τῆς ἐξαγορεύσεως καὶ ἡ παράτασις ἐν τοσούτῳ χρόνῳ γενομένη. Σχεδὸν γὰρ ὅλην γενεὰν ἀνθρώπου παρεδόθησαν τῷ Σατανᾷ͵ ἵνα παιδευθῶσι μὴ ἀσχημονεῖν. Ὥστε κέλευσον αὐτοὺς ἤδη ἀνυπερθέτως δεχθῆναι͵ μάλιστα εἰ καὶ δάκρυα ἔχουσι δυσωποῦντά σου τὴν εὐσπλαγχνίαν καὶ βίον ἐπιδείκνυνται ἄξιον συμπαθείας.





8.  The man who in a rage has taken up a hatchet against his own wife is a murderer.  But it is what I should have expected from your intelligence that you should very properly remind me to speak on these points more fully, because a wide distinction must be drawn between cases where there is and where there is not intent.  A case of an act purely unintentional, and widely removed from the purpose of the agent, is that of a man who throws a stone at a dog or a tree, and hits a man.  The object was to drive off the beast or to shake down the fruit.  The chance comer falls fortuitously in the way of the blow, and the act is unintentional.  Unintentional too is the act of any one who strikes another with a strap or a flexible stick, for the purpose of chastising him, and the man who is being beaten dies.  In this case it must be taken into consideration that the object was not to kill, but to improve, the offender.  Further, among unintentional acts must be reckoned the case of a man in a fight who when warding off an enemy’s attack with cudgel or hand, hits him without mercy in some vital part, so as to injure him, though not quite to kill him.  This, however, comes very near to the intentional; for the man who employs such a weapon in self defence, or who strikes without mercy, evidently does not spare his opponent, because he is mastered by passion.  In like manner the case of any one who uses a heavy cudgel, or a stone too big for a man to stand, is reckoned among the unintentional, because he does not do what he meant:  in his rage he deals such a blow as to kill his victim, yet all he had in his mind was to give him a thrashing, not to do him to death.  If, however, a man uses a sword, or anything of the kind, he has no excuse:  certainly none if he throws his hatchet.  For he does not strike with the hand, so that the force of the blow may be within his own control, but throws, so that from the weight and edge of the iron, and the force of the throw, the wound cannot fail to be fatal. On the other hand acts done in the attacks of war or robbery are distinctly intentional, and admit of no doubt. 

188.8 Ὁ ἀξίνῃ παρὰ τὸν θυμὸν κατὰ τῆς ἑαυτοῦ γαμετῆς χρησάμενος φονεύς ἐστι. Καλῶς δέ με ὑπέμνησας καὶ ἀξίως τῆς σεαυτοῦ συνέσεως εἰπεῖν περὶ τούτων πλατύ τερον͵ διότι πολλαὶ ἐν τοῖς ἑκουσίοις καὶ ἀκουσίοις διαφο ραί. Ἀκούσιον μὲν γάρ ἐστι παντελῶς καὶ πόρρω τοῦ κατάρ ξαντος τὸ ἀκοντίσαντα λίθον ἐπὶ κύνα ἢ δένδρον ἀνθρώπου τυχεῖν. Ἡ μὲν γὰρ ὁρμὴ ἦν τὸ θηρίον ἀμύνασθαι ἢ τὸν καρπὸν κατασεῖσαι͵ ὑπέβη δὲ αὐτομάτως τῇ πληγῇ κατὰ πάροδον ὁ παραπεσών͵ ὥστε τὸ τοιοῦτον ἀκούσιον. Ἀκούσιον μέντοι καὶ εἴ τις βουλόμενος ἐπιστρέψαι τινὰ ἱμάντι ἢ ῥάβδῳ μὴ σκληρᾷ τύπτοι͵ ἀποθάνῃ δὲ ὁ τυπτό μενος. Ἡ γὰρ πρόθεσις ἐνταῦθα σκοπεῖται͵ ὅτι βελτιῶσαι ἠβούλετο τὸν ἁμαρτάνοντα͵ οὐκ ἀνελεῖν. Ἐν τοῖς ἀκου σίοις ἐστὶ κἀκεῖνο τὸ ἀμυνόμενόν τινα ἐν μάχῃ͵ ξύλῳ ἢ χειρί͵ ἀφειδῶς ἐπὶ τὰ καίρια τὴν πληγὴν ἐνεγκεῖν͵ ὥστε κακῶσαι αὐτόν͵ οὐχ ὥστε παντελῶς ἀνελεῖν. Ἀλλὰ τοῦτο ἤδη προσεγγίζει τῷ ἑκουσίῳ. Ὁ γὰρ τοσούτῳ χρησάμενος ὀργάνῳ πρὸς ἄμυναν ἢ ὁ μὴ πεφεισμένως τὴν πληγὴν ἐπαγαγὼν δῆλός ἐστι διὰ τὸ κεκρατῆσθαι ὑπὸ τοῦ πάθους ἀφειδῶν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου. Ὁμοίως καὶ ὁ ξύλῳ βαρεῖ καὶ ὁ λίθῳ μείζονι τῆς δυνάμεως τῆς ἀνθρωπίνης χρησάμενος τοῖς ἀκουσίοις ἐναριθμεῖται͵ ἄλλο μέν τι προελόμενος͵ ἄλλο δέ τι ποιήσας. Ὑπὸ γὰρ τοῦ θυμοῦ τοιαύτην ἤνεγκε τὴν πληγὴν ὥστε ἀνελεῖν τὸν πληγέντα· καίτοι ἡ σπουδὴ ἦν αὐτῷ συντρίψαι τυχόν͵ οὐχὶ δὲ καὶ παντελῶς θανατῶσαι. Ὁ μέντοι ξίφει χρησάμενος ἢ ᾡτινιοῦν τοιούτῳ οὐδεμίαν ἔχει παραίτησιν͵ καὶ μάλιστα ὁ τὴν ἀξίνην ἀκοντίσας. Καὶ γὰρ οὐδὲ ἀπὸ χειρὸς φαίνεται πλήξας͵ ὥστε τὸ μέτρον τῆς πληγῆς ἐπ΄ αὐτῷ εἶναι͵ ἀλλ΄ ἠκόντισεν͵ ὥστε καὶ τῷ βάρει τοῦ σιδήρου καὶ τῇ ἀκμῇ καὶ τῇ διὰ πλείστου φορᾷ ὀλεθρίαν ἀναγκαίως τὴν πληγὴν γενέσθαι. Ἑκούσιον δὲ πάλιν παντελῶς καὶ οὐδεμίαν ἀμφιβολίαν ἔχον οἷόν ἐστι τὸ τῶν λῃστῶν καὶ τὸ τῶν πολεμικῶν ἐφόδων.

Robbers kill for greed, and to avoid conviction.  Soldiers who inflict death in war do so with the obvious purpose not of fighting, nor chastising, but of killing their opponents.  And if any one has concocted some magic philtre for some other reason, and then causes death, I count this as intentional.  Women frequently endeavour to draw men to love them by incantations and magic knots, and give them drugs which dull their intelligence.  Such women, when they cause death, though the result of their action may not be what they intended, are nevertheless, on account of their proceedings being magical and prohibited, to be reckoned among intentional homicides.  Women also who administer drugs to cause abortion, as well as those who take poisons to destroy unborn children, are murderesses.  So much on this subject.

Οὗτοι μὲν γὰρ διὰ χρήματα ἀναιροῦσι τὸν ἔλεγχον ἀποφεύγοντες͵ οἵ τε ἐν τοῖς πολέμοις ἐπὶ φόνους ἔρχονται͵ οὔτε φοβῆσαι οὔτε σωφρονίσαι͵ ἀλλ΄ ἀνελεῖν τοὺς ἐναντιουμένους ἐκ τοῦ φανεροῦ προαιρούμενοι. Καὶ μέντοι͵ κἂν δι΄ ἄλλην τινὰ αἰτίαν περίεργον φάρμακόν τις ἐγκεράσῃ͵ ἀνέλῃ δέ͵ ἑκούσιον τιθέμεθα τὸ τοιοῦτον· οἷον ποιοῦσιν αἱ γυναῖκες πολλάκις͵ ἐπαοιδαῖς τισι καὶ καταδέσμοις πρὸς τὸ ἑαυτῶν φίλτρον ἐπάγεσθαι πειρώμε ναι καὶ προσδιδοῦσαι αὐτοῖς φάρμακα σκότωσιν ἐμποιοῦντα ταῖς διανοίαις. Αἱ τοιαῦται ἀνελοῦσαι͵ εἰ καὶ ἄλλο προελό μεναι͵ ἄλλο ἐποίησαν͵ ὅμως διὰ τὸ περίεργον καὶ ἀπηγο ρευμένον τῆς ἐπιτηδεύσεως ἐν τοῖς ἑκουσίως φονεύουσι καταλογίζονται. Καὶ αἱ τοίνυν τὰ ἀμβλωθρίδια διδοῦσαι φάρμακα φονεύτριαί εἰσι καὶ αὐταί͵ καὶ αἱ δεχόμεναι τὰ ἐμβρυοκτόνα δηλητήρια. Ταῦτα μὲν εἰς τοσοῦτον.





9.  The sentence of the Lord that it is unlawful to withdraw from wedlock, save on account of fornication, (Matt. v. 32) applies, according to the argument, to men and women alike.  Custom, however, does not so obtain.  Yet, in relation with women, very strict expressions are to be found; as, for instance, the words of the apostle “He which is joined to a harlot is one body” (1Cor. 6. 16) and of Jeremiah, If a wife “become another man’s shall he return unto her again? shall not that land be greatly polluted?” (Jer. 3. 1)  And again, “He that hath an adulteress is a fool and impious.” (Prov. 18. 22, lxx)  Yet custom ordains that men who commit adultery and are in fornication be retained by their wives.  Consequently I do not know if the woman who lives with the man who has been dismissed can properly be called an adulteress; the charge in this case attaches to the woman who has put away her husband, and depends upon the cause for which she withdrew from wedlock.  In the case of her being beaten, and refusing to submit, it would be better for her to endure than to be separated from her husband; in the case of her objecting to pecuniary loss, even here she would not have sufficient ground.  If her reason is his living in fornication we do not find this in the custom of the church; but from an unbelieving husband a wife is commanded not to depart, but to remain, on account of the uncertainty of the issue.  “For what knowest thou, O wife, whether thou shalt save thy husband?” (1Cor. 7. 16) Here then the wife, if she leaves her husband and goes to another, is an adulteress.  But the man who has been abandoned is pardonable, and the woman who lives with such a man is not condemned.  But if the man who has deserted his wife goes to another, he is himself an adulterer because he makes her commit adultery; and the woman who lives with him is an adulteress, because she has caused another woman’s husband to come over to her.

188.9 Ἡ δὲ τοῦ Κυρίου ἀπόφασις͵ κατὰ μὲν τὴν τῆς ἐννοίας ἀκολουθίαν͵ ἐξ ἴσου καὶ ἀνδράσι καὶ γυναιξὶν ἁρμόζει͵ περὶ τοῦ μὴ ἐξεῖναι γάμου ἐξίστασθαι παρεκτὸς λόγου πορνείας. Ἡ δὲ συνήθεια οὐχ οὕτως ἔχει͵ ἀλλ΄ ἐπὶ μὲν τῶν γυναικῶν πολλὴν εὑρίσκομεν τὴν ἀκριβολογίαν͵ τοῦ μὲν Ἀποστόλου λέγοντος ὅτι· Ὁ κολλώμενος τῇ πόρνῃ ἓν σῶμά ἐστι͵ τοῦ δὲ Ἱερεμίου ὅτι· Ἐὰν γένηται γυνὴ ἀνδρὶ ἑτέρῳ͵ οὐκ ἐπιστρέψει πρὸς τὸν ἄνδρα αὐτῆς͵ ἀλλὰ μιαινομένη μιανθήσεται͵ καὶ πάλιν· Ὁ ἔχων μοιχαλίδα ἄφρων καὶ ἀσεβής. Ἡ δὲ συνήθεια καὶ μοιχεύοντας ἄνδρας καὶ ἐν πορνείαις ὄντας κατέχεσθαι ὑπὸ γυναικῶν προστάσσει. Ὥστε ἡ τῷ ἀφειμένῳ ἀνδρὶ συνοικοῦσα οὐκ οἶδα εἰ δύναται μοιχαλὶς χρηματίζειν. Τὸ γὰρ ἔγκλημα ἐνταῦθα τῆς ἀπολυσάσης τὸν ἄνδρα ἅπτεται κατὰ ποίαν αἰτίαν ἀπέστη τοῦ γάμου. Εἴτε γὰρ τυπτομένη μὴ φέρουσα τὰς πληγάς͵ ὑπομένειν ἐχρῆν μᾶλλον ἢ διαζευχθῆναι τοῦ συνοικοῦντος· εἴτε τὴν εἰς χρήματα ζημίαν μὴ φέρουσα͵ οὐδὲ αὕτη ἡ πρόφασις ἀξιόλογος. Εἰ δὲ διὰ τὸ ἐν πορνείᾳ αὐτὸν ζῆν͵ οὐκ ἔχομεν τοῦτο ἐν τῇ συνηθείᾳ τῇ ἐκκλη σιαστικῇ τὸ παρατήρημα͵ ἀλλὰ καὶ ἀπίστου ἀνδρὸς χωρίζεσθαι οὐ προσετάχθη γυνή͵ ἀλλὰ παραμένειν διὰ τὸ ἄδηλον τῆς ἐκβάσεως. Τί γὰρ οἶδας͵ γύναι͵ εἰ τὸν ἄνδρα σώσεις; Ὥστε ἡ καταλιποῦσα μοιχαλίς͵ εἰ ἐπ΄ ἄλλον ἦλθεν ἄνδρα. Ὁ δὲ καταλειφθεὶς σύγγνωστος καὶ ἡ συνοι κοῦσα τῷ τοιούτῳ οὐ κατακρίνεται. Εἰ μέντοι ὁ ἀνὴρ ἀποστὰς τῆς γυναικὸς ἐπ΄ ἄλλην ἦλθε͵ καὶ αὐτὸς μοιχός͵ διότι ποιεῖ αὐτὴν μοιχευθῆναι· καὶ ἡ συνοικοῦσα αὐτῷ μοιχαλίς͵ διότι ἀλλότριον ἄνδρα πρὸς ἑαυτὴν μετέστησεν.





10.  Those who swear that they will not receive ordination, declining orders upon oath, must not be driven to perjure themselves, although there does seem to be a canon making concessions to such persons.  Yet I have found by experience that perjurers never turn out well.  Account must however be taken of the form of the oath, its terms, the frame of mind in which it was taken, and the minutest additions made to the terms, since, if no ground of relief can anywhere be found, such persons must be dismissed.  The case, however, of Severus, I mean of the presbyter ordained by him, does seem to me to allow of relief of this kind, if you will permit it.  Give directions for the district placed under Mestia, to which the man was appointed, to be reckoned under Vasoda.  Thus he will not forswear himself by not departing from the place, and Longinus, having Cyriacus with him, will not leave the Church unprovided for, nor himself be guilty of neglect of work.  I moreover shall not be held guilty of taking action in contravention of any canons by making a concession to Cyriacus who had sworn that he would remain at Mindana and yet accepted the transfer.  His return will be in accordance with his oath, and his obedience to the arrangement will not be reckoned against him as perjury, because it was not added to his oath that he would not go, even a short time, from Mindana, but would remain there for the future.  Severus, who pleads forgetfulness, I shall pardon, only telling him that One who knows what is secret will not overlook the ravaging of His Church by a man of such a character; a man who originally appoints uncanonically, then imposes oaths in violation of the Gospel, then tells a man to perjure himself in the matter of his transfer, and last of all lies in pretended forgetfulness.  I am no judge of hearts; I only judge by what I hear; let us leave vengeance to the Lord, and ourselves pardon the common human error of forgetfulness, and receive the man without question.

188.10 Οἱ ὀμνύοντες μὴ καταδέχεσθαι τὴν χειροτονίαν͵ ἐξομνύμενοι͵ μὴ ἀναγκαζέσθωσαν ἐπιορκεῖν. Εἰ γὰρ καὶ δοκεῖ τις εἶναι κανὼν ὁ συγχωρῶν τοῖς τοιούτοις͵ ἀλλὰ πείρᾳ ἐγνώκαμεν ὅτι οὐκ εὐοδοῦνται οἱ παρορκήσαντες. Σκοπεῖν δὲ δεῖ καὶ τὸ εἶδος τοῦ ὅρκου καὶ τὰ ῥήματα καὶ τὴν διάθεσιν ἀφ΄ ἧς ὀμωμόκασι καὶ τὰς κατὰ λεπτὸν ἐν τοῖς ῥήμασι προσθήκας· ὡς͵ ἐὰν μηδεμία ᾖ μηδαμόθεν παραμυθία͵ χρὴ παντελῶς ἐᾶν τοὺς τοιούτους. Τὸ μέντοι κατὰ Σευῆρον πρᾶγμα͵ ἤτοι τὸν ὑπὸ τούτου χειροτονηθέντα πρεσβύτερον͵ τοιαύτην τινά μοι δοκεῖ παραμυθίαν ἔχειν͵ εἰ καί σοι συνδοκεῖ. Τὸν ἀγρὸν ἐκεῖνον τὸν ὑποκείμενον τῇ Μηστίᾳ͵ ᾧ ἐπεκηρύχθη ὁ ἄνθρωπος͵ κέλευσον Οὐασόδοις ὑποτελεῖν. Οὕτω γὰρ κἀκεῖνος οὐ παρορκήσει μὴ ἀναχω ρῶν τοῦ τόπου͵ καὶ ὁ Λογγῖνος ἔχων τὸν Κυριακὸν μεθ΄ ἑαυτοῦ οὐκ ἐρημώσει τὴν ἐκκλησίαν͵ οὐδὲ τὴν ἑαυτοῦ ψυχὴν διὰ τῆς ἀργίας καταδικάσει. Καὶ ἡμεῖς δόξομεν μὴ παρὰ κανόνας ποιεῖν τι͵ συμπεριφερόμενοι τῷ Κυριακῷ ὀμόσαντι μὲν συμπαραμένειν Μινδανοῖς͵ καταδεξαμένῳ δὲ τὴν μετάθεσιν. Ἡ γὰρ ἐπάνοδος φυλακὴ ἔσται τοῦ ὅρκου. Τὸ δὲ εἶξαι αὐτὸν τῇ οἰκονομίᾳ εἰς ἐπιορκίαν αὐτῷ οὐ λογισθήσεται͵ διὰ τὸ μὴ προσκεῖσθαι τῷ ὅρκῳ μηδὲ πρὸς βραχὺ ἀναχωρήσειν Μινδάνων͵ ἀλλὰ παραμε νεῖν εἰς τὸ ἐφεξῆς. Σευήρῳ δὲ προφασιζομένῳ τὴν λήθην ἡμεῖς συγχωρήσομεν͵ εἰπόντες ὅτι ὁ τῶν κρυπτῶν γνώστης οὐ περιόψεται τὴν ἑαυτοῦ Ἐκκλησίαν ὑπὸ τοιούτου λυμαι νομένην ποιοῦντος μὲν ἀκανονίστως τὸ ἐξ ἀρχῆς͵ ὅρκῳ δὲ καταδεσμοῦντος παρὰ τὰ Εὐαγγέλια͵ παρορκεῖν δὲ διδάσκοντος δι΄ ὧν μετετέθη͵ ψευδομένου δὲ νῦν δι΄ ὧν τὴν λήθην σχηματίζεται. Ἐπειδὴ δὲ οὔκ ἐσμεν καρδιῶν κρι ταί͵ ἀλλ΄ ἐξ ὧν ἀκούομεν κρίνομεν͵ δῶμεν τῷ Κυρίῳ τὴν ἐκδίκησιν͵ αὐτοὶ δὲ ἀδιακρίτως αὐτὸν δεξώμεθα συγγνώμην δόντες ἀνθρωπίνῳ πάθει τῇ λήθῃ.





11.  The man who is guilty of unintentional homicide has given sufficient satisfaction in eleven years.  We shall, without doubt, observe what is laid down by Moses in the case of wounded men, and shall not hold a murder to have been committed in the case of a man who lies down after he has been struck, and walks again leaning on his staff. (Exod. 21. 19)  If, however, he does not rise again after he has been struck, nevertheless, from there being no intent to kill, the striker is a homicide, but an unintentional homicide.

188.11 Ὁ δὲ τὸν ἀκούσιον ποιήσας φόνον ἀρκούντως ἐξεπλήρωσε τὴν δίκην ἐν τοῖς ἕνδεκα ἔτεσι. Δῆλον γὰρ ὅτι ἐπὶ τῶν πληγέντων τὰ Μωσέως παρατηρήσομεν͵ καὶ τὸν κατακλιθέντα μὲν ἐπὶ τῶν πληγῶν ἃς ἔλαβε͵ βαδί σαντα δὲ πάλιν ἐπὶ τῇ ῥάβδῳ αὐτοῦ͵ οὐ λογισόμεθα πεφο νεῦσθαι. Εἰ δὲ καὶ οὐκ ἐξανέστη μετὰ τὰς πληγάς͵ ἀλλ΄ οὖν τῷ μὴ προελέσθαι αὐτὸν ἀνελεῖν ὁ τυπτήσας φονευτὴς μέν͵ ἀλλ΄ ἀκούσιος διὰ τὴν πρόθεσιν.





12.  The canon absolutely excludes digamists from the ministry.

188.12 Τοὺς διγάμους παντελῶς ὁ κανὼν τῆς ὑπηρεσίας ἀπέκλεισε.





13.  Homicide in war is not reckoned by our Fathers as homicide; I presume from their wish to make concession to men fighting on behalf of chastity and true religion.  Perhaps, however, it is well to counsel that those whose hands are not clean only abstain from communion for three years.

188.13 Τοὺς ἐν πολέμοις φόνους οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν ἐν τοῖς φόνοις οὐκ ἐλογίσαντο͵ ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν͵ συγγνώμην δόντες τοῖς ὑπὲρ σωφροσύνης καὶ εὐσεβείας ἀμυνομένοις. Τάχα δὲ καλῶς ἔχει συμβουλεύειν͵ ὡς τὰς χεῖρας μὴ καθαρούς͵ τριῶν ἐτῶν τῆς κοινωνίας μόνης ἀπέχεσθαι.





14.  A taker of usury, if he consent to spend his unjust gain on the poor, and to be rid for the future of the plague of covetousness, may be received into the ministry.

188.14 Ὁ τόκους λαμβάνων͵ ἐὰν καταδέξηται τὸ ἄδικον κέρδος εἰς πτωχοὺς ἀναλῶσαι καὶ τοῦ λοιποῦ τοῦ νοσή ματος τῆς φιλοχρηματίας ἀπαλλαγῆναι͵ δεκτός ἐστιν εἰς ἱερωσύνην.





15.  I am astonished at your requiring exactitude in Scripture, and arguing that there is something forced in the diction of the interpretation which gives the meaning of the original, but does not exactly render what is meant by the Hebrew word.  Yet I must not carelessly pass by the question started by an enquiring mind.  At the creation of the world, birds of the air and the fishes of the sea had the same origin; (Ps. 8. 8) for both kinds were produced from the water. (Gen. 1. 20 & 21)  The reason is that both have the same characteristics.  The latter swim in the water, the former in the air.  They are therefore mentioned together.  The form of expression is not used without distinction, but of all that lives in the water it is used very properly.  The birds of the air and the fishes of the sea are subject to man; and not they alone, but all that passes through the paths of the sea.  For every water-creature is not a fish, as for instance the sea monsters, whales, sharks, dolphins, seals, even sea-horses, sea-dogs, saw-fish, sword-fish, and sea-cows; and, if you like, sea nettles, cockles and all hard-shelled creatures of whom none are fish, and all pass through the paths of the sea; so that there are three kinds, birds of the air, fishes of the sea, and all water-creatures which are distinct from fish, and pass through the paths of the sea.

188.15 Θαυμάζω δέ σου͵ τὴν γραμματικὴν ἀκρίβειαν ἐπὶ τῆς Γραφῆς ἀπαιτοῦντος καὶ λογιζομένου ὅτι ἠναγκασ μένη ἐστὶν ἡ λέξις τῆς ἑρμηνείας τὸ ἑαυτῆς εὔσημον ἐκδι δούσης͵ οὐ τὸ κυρίως ὑπὸ τῆς Ἑβραϊκῆς φωνῆς σημαινό μενον μετατιθείσης. Ἐπεὶ δὲ δεῖ μὴ ἀργῶς παρελθεῖν τὸ ὑπ΄ ἀνδρὸς ζητητικοῦ κινηθὲν πρόβλημα͵ τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ οἱ ἰχθύες τῆς θαλάσσης καὶ ἐν τῇ κοσμο ποιίᾳ τὴν αὐτὴν ἔλαχον γένεσιν. Ἐκ τῶν ὑδάτων γὰρ ἐξήχθη ἀμφότερα τὰ γένη. Τὸ δὲ αἴτιον ὅτι ταὐτόν ἐστιν ἑκατέροις ἰδίωμα. Τὰ μὲν γὰρ διανήχεται τὸ ὕδωρ͵ τὰ δὲ ἐπινήχεται τῷ ἀέρι. Διὰ τοῦτο μὲν οὖν κοινῇ αὐτῶν ἐπεμνήσθη. Τὸ δὲ σχῆμα τοῦ λόγου ὡς μὲν πρὸς τοὺς ἰχθύας ἀκαταλλήλως ἀποδοθέν͵ ὡς δὲ πρὸς πάντα τὰ ἐν ὕδασι διαιτώμενα καὶ πάνυ οἰκείως. Τὰ γὰρ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ὑποτέτακται τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ καὶ οἱ ἰχθύες τῆς θαλάσσης͵ καὶ οὐκ αὐτοὶ μόνον͵ ἀλλὰ καὶ πάντα τὰ διαπο ρευόμενα τρίβους θαλασσῶν. Οὐ γὰρ εἴ τι ἔνυδρον͵ καὶ ἰχθύς ἐστιν͵ ὡς τὰ κητώδη͵ φάλλαιναι καὶ ζύγαιναι καὶ δελφῖνες καὶ φῶκαι͵ καὶ προσέτι ἵπποι καὶ κύνες καὶ πρίονες καὶ ξιφίαι καὶ οἱ θαλάσσιοι βοῦς͵ εἰ δὲ βούλει͵ καὶ ἀκάληφαι καὶ κτένες καὶ τὰ ὀστρακόρινα πάντα͵ ὧν οὐδέν ἐστιν ἰχθύς͵ καὶ πάντα ἃ διαπορεύεται τρίβους θαλασσῶν.





16.  Naaman was not a great man with the Lord, but with his lord; that is, he was one of the chief princes of the King of the Syrians. (2 Kings 5. 1)  Read your Bible carefully, and you will find the answer to your question there.

188.16 Ὁ δὲ Νεεμᾶν οὐχὶ μέγας παρὰ Κυρίῳ͵ ἀλλὰ παρὰ τῷ κυρίῳ αὐτοῦ͵ τουτέστι τῶν παραδυναστευόντων ἦν τῷ βασιλεῖ τῶν Σύρων. Πρόσεχε οὖν ἀκριβῶς τῇ Γραφῇ καὶ αὐτόθεν εὑρήσεις τὴν λύσιν τοῦ ζητήματος.








NPNF 8, pp. 236-240






(Canonica Secunda. Canons 17-50)




To Amphilochius, concerning the Canons. ΠΕΡΙ ΚΑΝΟΝΩΝ



I WROTE some time ago in reply to the questions of your reverence, but I did not send the letter, partly because from my long and dangerous illness I had not time to do so; partly because I had no one to send with it.  I have but few men with me who are experienced in travelling and fit for service of this kind.  When you thus learn the causes of my delay, forgive me.  I have been quite astonished at your readiness to learn and at your humility.  You are entrusted with the office of a teacher, and yet you condescend to learn, and to learn of me, who pretend to no great knowledge.  Nevertheless, since you consent, on account of your fear of God, to do what another man might hesitate to do, I am bound for my part to go even beyond my strength in aiding your readiness and righteous zeal.

Πάλαι πρὸς τὰς παρὰ τῆς εὐλαβείας σου προταθείσας ἡμῖν ἐρωτήσεις ἀποκρινάμενος͵ οὐκ ἀπέστειλα τὸ γράμμα͵ τοῦτο μὲν ὑπὸ τῆς ἀρρωστίας τῆς μακρᾶς καὶ ἐπικινδύνου ἀσχοληθείς͵ τοῦτο δὲ ὑπὸ τῆς ἀπορίας τῶν διακονουμένων. Ὀλίγοι γὰρ καὶ παρ΄ ἡμῖν καὶ ὁδοῦ ἔμπειροι καὶ πα ρεσκευασμένοι πρὸς τὰς τοιαύτας ὑπηρεσίας. Ὥστε μαθὼν τὰς αἰτίας τῆς βραδύτητος δὸς ἡμῖν τὴν συγγνώμην. Ἐθαυμάσαμεν δέ σου τὴν φιλομάθειαν ὁμοῦ καὶ τὴν ταπει νοφροσύνην͵ ὅτι καὶ μαθεῖν καταδέχῃ τὴν τοῦ διδάσκειν τάξιν πεπιστευμένος καὶ μανθάνειν παρ΄ ἡμῶν οἷς οὐδὲν μέγα πρόσεστι εἰς γνῶσιν. Ἀλλ΄ ὅμως͵ ἐπειδὴ καταδέχῃ διὰ τὸν φόβον τοῦ Θεοῦ ποιεῖν πρᾶγμα οὐ ῥᾳδίως παρ΄ ἑτέρου γινόμενον͵ χρὴ καὶ ἡμᾶς τῇ προθυμίᾳ σου καὶ τῇ ἀγαθῇ σπουδῇ συναίρεσθαι καὶ ὑπὲρ δύναμιν.





17.  You asked me about the presbyter Bianor—can he be admitted among the clergy, because of his oath?  I know that I have already given the clergy of Antioch a general sentence in the case of all those who had sworn with him; namely, that they should abstain from the public congregations, but might perform priestly functions in private.  Moreover, he has the further liberty for the performance of his ministerial functions, from the fact that his sacred duties lie not at Antioch, but at Iconium; for, as you have written to me yourself, he has chosen to live rather at the latter than at the former place.  The man in question may, therefore, be received; but your reverence must require him to shew repentance for the rash readiness of the oath which he took before the unbeliever, being unable to bear the trouble of that small peril.

199.17 Ἠρώτησας ἡμᾶς περὶ Βιάνορος τοῦ πρεσβυτέρου εἰ δεκτός ἐστιν εἰς τὸν κλῆρον διὰ τὸν ὅρκον. Ἐγὼ δὲ ἤδη τινὰ καὶ κοινὸν ὅρον περὶ πάντων ὁμοῦ τῶν μετ΄ αὐτοῦ ὀμωμοκότων τοῖς κατ΄ Ἀντιόχειαν κληρικοῖς οἶδα ἐκτεθει κώς· ὥστε τῶν μὲν δημοσίων αὐτοὺς ἀπέχεσθαι συλλόγων͵ ἰδίᾳ δὲ ἐνεργεῖν τὰ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων. Τὸ δὲ αὐτὸ τοῦτο καὶ πρὸς τὴν ἑαυτοῦ ὑπηρεσίαν ἄδειαν αὐτῷ παρέχει͵ διότι οὐκ ἐν Ἀντιοχείᾳ ἐστὶν ἡ ἱερωσύνη͵ ἀλλ΄ ἐν Ἰκονίῳ͵ ἥν͵ ὡς αὐτὸς ἐπέστειλας ἡμῖν͵ τῆς Ἀντιοχείας εἰς οἴκησιν ἀντηλλάξατο. Ἔστιν οὖν δεκτὸς ὁ ἀνὴρ ἐκεῖνος͵ ἀπαιτού μενος παρὰ τῆς εὐλαβείας σου μεταμέλεσθαι ἐπὶ τῇ εὐκολίᾳ τοῦ ὅρκου ὃν ἐπὶ τοῦ ἀπίστου ἀνδρὸς ἐξωμόσατο͵ βαστάξαι τὴν ἐνόχλησιν τοῦ μικροῦ ἐκείνου κινδύνου μὴ δυνηθείς.





18.  Concerning fallen virgins, who, after professing a chaste life before the Lord, make their vows vain, because they have fallen under the lusts of the flesh, our fathers, tenderly and meekly making allowance for the infirmities of them that fall, laid down that they might be received after a year, ranking them with the digamists.  Since, however, by God’s grace the Church grows mightier as she advances, and the order of virgins is becoming more numerous, it is my judgment that careful heed should be given both to the act as it appears upon consideration, and to the mind of Scripture, which may be discovered from the context.  Widowhood is inferior to virginity; consequently the sin of the widows comes far behind that of the virgins.  Let us see what Paul writes to Timothy.  “The young widows refuse:  for when they have begun to wax wanton against Christ, they will marry; having damnation because they have cast off their first faith.”(1 Tim. 5. 11, 12) If, therefore, a widow lies under a very heavy charge, as setting at naught her faith in Christ, what must we think of the virgin, who is the bride of Christ, and a chosen vessel dedicated to the Lord?  It is a grave fault even on the part of a slave to give herself away in secret wedlock and fill the house with impurity, and, by her wicked life, to wrong her owner; but it is forsooth far more shocking for the bride to become an adulteress, and, dishonouring her union with the bridegroom, to yield herself to unchaste indulgence.  The widow, as being a corrupted slave, is indeed condemned; but the virgin comes under the charge of adultery.  We call the man who lives with another man’s wife an adulterer, and do not receive him into communion until he has ceased from his sin; and so we shall ordain in the case of him who has the virgin.  One point, however, must be determined beforehand, that the name virgin is given to a woman who voluntarily devotes herself to the Lord, renounces marriage, and embraces a life of holiness.  And we admit professions dating from the age of full intelligence.  For it is not right in such cases to admit the words of mere children.  But a girl of sixteen or seventeen years of age, in full possession of her faculties, who has been submitted to strict examination, and is then constant, and persists in her entreaty to be admitted, may then be ranked among the virgins, her profession ratified, and its violation rigorously punished.  Many girls are brought forward by their parents and brothers, and other kinsfolk, before they are of full age, and have no inner impulse towards a celibate life.  The object of the friends is simply to provide for themselves.  Such women as these must not be readily received, before we have made public investigation of their own sentiments.

199.18 Περὶ τῶν ἐκπεσουσῶν παρθένων τῶν καθομολογησα μένων τὸν ἐν σεμνότητι βίον τῷ Κυρίῳ͵ εἶτα διὰ τὸ ὑπο πεσεῖν τοῖς πάθεσι τῆς σαρκὸς ἀθετουσῶν τὰς ἑαυτῶν συνθήκας͵ οἱ μὲν πατέρες ἡμῶν ἁπαλῶς καὶ πράως συμπεριφερόμενοι ταῖς ἀσθενείαις τῶν κατολισθαινόντων ἐνομοθέτησαν δεκτὰς εἶναι μετὰ τὸν ἐνιαυτόν͵ καθ΄ ὁμοιό τητα τῶν διγάμων διαταξάμενοι. Ἐμοὶ δὲ δοκεῖ͵ ἐπειδὴ τῇ τοῦ Θεοῦ χάριτι προιοῦσα ἡ Ἐκκλησία κραταιοτέρα γίνεται καὶ πληθύνεται νῦν τὸ τάγμα τῶν παρθένων͵ προσ έχειν ἀκριβῶς τῷ τε κατ΄ ἔννοιαν φαινομένῳ πράγματι καὶ τῇ τῆς Γραφῆς διανοίᾳ ἣν δυνατὸν ἐξευρεῖν ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀκολούθου. Χηρεία γὰρ παρθενίας ἐλάττων· οὐκοῦν καὶ τὸ τῶν χηρῶν ἁμάρτημα πολλῷ δεύτερόν ἐστι τοῦ τῶν παρθένων. Ἴδωμεν τοίνυν τί γέγραπται Τιμοθέῳ παρὰ τοῦ Παύλου· Νεωτέρας δὲ χήρας παραιτοῦ. Ὅταν γὰρ καταστρηνιάσωσι τοῦ Χριστοῦ͵ γαμεῖν θέλουσιν ἔχουσαι κρίμα ὅτι τὴν πρώτην πίστιν ἠθέτησαν. Εἰ τοίνυν χήρα κρίματι ὑπόκειται βαρυτάτῳ ὡς τὴν εἰς Χριστὸν ἀθετή σασα πίστιν͵ τί χρὴ λογίζεσθαι ἡμᾶς περὶ τῆς παρθένου͵ ἥτις νύμφη ἐστὶ τοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ σκεῦος ἱερὸν ἀνατεθὲν τῷ Δεσπότῃ; Μέγα μὲν ἁμάρτημα καὶ δούλην λαθραίοις γάμοις ἑαυτὴν ἐπιδιδοῦσαν φθορᾶς ἀναπλῆσαι τὸν οἶκον καὶ καθυβρίζειν διὰ τοῦ πονηροῦ βίου τὸν κεκτημένον· πολλῷ δὲ δήπου χαλεπώτερον τὴν νύμφην μοιχαλίδα γενέσθαι καὶ τὴν πρὸς τὸν νυμφίον ἕνωσιν ἀτιμάσασαν ἡδοναῖς ἀκολάστοις ἑαυτὴν ἐπιδοῦναι. Οὐκοῦν ἡ μὲν χήρα͵ ὡς δούλη διεφθαρμένη͵ καταδικάζεται· ἡ δὲ παρθένος τῷ κρίματι τῆς μοιχαλίδος ὑπόκειται. Ὥσπερ οὖν τὸν ἀλλοτρίᾳ γυναικὶ συνιόντα μοιχὸν ὀνομάζομεν͵ οὐ πρότερον παραδεξάμενοι εἰς κοινωνίαν πρὶν ἢ παύσασθαι τῆς ἁμαρ τίας· οὕτω δηλονότι καὶ ἐπὶ τοῦ τὴν παρθένον ἔχοντος διατεθησόμεθα. Ἐκεῖνο δὲ νῦν προδιομολογεῖσθαι ἡμῖν ἀναγκαῖον͵ ὅτι παρθένος ὀνομάζεται ἡ ἑκουσίως ἑαυτὴν προσαγαγοῦσα τῷ Κυρίῳ καὶ ἀποταξαμένη τῷ γάμῳ καὶ τὸν ἐν ἁγιασμῷ βίον προτιμήσασα. Τὰς δὲ ὁμολογίας τότε ἐγκρίνομεν͵ ἀφ΄ οὗπερ ἂν ἡ ἡλικία τὴν τοῦ λόγου συμπλή ρωσιν ἔχῃ. Οὐ γὰρ τὰς παιδικὰς φωνὰς πάντως κυρίας ἐπὶ τῶν τοιούτων ἡγεῖσθαι προσῆκεν͵ ἀλλὰ τὴν ὑπὲρ τὰ δέκα ἓξ ἢ δέκα καὶ ἑπτὰ γενομένην ἔτη͵ κυρίαν οὖσαν τῶν λογισμῶν͵ ἀνακριθεῖσαν ἐπὶ πλεῖον͵ εἶτα παραμείνασαν καὶ λιπαροῦσαν διὰ ἱκεσιῶν πρὸς τὸ παραδεχθῆναι͵ τότε ἐγκα ταλέγεσθαι χρὴ ταῖς παρθένοις καὶ τὴν ὁμολογίαν τῆς τοιαύτης κυροῦν καὶ τὴν ἀθέτησιν αὐτῆς ἀπαραιτήτως κολάζειν. Πολλὰς γὰρ γονεῖς προσάγουσι͵ καὶ ἀδελφοὶ καὶ τῶν προσηκόντων τινές͵ πρὸ τῆς ἡλικίας͵ οὐκ οἴκοθεν ὁρμηθείσας πρὸς ἀγαμίαν͵ ἀλλά τι βιωτικὸν ἑαυτοῖς διοικού μενοι. Ἃς οὐ ῥᾳδίως προσδέχεσθαι δεῖ͵ ἕως ἂν φανερῶς τὴν ἰδίαν αὐτῶν ἐρευνήσωμεν γνώμην.





19.  I do not recognise the profession of men, except in the case of those who have enrolled themselves in the order of monks, and seem to have secretly adopted the celibate life.  Yet in their case I think it becoming that there should be a previous examination, and that a distinct profession should be received from them, so that whenever they may revert to the life of the pleasures of the flesh, they may be subjected to the punishment of fornicators.

199.19 Ἀνδρῶν δὲ ὁμολογίας οὐκ ἔγνωμεν͵ πλὴν εἰ μή τινες ἑαυτοὺς τῷ τάγματι τῶν μοναζόντων ἐγκατηρίθμησαν· οἳ κατὰ τὸ σιωπώμενον δοκοῦσι παραδεδέχθαι τὴν ἀγαμίαν. Πλὴν καὶ ἐπ΄ ἐκείνων ἐκεῖνο ἡγοῦμαι προηγεῖσθαι προσή κειν͵ ἐρωτᾶσθαι αὐτοὺς καὶ λαμβάνεσθαι τὴν παρ΄ αὐτῶν ὁμολογίαν ἐναργῆ͵ ὥστε͵ ἐπειδὰν μετατίθενται πρὸς τὸν φιλόσαρκον καὶ ἡδονικὸν βίον͵ ὑπάγειν αὐτοὺς τῷ τῶν πορνευόντων ἐπιτιμίῳ.





20.  I do not think that any condemnation ought to be passed on women who professed virginity while in heresy, and then afterwards preferred marriage.  “What things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law.” (Rom. 3. 19)  Those who have not yet put on Christ’s yoke do not recognise the laws of the Lord.  They are therefore to be received in the church, as having remission in the case of these sins too, as of all, from their faith in Christ.  As a general rule, all sins formerly committed in the catechumenical state are not taken into account.  The Church does not receive these persons without baptism; and it is very necessary that in such cases the birthrights should be observed.

199.20 Ὅσαι γυναῖκες͵ ἐν αἱρέσει οὖσαι͵ παρθενίαν ὡμο λόγησαν͵ εἶτα μετὰ ταῦτα γάμον ἀνθείλοντο͵ οὐχ ἡγοῦμαι χρῆναι καταδικάζεσθαι ταύτας. Ὅσα γὰρ ὁ νόμος λέγει͵ τοῖς ἐν τῷ νόμῳ λαλεῖ. Αἱ δὲ μήπω ὑπελθοῦσαι τὸν ζυγὸν τοῦ Χριστοῦ οὐδὲ τὴν νομοθεσίαν ἐπιγινώσκουσι τοῦ Δεσπότου. Ὥστε δεκταί εἰσι τῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ͵ μετὰ πάντων καὶ τὴν ἐπὶ τούτοις ἄφεσιν ἔχουσαι ἐκ τῆς πίστεως τῆς εἰς Χριστόν. Καὶ καθόλου τὰ ἐν τῷ κατηχουμένῳ βίῳ γενόμενα εἰς εὐθύνας οὐκ ἄγεται. Τούτους δέ͵ δηλονότι͵ ἄνευ βαπτίσματος ἡ Ἐκκλησία οὐ παραδέχεται. Ὥστε ἀναγκαιότατον ἐπὶ τούτοις τὰ πρεσβεῖα τῆς γενέσεως.





21.  If a man living with a wife is not satisfied with his marriage and falls into fornication, I account him a fornicator, and prolong his period of punishment.  Nevertheless, we have no canon subjecting him to the charge of adultery, if the sin be committed against an unmarried woman.  For the adulteress, it is said, “being polluted shall be polluted,” (Jer. 3. 1) and she shall not return to her husband:  and “He that keepeth an adulteress is a fool and impious.” (Prov. 18. 22, lxx)  He, however, who has committed fornication is not to be cut off from the society of his own wife.  So the wife will receive the husband on his return from fornication, but the husband will expel the polluted woman from his house.  The argument here is not easy, but the custom has so obtained.

199.21 Εἰ ἀνὴρ γυναικὶ συνοικῶν͵ ἐπειδάν͵ μὴ ἀρκεσθεὶς τῷ γάμῳ͵ εἰς πορνείαν ἐκπέσῃ͵ πόρνον κρίνομεν τὸν τοιοῦτον καὶ πλεῖον αὐτὸν παρατείνομεν ἐν τοῖς ἐπιτιμίοις· οὐ μέντοι ἔχομεν κανόνα τῷ τῆς μοιχείας αὐτὸν ὑπαγαγεῖν ἐγκλήματι͵ ἐὰν εἰς ἐλευθέραν γάμου ἡ ἁμαρτία γένηται· διότι ἡ μοιχαλὶς μὲν Μιαινομένη͵ φησί͵ μιανθήσεται͵ καὶ οὐκ ἀναστρέψει πρὸς τὸν ἄνδρα αὐτῆς͵ καὶ Ὁ κατέχων μοιχαλίδα ἄφρων καὶ ἀσεβής· ὁ μέντοι πορ νεύσας οὐκ ἀποκλεισθήσεται τῆς πρὸς τὴν γυναῖκα ἑαυτοῦ συνοικήσεως. Ὥστε ἡ μὲν γυνὴ ἀπὸ πορνείας ἐπανιόντα τὸν ἄνδρα αὐτῆς παραδέξεται͵ ὁ δὲ ἀνὴρ τὴν μιανθεῖσαν τῶν οἴκων ἑαυτοῦ ἀποπέμψει. Καὶ τούτων δὲ ὁ λόγος οὐ ῥᾴδιος͵ ἡ δὲ συνήθεια οὕτω κεκράτηκε.

canon 22 - example of division of penance




22.  Men who keep women carried off by violence, if they carried them off when betrothed to other men, must not be received before removal of the women and their restoration to those to whom they were first contracted, whether they wish to receive them, or to separate from them.  In the case of a girl who has been taken when not betrothed, she ought first to be removed, and restored to her own people, and handed over to the will of her own people whether parents, or brothers, or any one having authority over her.  If they choose to give her up, the cohabitation may stand; but, if they refuse, no violence should be used.  In the case of a man having a wife by seduction, be it secret or by violence, he must be held guilty of fornication.  199.22 Τοὺς ἐξ ἁρπαγῆς ἔχοντας γυναῖκας͵ εἰ μὲν ἄλλοις προμεμνηστευμένας εἶεν ἀφῃρημένοι͵ οὐ πρότερον χρὴ παραδέχεσθαι πρὶν ἢ ἀφελέσθαι αὐτῶν καὶ ἐπ΄ ἐξουσίᾳ τῶν ἐξ ἀρχῆς μνηστευσαμένων ποιῆσαι͵ εἴτε βούλοιντο λαβεῖν αὐτὰς εἴτε ἀποστῆναι. Εἰ δὲ σχολάζουσάν τις λάβοι͵ ἀφαιρεῖσθαι μὲν δεῖ καὶ τοῖς οἰκείοις ἀποκαθιστᾶν͵ ἐπιτρέπειν δὲ τῇ γνώμῃ τῶν οἰκείων͵ εἴτε γονεῖς εἶεν εἴτε ἀδελφοὶ εἴτε οἱτινεσοῦν προεστῶτες τῆς κόρης͵ κἂν μὲν ἕλωνται αὐτῷ παραδοῦναι͵ ἵστασθαι τὸ συνοικέσιον͵ ἐὰν δὲ ἀνανεύσωσι͵ μὴ βιάζεσθαι. Τὸν μέντοι ἐκ διαφθορᾶς͵ εἴτε λαθραίας εἴτε βιαιοτέρας͵ γυναῖκα ἔχοντα ἀνάγκη τὸ τῆς πορνείας ἐπιγνῶναι ἐπιτίμιον.
The punishment of fornicators is fixed at four years. Ἔστι δὲ ἐν τέσσαρσιν ἔτεσιν ὡρισμένη τοῖς πορνεύουσιν ἡ ἐπιτίμησις.

 In the first year they must be expelled from prayer, and weep at the door of the church;

in the second they may be received to sermon;

in the third to penance;

in the fourth to standing with the people, while they are withheld from the oblation.

Finally, they may be admitted to the communion of the good gift.

Χρὴ τῷ πρώτῳ ἐκβάλλεσθαι τῶν προσευχῶν καὶ προσκλαίειν αὐτοὺς τῇ θύρᾳ τῆς ἐκκλησίας͵

τῷ δευτέρῳ δεχθῆναι εἰς ἀκρόασιν͵

τῷ τρίτῳ εἰς μετάνοιαν͵

τῷ τετάρτῳ εἰς σύστασιν μετὰ τοῦ λαοῦ ἀπεχομένους τῆς προσφορᾶς͵

 εἶτα αὐτοὺς ἐπι τρέπεσθαι τὴν κοινωνίαν τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ.





23.  Concerning men who marry two sisters, or women who marry two brothers a short letter of mine has been published, of which I have sent a copy to your reverence.  The man who has taken his own brother’s wife is not to be received until he have separated from her.

199.23 Περὶ δὲ τῶν δύο ἀδελφὰς γαμούντων ἢ ἀδελφοῖς δυσὶ γαμουμένων ἐπιστολίδιον ἡμῖν ἐκπεφώνηται οὗ τὸ ἀντίγραφον ἀπεστείλαμέν σου τῇ εὐλαβείᾳ. Ὁ δὲ ἀδελφοῦ ἰδίου γυναῖκα λαβὼν οὐ πρότερον δεχθήσεται πρὶν ἀπο στῆναι αὐτῆς.





24.  A widow whose name is in the list of widows, that is, who is supported by the Church, is ordered by the Apostle to be supported no longer when she marries.(1Tim. 5. 11, 12)

199.24 Χήραν τὴν καταλεγεῖσαν εἰς τὸν ἀριθμὸν τῶν χηρῶν͵ τουτέστι τὴν διακονουμένην ὑπὸ τῆς Ἐκκλησίας͵ ἔκρινεν ὁ Ἀπόστολος γαμουμένην παρορᾶσθαι.





There is no special rule for a widower.  The punishment appointed for digamy may suffice.  If a widow who is sixty years of age chooses again to live with a husband, she shall be held unworthy of the communion of the good gift until she be moved no longer by her impure desire.  If we reckon her before sixty years, the blame rests with us, and not with the woman.

Ἀνδρὶ δὲ χηρεύσαντι οὐδεὶς ἐπίκειται νόμος͵ ἀλλ΄ ἱκανὸν τῷ τοιούτῳ τὸ τῶν διγάμων ἐπιτίμιον. Ἡ μέντοι χήρα ἑξη κονταετὴς γεγονυῖα͵ ἐὰν ἕληται πάλιν ἀνδρὶ συνοικεῖν͵ οὐ καταξιωθήσεται τῆς τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ κοινωνίας͵ ἕως ἂν τοῦ πάθους τῆς ἀκαθαρσίας παύσηται. Ἐὰν μέντοι πρὸ ἑξή κοντα ἐτῶν ἀριθμήσωμεν αὐτήν͵ ἡμέτερον τὸ ἔγκλημα͵ οὐ τοῦ γυναίου.





25.  The man who retains as his wife the woman whom he has violated, shall be liable to the penalty of rape, but it shall be lawful for him to have her to wife.

199.25 Ὁ τὴν διεφθαρμένην ὑφ΄ ἑαυτοῦ εἰς γυναῖκα κατέχων τὸ μὲν ἐπὶ τῇ φθορᾷ ἐπιτίμιον ὑποστήσεται͵ τὴν δὲ γυναῖκα ἔχειν συγχωρηθήσεται.





26.  Fornication is not wedlock, nor yet the beginning of wedlock.  Wherefore it is best, if possible, to put asunder those who are united in fornication.  If they are set on cohabitation, let them admit the penalty of fornication.  Let them be allowed to live together, lest a worse thing happen.

199.26 Ἡ πορνεία γάμος οὐκ ἔστιν͵ ἀλλ΄ οὐδὲ γάμου ἀρχή. Ὥστε͵ ἐὰν ᾖ δυνατὸν τοὺς κατὰ πορνείαν συναπτομένους χωρίζεσθαι͵ τοῦτο κράτιστον. Ἐὰν δὲ στέργωσιν ἐκ παντὸς τρόπου τὸ συνοικέσιον͵ τὸ μὲν τῆς πορνείας ἐπιτίμιον γνωριζέτωσαν͵ ἀφιέσθωσαν δέ͵ ἵνα μὴ χεῖρόν τι γένηται.





27.  As to the priest ignorantly involved in an illegal marriage, I have made the fitting regulation, that he may hold his seat, but must abstain from other functions.  For such a case pardon is enough.  It is unreasonable that the man who has to treat his own wounds should be blessing another, for benediction is the imparting of holiness.  How can he who through his fault, committed in ignorance, is without holiness, impart it to another?  Let him bless neither in public nor in private, nor distribute the body of Christ to others, nor perform any other sacred function, but, content with his seat of honour, let him beseech the Lord with weeping, that his sin, committed in ignorance, may be forgiven.

199.27 Περὶ τοῦ πρεσβυτέρου τοῦ κατ΄ ἄγνοιαν ἀθέσμῳ γάμῳ περιπαρέντος ὥρισα ἃ ἐχρῆν· καθέδρας μὲν μετέχειν͵ τῶν δὲ λοιπῶν ἐνεργειῶν ἀπέχεσθαι. Ἀρκετὸν γὰρ τῷ τοιούτῳ ἡ συγγνώμη. Εὐλογεῖν δὲ ἕτερον͵ τὸν τὰ οἰκεῖα τημελεῖν ὀφείλοντα τραύματα͵ ἀνακόλουθον. Εὐλογία γὰρ ἁγιασμοῦ μετάδοσίς ἐστιν. Ὁ δὲ τοῦτο μὴ ἔχων διὰ τὸ ἐκ τῆς ἀγνοίας παράπτωμα πῶς ἑτέρῳ μεταδώσει; Μήτε τοίνυν δημοσίᾳ μήτε ἰδίᾳ εὐλογείτω͵ μήτε τὸ σῶμα τοῦ Χριστοῦ κατανεμέτω ἑτέροις μήτε τι ἄλλο λειτουργείτω͵ ἀλλὰ ἀρκούμενος τῇ προεδρίᾳ προσκλαιέτω τῷ Κυρίῳ συγχωρηθῆναι αὐτῷ τὸ ἐκ τῆς ἀγνοίας ἀνόμημα.





28.  It has seemed to me ridiculous that any one should make a vow to abstain from swine’s flesh.  Be so good as to teach men to abstain from foolish vows and promises.  Represent the use to be quite indifferent.  No creature of God, received with thanksgiving, is to be rejected. (1Tim. 4. 4)  The vow is ridiculous; the abstinence unnecessary.

199.28 Ἐκεῖνό γε μὴν γελοῖόν μοι κατεφάνη τὸ εὔξασθαί τινα ὑείων ἀπέχεσθαι κρεῶν. Ὥστε καταξίωσον διδάσκειν αὐτοὺς τῶν ἀπαιδεύτων προσευχῶν καὶ ἐπαγγελιῶν ἀπέχεσθαι· τὴν μέντοι χρῆσιν ἀδιάφορον εἶναι συγχώρησον. Οὐδὲν γὰρ κτίσμα Θεοῦ ἀπόβλητον μετ΄ εὐχαριστίας λαμ βανόμενον. Ὥστε ἡ εὐχὴ καταγέλαστος͵ οὐχ ἡ ἀποχὴ ἀναγκαία.





29.  It is especially desirable that attention should be given to the case of persons in power who threaten on oath to do some hurt to those under their authority.  The remedy is twofold.  In the first place, let them be taught not to take oaths at random:  secondly, not to persist in their wicked determinations.  Any one who is arrested in the design of fulfilling an oath to injure another ought to shew repentance for the rashness of his oath, and must not confirm his wickedness under the pretext of piety.  Herod was none the better for fulfilling his oath, when, of course only to save himself from perjury, he became the prophet’s murderer. (Matt. 14. 10)  Swearing is absolutely forbidden, (Matt. 5. 34) and it is only reasonable that the oath which tends to evil should be condemned.  The swearer must therefore change his mind, and not persist in confirming his impiety.  Consider the absurdity of the thing a little further.  Suppose a man to swear that he will put his brother’s eyes out:  is it well for him to carry his oath into action?  Or to commit murder? or to break any other commandment?  “I have sworn, and I will perform it,” (Ps. cxix. 106) not to sin, but to “keep thy righteous judgments.”  It is no less our duty to undo and destroy sin, than it is to confirm the commandment by immutable counsels.

199.29 Ἄρχοντας μέντοι ὀμνύειν ἐπὶ τῷ κακοποιεῖν τοὺς ἀρχομένους καὶ πάνυ θεραπεύεσθαι προσῆκε. Θεραπεία δὲ τούτων διττή· μία μὲν μὴ ὀμνύειν αὐτοὺς διδάσκεσθαι προχείρως͵ ἑτέρα δὲ μὴ ἐπιμένειν ἐν ταῖς πονηραῖς κρί σεσιν. Ὥστε ὅρκῳ προληφθείς τις εἰς κακοποιΐαν ἑτέρου τὴν μὲν ἐπὶ τῇ προπετείᾳ τοῦ ὅρκου μετάνοιαν ἐπιδεικ νύσθω͵ μὴ μέντοι προσχήματι εὐλαβείας τὴν πονηρίαν ἑαυτοῦ βεβαιούτω. Οὐδὲ γὰρ Ἡρώδῃ συνήνεγκεν εὐορκή σαντι͵ ὅς͵ ἵνα μὴ ἐπιορκήσῃ δῆθεν͵ φονεὺς ἐγένετο τοῦ προφήτου. Ἅπαξ δὲ ὁ ὅρκος ἀπηγόρευται͵ πολλῷ δὲ δήπου εἰκὸς τὸν ἐπὶ κακῷ γινόμενον κατακεκρίσθαι. Ὥστε μεταφρονεῖν χρὴ τὸν ὀμνύοντα͵ οὐχὶ σπουδάζειν βεβαιοῦν ἑαυτοῦ τὸ ἀνόσιον. Ἐξέτασον γὰρ πλατύτερον τὴν ἀτο πίαν. Εἴ τις ὀμόσειεν ἐξορύξειν τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ͵ εἰ καλὸν τὸ τοιοῦτον εἰς ἔργον ἀγαγεῖν αὐτῷ; Εἴ τις φονεύσειν; Εἴ τις ὅλως δι΄ ὅρκου ἐντολήν τινα παρα βήσεσθαι; Ὤμοσα γὰρ καὶ ἔστησα͵ οὐχὶ τὴν ἁμαρτίαν͵ ἀλλὰ τοῦ φυλάξασθαι τὰ κρίματα τῆς δικαιοσύνης σου. Ὥσπερ δὲ τὴν ἐντολὴν ἀμεταθέτοις κρίμασι προσῆκε βεβαιοῦσθαι͵ οὕτω τὴν ἁμαρτίαν παντοίως καθήκει ἀκυ ροῦσθαι καὶ ἀφανίζεσθαι.





30.  As to those guilty of abduction we have no ancient rule, but I have expressed my own judgment.  The period is three years; the culprits and their accomplices to be excluded from service.  The act committed without violence is not liable to punishment, whenever it has not been preceded by violation or robbery.  The widow is independent, and to follow or not is in her own power.  We must, therefore, pay no heed to excuses.

199.30 Περὶ τῶν ἁρπαζόντων κανόνα μὲν παλαιὸν οὐκ ἔχομεν͵ ἰδίαν δὲ γνώμην ἐποιησάμεθα· τρία ἔτη καὶ αὐτοὺς καὶ τοὺς συναρπάζοντας αὐτοῖς ἔξω τῶν εὐχῶν γίνεσθαι. Τὸ δὲ μὴ βιαίως γενόμενον ἀνεύθυνόν ἐστιν͵ ὅταν μὴ φθορὰ ᾖ μηδὲ κλοπὴ ἡγουμένη τοῦ πράγματος. Αὐτεξουσία δὲ ἡ χήρα͵ καὶ ἐπ΄ αὐτῇ τὸ ἀκολουθῆσαι. Ὥστε τῶν σχη μάτων ἡμῖν οὐ φροντιστέον.





31.  A woman whose husband has gone away and disappeared, and who marries another, before she has evidence of his death, commits adultery.

199.31 Ἡ ἀναχωρήσαντος τοῦ ἀνδρὸς καὶ ἀφανοῦς ὄντος͵ πρὸ τοῦ πεισθῆναι περὶ τοῦ θανάτου αὐτοῦ ἑτέρῳ συνοική σασα͵ μοιχᾶται.





32  Clerics who are guilty of the sin unto death are degraded from their order, but not excluded from the communion of the laity.  Thou shalt not punish twice for the same fault. (Nahum 1. 9, lxx)

199.32 Οἱ τὴν πρὸς θάνατον ἁμαρτίαν ἁμαρτάνοντες κληρικοὶ τοῦ βαθμοῦ κατάγονται͵ τῆς κοινωνίας δὲ τῶν λαϊκῶν οὐκ ἐξείργονται. Οὐ γὰρ ἐκδικήσεις δὶς ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό.





33.  Let an indictment for murder be preferred against the woman who gives birth to a child on the road and pays no attention to it.

199.33 Ἡ γυνὴ ἡ διὰ τῆς ὁδοῦ κυήσασα καὶ ἀμελήσασα τοῦ κυήματος τῷ τοῦ φόνου ἐγλήματι ὑποκείσθω.





34.  Women who had committed adultery, and confessed their fault through piety, or were in any way convicted, were not allowed by our fathers to be publicly exposed, that we might not cause their death after conviction.  But they ordered that they should be excluded from communion till they had fulfilled their term of penance.

199.34 Τὰς μοιχευθείσας γυναῖκας καὶ ἐξαγορευούσας δι΄ εὐλάβειαν ἢ ὁπωσοῦν ἐλεγχομένας δημοσιεύειν οὐκ ἐκέλευσαν οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν͵ ἵνα μὴ θανάτου αἰτίαν παράσχωμεν ἐλεγχθείσαις͵ ἵστασθαι δὲ αὐτὰς ἄνευ κοινωνίας προσέ ταξαν μέχρι τοῦ συμπληροῦσθαι τὸν χρόνον τῆς μετανοίας.





35.  In the case of a man deserted by his wife, the cause of the desertion must be taken into account.  If she appear to have abandoned him without reason, he is deserving of pardon, but the wife of punishment.  Pardon will be given to him that he may communicate with the Church.

199.35 Ἐπὶ δὲ τοῦ καταλειφθέντος χρὴ σκοπεῖν τὴν αἰτίαν τῆς ἐγκαταλείψεως͵ κἂν φανῇ ἀλόγως ἀναχωρήσασα͵ ὁ μὲν συγγνώμης ἐστὶν ἄξιος͵ ἡ δὲ ἐπιτιμίου. Ἡ δὲ συγγνώμη τούτῳ πρὸς τὸ κοινωνεῖν τῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ δοθήσεται.





35.  Soldiers’ wives who have married in their husbands’ absence will come under the same principle as wives who, when their husbands have been on a journey, have not waited their return.  Their case, however, does admit of some concession on the ground of there being greater reason to suspect death.

199.36 Στρατιώτιδες αἱ τῶν ἀνδρῶν ἀφανῶν ὄντων γαμη θεῖσαι τῷ αὐτῷ ὑπόκεινται λόγῳ ᾧπερ καὶ αἱ διὰ τὴν ἀποδημίαν τῶν ἀνδρῶν μὴ ἀναμείνασαι τὴν ἐπάνοδον͵ πλὴν ἔχει τινὰ συγγνώμην τὸ πρᾶγμα ἐνταῦθα διὰ τὸ μᾶλλον πρὸς θάνατον εἶναι τὴν ὑπόνοιαν.





37.  The man who marries after abducting another man’s wife will incur the charge of adultery for the first case; but for the second will go free.

199.37 Μετὰ τὸ ἀφαιρεθῆναι τὴν ἀλλοτρίαν ὁ γαμήσας ἐπὶ μὲν τῇ πρώτῃ μοιχείαν ἐγκληθήσεται͵ ἐπὶ δὲ τῇ δευτέρᾳ ἀνεύθυνος ἔσται.





38.  Girls who follow against their fathers’ will commit fornication; but if their fathers are reconciled to them, the act seems to admit of a remedy.  They are not however immediately restored to communion, but are to be punished for three years.

199.38 Αἱ κόραι αἱ παρὰ γνώμην πατρὸς ἀκολουθήσασαι πορνεύουσι͵ διαλλαγέντων δὲ τῶν γονέων δοκεῖ θεραπείαν λαμβάνειν τὸ γεγονός· οὐκ εὐθὺς δὲ εἰς τὴν κοινωνίαν ἀποκαθίστανται͵ ἀλλὰ ἐπιτιμηθήσονται τρία ἔτη.





39.  The woman who lives with an adulterer is an adulteress the whole time.

199.39 Ἡ τῷ μοιχῷ συζῶσα͵ μοιχαλίς ἐστι πάντα τὸν χρόνον.





40.  The woman who yields to a man against her master’s will commits fornication; but if afterwards she accepts free marriage, she marries.  The former case is fornication; the latter marriage.  The covenants of persons who are not independent have no validity.

199.40 Ἡ παρὰ γνώμην τοῦ δεσπότου ἀνδρὶ ἑαυτὴν ἐκδι δοῦσα ἐπόρνευσεν͵ ἡ δὲ μετὰ ταῦτα πεπαρρησιασμένῳ γάμῳ χρησαμένη ἐγήματο. Ὥστε ἐκεῖνο μὲν πορνεία͵ τοῦτο δὲ γάμος. Αἱ γὰρ συνθῆκαι τῶν ὑπεξουσίων οὐδὲν ἔχουσι βέβαιον.





41.  The woman in widowhood, who is independent, may dwell with a husband without blame, if there is no one to prevent their cohabitation; for the Apostle says; “but if her husband be dead, she is at liberty to be married to whom she will; only in the Lord.” (1 Cor. 7. 39)

199.41 Ἡ ἐν τῇ χηρείᾳ ἑαυτῆς ἐξουσίαν ἔχουσα ἀνδρὶ συνοικεῖν ἀνέγκλητος͵ εἰ μηδείς ἐστιν ὁ διασπῶν τὸ συνοι κέσιον͵ τοῦ Ἀποστόλου εἰπόντος· Ἐὰν δὲ ἀποθάνῃ ὁ ἀνήρ͵ ἐλευθέρα ἐστὶν ᾧ θέλει γαμηθῆναι͵ μόνον ἐν Κυρίῳ.





42.  Marriages contracted without the permission of those in authority, are fornication.  If neither father nor master be living the contracting parties are free from blame; just as if the authorities assent to the cohabitation, it assumes the fixity of marriage.

199.42 Οἱ ἄνευ τῶν κρατούντων γάμοι πορνεῖαί εἰσιν. Οὔτε οὖν πατρὸς ζῶντος οὔτε δεσπότου οἱ συνιόντες ἀνεύθυνοί εἰσιν͵ ὡς͵ ἐὰν ἐπινεύσωσιν οἱ κύριοι τὴν συνοίκησιν͵ τότε λαμβάνει τὸ τοῦ γάμου βέβαιον.





43.  He who smites his neighbour to death is a murderer, whether he struck first or in self defence.

199.43 Ὃς θανάτου πληγὴν τῷ πλησίον ἔδωκε φονεύς ἐστιν͵ εἴτε ἦρξε τῆς πληγῆς εἴτε ἠμύνατο.





44.  The deaconess who commits fornication with a heathen may be received into repentance and will be admitted to the oblation in the seventh year; of course if she be living in chastity.  The heathen who, after he has believed, takes to idolatry, returns to his vomit.  We do not, however, give up the body of the deaconess to the use of the flesh, as being consecrated.

199.44 Ἡ διάκονος ἡ τῷ Ἕλληνι συμπορνεύσασα δεκτή ἐστιν εἰς τὴν κοινωνίαν͵ εἰς δὲ τὴν προσφορὰν δεχθήσεται τῷ ἑβδόμῳ ἔτει͵ δηλονότι ἐν ἁγνείᾳ ζῶσα. Ὁ δὲ μετὰ τὴν πίστιν Ἕλλην πάλιν τῇ ἱεροσυλίᾳ προσιὼν ἐπὶ τὸν ἔμετον ὑποστρέφει. Ἡμεῖς δὲ τῆς διακόνου τὸ σῶμα ὡς καθιερω μένον οὐκέτι ἐπιτρέπομεν ἐν χρήσει εἶναι σαρκικῇ.





45.  If any one, after taking the name of Christianity, insults Christ, he gets no good from the name.

199.45 Ὃς ἐάν τις τὸ ὄνομα λαβὼν τοῦ χριστιανισμοῦ ἐνυβρίζῃ τὸν Χριστόν͵ οὐδὲν ὄφελος αὐτῷ ἀπὸ τῆς προση γορίας.





46.  The woman who unwillingly marries a man deserted at the time by his wife, and is afterwards repudiated, because of the return of the former to him, commits fornication, but involuntarily.  She will, therefore, not be prohibited from marriage; but it is better if she remain as she is.

199.46 Ἡ δὲ τῷ καταλειφθέντι πρὸς καιρὸν παρὰ τῆς γυναικὸς κατὰ ἄγνοιαν γημαμένη͵ εἶτα ἀφεθεῖσα διὰ τὸ ἐπανελθεῖν πρὸς αὐτὸν τὴν προτέραν͵ ἐπόρνευσε μέν͵ ἐν ἀγνοίᾳ δέ. Γάμου οὖν οὐκ εἰρχθήσεται. Κάλλιον δέ͵ ἐὰν μείνῃ οὕτως.





47.  Encratitæ, Saccophori, and Apotactitæ are not regarded in the same manner as Novatians, since in their case a canon has been pronounced, although different; while of the former nothing has been said.  All these I re-baptize on the same principle.  If among you their re-baptism is forbidden, for the sake of some arrangement, nevertheless let my principle prevail.  Their heresy is, as it were, an offshoot of the Marcionites, abominating, as they do, marriage, refusing wine, and calling God’s creature polluted.  We do not therefore receive them into the Church, unless they be baptized into our baptism.  Let them not say that they have been baptized into Father, Son and Holy Ghost, inasmuch as they make God the author of evil, after the example of Marcion and the rest of the heresies.  Wherefore, if this be determined on, more bishops ought to meet together in one place and publish the canon in these terms, that action may be taken without peril, and authority given to answers to questions of this kind.

199.47 Ἐγκρατῖται καὶ Σακκοφόροι καὶ Ἀποτακτῖται τῷ αὐτῷ ὑπόκεινται λόγῳ ᾧ καὶ Ναυατιανοί͵ ὅτι περὶ μὲν ἐκείνων κανὼν ἐξεφωνήθη͵ εἰ καὶ διάφορος͵ τὰ δὲ κατὰ τούτους ἀποσεσιώπηται. Ἡμεῖς μέντοι ἑνὶ λόγῳ ἀναβαπ τίζομεν τοὺς τοιούτους. Εἰ δὲ παρ΄ ὑμῖν ἀπηγόρευται τὸ τοῦ ἀναβαπτισμοῦ͵ ὥσπερ οὖν καὶ παρὰ Ρωμαίοις οἰκονο μίας τινὸς ἕνεκα ἀπαιτεῖσθαι διὰ τὸ βάπτισμα αὐτῶν͵ ὁ ἡμέτερος λόγος ἰσχὺν ἐχέτω͵ ὅτι͵ ἐπειδὴ ὥσπερ Μαρ κιωνιστῶν ἐστιν ἀποβλάστημα ἡ κατ΄ αὐτοὺς αἵρεσις͵ βδελυσσομένων τὸν γάμον καὶ ἀποστρεφομένων τὸν οἶνον καὶ τὴν κτίσιν τοῦ Θεοῦ μεμιασμένην εἶναι λεγόντων͵ οὐ δεχόμεθα αὐτοὺς εἰς τὴν Ἐκκλησίαν͵ ἐὰν μὴ βαπτισθῶσιν εἰς τὸ ἡμέτερον βάπτισμα. Μὴ γὰρ λεγέ τωσαν ὅτι Εἰς Πατέρα καὶ Υἱὸν καὶ Ἅγιον Πνεῦμα ἐβαπτίσθημεν οἵ γε κακῶν ποιητὴν ὑποτιθέμενοι τὸν Θεόν͵ ἐφαμίλλως τῷ Μαρκίωνι καὶ ταῖς λοιπαῖς αἱρέσεσιν. Ὥστε͵ ἐὰν ἀρέσῃ τοῦτο͵ δεῖ πλείονας ἐπισκόπους ἐν ταὐτῷ γενέσθαι καὶ οὕτως ἐκθέσθαι τὸν κανόνα͵ ἵνα καὶ τῷ ποιήσαντι τὸ ἀκίνδυνον ᾖ καὶ ὁ ἀποκρινόμενος τὸ ἀξιόπιστον ἔχῃ ἐν τῇ περὶ τῶν τοιούτων ἀποκρίσει.





48.  The woman who has been abandoned by her husband, ought, in my judgment, to remain as she is.  The Lord said, “If any one leave his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, he causeth her to commit adultery;” (Matt. v. 22) thus, by calling her adulteress, He excludes her from intercourse with another man.  For how can the man being guilty, as having caused adultery, and the woman, go without blame, when she is called adulteress by the Lord for having intercourse with another man?

199.48 Ἡ δὲ ἐγκαταλειφθεῖσα παρὰ τοῦ ἀνδρός͵ κατὰ τὴν ἐμὴν γνώμην͵ μένειν ὀφείλει. Εἰ γὰρ ὁ Κύριος εἶπεν· Ὅτι ἐάν τις καταλίπῃ γυναῖκα͵ ἐκτὸς λόγου πορνείας͵ ποιεῖ αὐτὴν μοιχᾶσθαι͵ ἐκ τοῦ μοιχαλίδα αὐτὴν ὀνομάσαι ἀπέκλεισεν αὐτὴν τῆς πρὸς ἕτερον κοινωνίας. Πῶς γὰρ δύναται ὁ μὲν ἀνὴρ ὑπεύθυνος εἶναι ὡς μοιχείας αἴτιος͵ ἡ δὲ γυνὴ ἀνέγκλητος εἶναι͵ ἡ μοιχαλὶς παρὰ τοῦ Κυρίου διὰ τὴν πρὸς ἕτερον ἄνδρα κοινωνίαν προσαγορευθεῖσα;





49.  Suffering violation should not be a cause of condemnation.  So the slave girl, if she has been forced by her own master, is free from blame.

199.49 Αἱ πρὸς ἀνάγκην γενόμεναι φθοραὶ ἀνεύθυνοι ἔστωσαν. Ὥστε καὶ ἡ δούλη͵ εἰ ἐβιάσθη παρὰ τοῦ οἰκείου δεσπότου͵ ἀνεύθυνός ἐστιν.





50.  There is no law as to trigamy:  a third marriage is not contracted by law.  We look upon such things as the defilements of the Church.  But we do not subject them to public condemnation, as being better than unrestrained fornication.

199.50 Τριγαμίας νόμος οὐκ ἔστιν. Ὥστε νόμῳ γάμος τρίτος οὐκ ἄγεται. Τὰ μέντοι τοιαῦτα ὡς ῥυπάσματα τῆς Ἐκκλησίας ὁρῶμεν͵ δημοσίαις δὲ καταδίκαις οὐχ ὑπο βάλλομεν ὡς τῆς ἀνειμένης πορνείας αἱρετώτερα.






NPNF 8, pp. 255-259








(Canons 51-84)




To Amphilochius, concerning the Canons. ΠΕΡΙ ΚΑΝΟΝΩΝ







On my return from a long journey (for I have been into Pontus on ecclesiastical business, and to visit my relations) with my body weak and ill, and my spirits considerably broken, I took your reverence’s letter into my hand.  No sooner did I receive the tokens of that voice which to me is of all voices the sweetest, and of that hand that I love so well, than I forgot all my troubles.  And if I was made so much more cheerful by the receipt of your letter, you ought to be able to conjecture at what value I price your actual presence.  May this be granted me by the Holy One, whenever it may be convenient to you and you yourself send me an invitation.  And if you were to come to the house at Euphemias it would indeed be pleasant for me to meet you, escaping from my vexations here, and hastening to your unfeigned affection.  Possibly also for other reasons I may be compelled to go as far as Nazianzus by the sudden departure of the very God-beloved bishop Gregory.  How or why this has come to pass, so far I have no information.  The man about whom I had spoken to your excellency, and whom you expected to be ready by this time, has, you must know, fallen ill of a lingering disease, and is moreover now suffering from an affection of the eyes, arising from his old complaint and from the illness which has now befallen him, and he is quite unfit to do any work.  I have no one else with me.  It is consequently better, although the matter was left by them to me, for some one to be put forward by them.  And indeed one cannot but think that the expressions were used merely as a necessary form, and that what they really wished was what they originally requested, that the person selected for the leadership should be one of themselves.  If there is any one of the lately baptized, whether Macedonius approve or not, let him be appointed.  You will instruct him in his duties, the Lord, Who in all things cooperates with you, granting you His grace for this work also.

Ἀπὸ ὁδοῦ μακρᾶς ἐπανελθὼν (ἐγενόμην γὰρ μέχρι τοῦ Πόντου ἐκκλησιαστικῶν ἕνεκεν χρειῶν͵ καὶ κατ΄ ἐπίσκεψιν τῶν ἐπιτηδείων) καὶ τὸ σῶμά μου συντετριμμένον ἐπα ναγαγὼν καὶ τὴν ψυχὴν μετρίως κεκακωμένος͵ ἐπειδὴ τὸ γράμμα τῆς εὐλαβείας σου ἐπὶ χεῖρας ἔλαβον͵ πάντων ἀθρόως ἐπελαθόμην͵ καὶ τῆς φωνῆς τῆς πασῶν ἐμοὶ ἡδίστης καὶ χειρὸς τῆς φιλτάτης ὑποδεξάμενος σύμβολα. Ὃς οὖν ἐκ τῶν γραμμάτων οὕτως ἐγενόμην ἡδίων͵ εἰκάζειν ὀφείλεις πόσου ἀξίαν ποιοῦμαι τὴν συντυχίαν σου͵ ἣν οἰκονομήσειεν ὁ Ἅγιος γενέσθαι ὅπου ἀνε παχθὲς ᾗ καὶ αὐτὸς ἡμᾶς προσκαλέσῃ. Καὶ γὰρ οὐ χαλεπόν μοι͵ εἰ καταλάβοις τὸν οἶκον τὸν ἐπὶ τῆς Εὐφημιάδος͵ γενέσθαι ὁμοῦ τά τε ὧδε ὀχληρὰ διαφεύγοντι καὶ πρὸς τὴν ἀνυπόκριτόν σου ἀγάπην ἐπειγομένῳ. Τάχα δέ μοι καὶ ἄλλως ἀναγκαίαν ποιεῖ τὴν μέχρι Ναζιανζοῦ ὁδὸν ἡ ἀθρόα τοῦ θεοφιλεστάτου ἐπισκόπου Γρηγορίου ἀναχώρησις͵ μετὰ ποίας αἰτίας γενομένη ἀγνοουμένη μέχρι τοῦ νῦν. Ὁ δὲ ἄνθρωπος͵ περὶ οὗ κἀγὼ ἤμην διαλεχθεὶς τῇ τελειότητί σου καὶ αὐτὸς νῦν ἤλπισας ἕτοιμον εἶναι͵ γίνωσκε ὅτι μακρᾷ ἀρρωστίᾳ περιπεσὼν καὶ κάμνων λοιπὸν περὶ αὐτὰς τὰς ὄψεις͵ ἐκ τοῦ παλαιοῦ πάθους καὶ τῆς ἔναγχος αὐτῷ ἐπισυμβάσης νόσου παντελῶς ἄχρηστος πρὸς τὰς τυχούσας ἐνεργείας ἀπέμεινεν. Ἄλλος δὲ οὐκ ἔστι παρ΄ ἡμῖν. Ὥστε βέλτιον͵ εἰ καὶ ἡμῖν ἐπέτρεψαν τὸ πρᾶγμα͵ ἀλλ΄ οὖν ἐξ αὐτῶν ἐκείνων τινὰ προβληθῆναι. Καὶ γὰρ ἡγεῖσθαι χρὴ ταῦτα μὲν τῆς ἀνάγκης εἶναι τὰ ῥήματα͵ τὴν δὲ ψυχὴν αὐτῶν ἐκεῖνο βούλεσθαι ὅπερ ἐξ ἀρχῆς ἐπεζήτησαν͵ οἰκεῖον εἶναι τὸν καθηγούμενον. Εἰ δέ ἐστί τις τῶν νεοφω τίστων͵ κἂν δοκῇ τῷ Μακεδονίῳ κἂν μή͵ ἐκεῖνος προ βληθήτω. Τυπώσεις δὲ αὐτὸν πρὸς τὸ δέον͵ τοῦ ἐν πᾶσι συνεργοῦντός σοι Κυρίου καὶ τὴν εἰς τοῦτο χάριν παρε χομένου.





51.  As to the clergy, the Canons have enjoined without making any distinction that one penalty is assigned for the lapsed,—ejection from the ministry, whether they be in orders or remain in the ministry which is conferred without imposition of hands.

217.51 Τὸ κατὰ τοὺς κληρικοὺς ἀδιορίστως οἱ κανόνες ἐξέθεντο κελεύσαντες μίαν ἐπὶ τοῖς παραπεσοῦσιν ὁρί ζεσθαι τιμωρίαν͵ τὴν ἔκπτωσιν τῆς ὑπηρεσίας͵ εἴτε ἐν βαθμῷ τυγχάνοιεν εἴτε καὶ ἀχειροθέτῳ ὑπηρεσίᾳ προσκαρ τεροῖεν.





52.  The woman who has given birth to a child and abandoned it in the road, if she was able to save it and neglected it, or thought by this means to hide her sin, or was moved by some brutal and inhuman motive, is to be judged as in a case of murder.  If, on the other hand, she was unable to provide for it. and the child perish from exposure and want of the necessities of life, the mother is to be pardoned.

217.52 Ἡ τοῦ κυήματος κατὰ τὴν ὁδὸν ἀμελήσασα͵ εἰ μὲν οὖν δυναμένη περισώσασθαι κατεφρόνησεν ἢ συγκαλύψειν τὴν ἁμαρτίαν ἐντεῦθεν νομίζουσα ἢ ὅλως θηριώδει καὶ ἀπανθρώπῳ λογισμῷ χρησαμένη͵ ὡς ἐπὶ φόνῳ κρινέσθω. Εἰ δὲ οὐκ ἠδυνήθη περιστεῖλαι καὶ δι΄ ἐρημίαν καὶ ἀπορίαν τῶν ἀναγκαίων διεφθάρη τὸ γεννηθέν͵ συγγνωστὴ ἡ μήτηρ.





53.  The widowed slave is not guilty of a serious fall if she adopts a second marriage under colour of rape.  She is not on this ground open to accusation.  It is rather the object than the pretext which must be taken into account, but it is clear that she is exposed to the punishment of digamy.

217.53 Ἡ χήρα δούλη τάχα οὐ μέγα ἔπταισεν͵ ἑλομένη δεύτερον γάμον ἐν σχήματι ἁρπαγῆς. Ὥστε οὐδὲν τούτου ἕνεκεν ἐγκαλεῖσθαι χρή. Οὐ γὰρ τὰ σχήματα κρίνεται͵ ἀλλ΄ ἡ προαίρεσις. Δῆλον δὲ ὅτι τὸ τῆς διγαμίας μένει αὐτὴν ἐπιτίμιον.





54.  I know that I have already written to your reverence, so far as I can, on the distinctions to be observed in cases of involuntary homicide, and on this point I can say no more.  It rests with your intelligence to increase or lessen the severity of the punishment as each individual case may require.

217.54 Τὰς τῶν ἀκουσίων φόνων διαφορὰς πρὸ χρόνου οἶδα ἐπιστείλας τῇ θεοσεβείᾳ σου κατὰ τὸ ἐμοὶ δυνατὸν καὶ πλέον ἐκείνων οὐδὲν εἰπεῖν δύναμαι͵ τῆς δὲ σῆς συνέσεώς ἐστι κατὰ τὸ ἰδίωμα τῆς περιστάσεως ἐπιτείνειν τὰ ἐπι τίμια ἢ καὶ ὑφεῖναι.





55.  Assailants of robbers, if they are outside, are prohibited from the communion of the good thing.  If they are clerics they are degraded from their orders.  For, it is said, “All they that take the sword shall perish with the sword.”(Matt. 26. 52)

217.55 Οἱ τοῖς λῃσταῖς ἀντεπεξιόντες͵ ἔξω μὲν ὄντες͵ τῆς κοινωνίας εἴργονται τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ· κληρικοὶ δὲ ὄντες͵ τοῦ βαθμοῦ καθαιροῦνται. Πᾶς γάρ͵ φησίν͵ ὁ λαβὼν μάχαιραν ἐν μαχαίρᾳ ἀποθανεῖται.





56.  The intentional homicide, who has afterwards repented, will be excommunicated from the sacrament for twenty years.  The twenty years will be appointed for him as follows:  for four he ought to weep, standing outside the door of the house of prayer, beseeching the faithful as they enter in to offer prayer in his behalf, and confessing his own sin.  After four years he will be admitted among the hearers, and during five years will go out with them.  During seven years he will go out with the kneelers, praying.  During four years he will only stand with the faithful, and will not take part in the oblation.  On the completion of this period he will be admitted to participation of the sacrament.

217.56 Ὁ ἑκουσίως φονεύσας͵ μετὰ δὲ τοῦτο μεταμεληθείς͵ εἴκοσιν ἔτεσιν ἀκοινώνητος ἔσται τοῖς ἁγιάσμασι. Τὰ δὲ εἴκοσιν ἔτη οὕτως οἰκονομηθήσεται ἐπ΄ αὐτῷ. Ἐν τέσσαρσιν ἔτεσι προσκλαίειν ὀφείλει ἔξω τῆς θύρας ἑστὼς τοῦ εὐκτηρίου οἴκου καὶ τῶν εἰσιόντων πιστῶν δεόμενος εὐχὴν ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ ποιεῖσθαι ἐξαγορεύων τὴν ἰδίαν παρανομίαν. Μετὰ δὲ τὰ τέσσαρα ἔτη εἰς τοὺς ἀκροωμένους δεχθήσεται καὶ ἐν πέντε ἔτεσι μετ΄ αὐτῶν ἐξελεύσεται. Ἐν ἑπτὰ ἔτεσι μετὰ τῶν ἐν ὑποπτώσει προσευχόμενος ἐξελεύσεται. Ἐν τέσσαρσι συστήσεται μόνον τοῖς πιστοῖς͵ προσφορᾶς δὲ οὐ μεταλήψεται. Πληρωθέντων δὲ τούτων μεθέξει τῶν ἁγιασμάτων.





57.  The unintentional homicide will be excluded for ten years from the sacrament.  The ten years will be arranged as follows:  For two years he will weep, for three years he will continue among the hearers; for four he will be a kneeler; and for one he will only stand.  Then he will be admitted to the holy rites.

217.57 Ὁ ἀκουσίως φονεύσας ἐν δέκα ἔτεσιν ἀκοινώνητος ἔσται τῶν ἁγιασμάτων. Οἰκονομηθήσεται δὲ τὰ δέκα ἔτη ἐπ΄ αὐτῷ οὕτω. Δύο μὲν ἔτη προσκλαύσει͵ τρία δὲ ἔτη ἐν ἀκροωμένοις διατελέσει͵ τέσσαρσιν ὑποπίπτων͵ καὶ ἐνιαυτῷ συσταθήσεται μόνον͵ καὶ τῷ ἑξῆς εἰς τὰ ἅγια δεχθήσεται.





58.  The adulterer will be excluded from the sacrament for fifteen years.  During four he will be a weeper, and during five a hearer, during four a kneeler, and for two a slander without communion.

217.58 Ὁ μοιχεύσας ἐν δέκα καὶ πέντε ἔτεσιν ἀκοινώνητος ἔσται τῶν ἁγιασμάτων· ἐν τέσσαρσι μὲν προσκλαίων ἔτεσιν͵ ἐν πέντε δὲ ἀκροώμενος͵ ἐν τέσσαρσιν ὑποπίπτων͵ ἐν δυσὶ συνεστὼς ἄνευ κοινωνίας.





59.  The fornicator will not be admitted to participation in the sacrament for seven years; weeping two, hearing two, kneeling two, and standing one:  in the eighth he will be received into communion.

217.59 Ὁ πόρνος ἐν ἑπτὰ ἔτεσιν ἀκοινώνητος ἔσται τῶν ἁγιασμάτων· δύο προσκλαίων͵ καὶ δύο ἀκροώμενος͵ καὶ δύο ὑποπίπτων͵ καὶ ἑνὶ συνεστὼς μόνον· τῷ ὀγδόῳ δεχθήσεται εἰς τὴν κοινωνίαν.





60.  The woman who has professed virginity and broken her promise will complete the time appointed in the case of adultery in her continence.  The same rule will be observed in the case of men who have professed a solitary life and who lapse.

217.60 Ἡ παρθενίαν ὁμολογήσασα͵ καὶ ἐκπεσοῦσα τῆς ἐπαγγελίας͵ τὸν χρόνον τοῦ ἐπὶ τῆς μοιχείας ἁμαρτήματος ἐν τῇ οἰκονομίᾳ τῆς καθ΄ ἑαυτὴν ζωῆς πληρώσει. Τὸ αὐτὸ καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν βίον μοναζόντων ἐπαγγειλαμένων͵ καὶ ἐκπι πτόντων.





61.  The thief, if he have repented of his own accord and charged himself, shall only be prohibited from partaking of the sacrament for a year; if he be convicted, for two years.  The period shall be divided between kneeling and standing.  Then let him be held worthy of communion.

217.61 Ὁ κλέψας͵ εἰ μὲν ἀφ΄ ἑαυτοῦ μεταμεληθεὶς κατη γορήσειεν ἑαυτοῦ͵ ἐνιαυτὸν κωλυθήσεται μόνον τῆς κοι νωνίας τῶν ἁγιασμάτων· εἰ δὲ ἐλεγχθείη͵ ἐν δυσὶν ἔτεσι. Μερισθήσεται δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ χρόνος εἰς ὑπόπτωσιν καὶ σύστασιν͵ καὶ τότε ἀξιούσθω τῆς κοινωνίας.





62.  He who is guilty of unseemliness with males will be under discipline for the same time as adulterers.

217.62 Ὁ τὴν ἀσχημοσύνην ἐν τοῖς ἄρσεσιν ἐπιδεικνύμενος τὸν χρόνον τοῦ ἐν τῇ μοιχείᾳ παρανομοῦντος οἰκονομη θήσεται.





63.  He who confesses his iniquity in the case of brutes shall observe the same time in penance.

217.63 Ὁ ἐν ἀλόγοις τὴν ἑαυτοῦ ἀσέβειαν ἐξαγορεύων τὸν αὐτὸν χρόνον ἐξομολογούμενος παραφυλάξεται.





64.  Perjurers shall be excommunicated for ten years; weeping for two, hearing for three, kneeling for four, and standing only during one year; then they shall be held worthy of communion.

217.64 Ὁ ἐπίορκος ἐν δέκα ἔτεσιν ἀκοινώνητος ἔσται· δυσὶν ἔτεσι προσκλαίων͵ τρισὶν ἀκροώμενος͵ τέσσαρσιν ὑπο πίπτων͵ ἐνιαυτὸν συνεστὼς μόνον͵ καὶ τότε τῆς κοινωνίας ἀξιούμενος.





65.  He who confesses magic or sorcery shall do penance for the time of murder, and shall be treated in the same manner as he who convicts himself of this sin.

217.65 Ὁ γοητείαν ἢ φαρμακείαν ἐξαγορεύων τὸν τοῦ φονέως χρόνον ἐξομολογήσεται͵ οὕτως οἰκονομούμενος ὡς ἐν ἐκείνῳ τῷ ἁμαρτήματι ἑαυτὸν ἐλέγξας.





66.  The tomb breaker shall be excommunicated for ten years, weeping for two, hearing for three, kneeling for four, standing for one, then he shall be admitted.

217.66 Ὁ τυμβωρύχος ἐν δέκα ἔτεσιν ἀκοινώνητος ἔσται· ἐν δυσὶ προσκλαίων͵ ἐν τρισὶν ἀκροώμενος͵ ἐν τέσσαρσιν ὑποπίπτων͵ ἐνιαυτὸν συνεστώς͵ καὶ τότε δεχθησόμενος.





67.  Incest with a sister shall incur penance for the same time as murder.

217.67 Ἀδελφομιξία τὸν τοῦ φονέως χρόνον ἐξομολο γήσεται.





68.  The union of kindred within the prohibited degrees of marriage, if detected as having taken place in acts of sin, shall receive the punishment of adultery.

217.68 Ἡ τῆς ἀπειρημένης συγγενείας εἰς γάμον ἀνθρώ πων στάσις͵ εἰ φωραθείη ἐν ἁμαρτήμασι γεγενημένη͵ τὰ τῶν μοιχῶν ἐπιτίμια δέξεται.





69.  The Reader who has intercourse with his betrothed before marriage, shall be allowed to read after a year’s suspension, remaining without advancement.  If he has had secret intercourse without betrothal, he shall be deposed from his ministry.  So too the minister.

217.69 Ἀναγνώστης͵ εἰ τῇ ἑαυτοῦ μνηστῇ πρὸ γάμου συναλλάξειεν͵ ἐνιαυτὸν ἀργήσας εἰς τὸ ἀναγινώσκειν δεχθήσεται͵ μένων ἀπρόκοπος. Κλεψιγαμήσας δὲ ἄνευ μνηστείας παυθήσεται τῆς ὑπηρεσίας. Τὸ δὲ αὐτὸ καὶ ὑπηρέτης.





70.  The deacon who has been polluted in lips, and has confessed his commission of this sin, shall be removed from his ministry.  But he shall be permitted to partake of the sacrament together with the deacons.  The same holds good in the case of a priest.  If any one be detected in a more serious sin, whatever be his degree, he shall be deposed.

217.70 Διάκονος ἐν χείλεσι μιανθεὶς καὶ μέχρι τούτου ἡμαρτηκέναι ὁμολογήσας τῆς λειτουργίας ἐπισχεθήσεται͵ τοῦ δὲ μετέχειν τῶν ἁγιασμάτων μετὰ τῶν διακόνων ἀξιωθήσεται. Τὸ δὲ αὐτὸ καὶ πρεσβύτερος. Εἰ δέ τι τούτου πλεῖον φωραθείη τις ἡμαρτηκώς͵ ἐν οἵῳ ἂν ᾖ βαθμῷ͵ καθαιρεθήσεται.





71.  Whoever is aware of the commission of any one of the aforementioned sins, and is convicted without having confessed, shall be under punishment for the same space of time as the actual perpetrator.

217.71 Ὁ συνεγνωκὼς ἑκάστῳ τῶν προειρημένων ἁμαρτη μάτων καὶ μὴ ὁμολογήσας͵ ἀλλ΄ ἐλεγχθείς͵ τοῦ τοσούτου χρόνου εἰς ὃν ὁ ἐργάτης τῶν κακῶν ἐπιτετίμηται͵ καὶ αὐτὸς ἔσται ἐν ἐπιτιμίῳ.





72.  He who has entrusted himself to soothsayers, or any such persons, shall be under discipline for the same time as the homicide.

217.72 Ὁ μάντεσιν ἑαυτὸν ἐπιδοὺς ἤ τισι τοιούτοις τὸν χρόνον τῶν φονέων καὶ αὐτὸς οἰκονομηθήσεται.





73.  He who has denied Christ, and sinned against the mystery of salvation, ought to weep all his life long, and is bound to remain in penitence, being deemed worthy of the sacrament in the hour of death, through faith in the mercy of God.

217.73 Ὁ τὸν Χριστὸν ἀρνησάμενος καὶ παραβὰς τὸ τῆς σωτηρίας μυστήριον ἐν παντὶ τῷ χρόνῳ τῆς ζωῆς αὐτοῦ προσκλαίειν ὀφείλει͵ καὶ ἐξομολογεῖσθαι χρεωστεῖ͵ ἐν τῷ καιρῷ ᾧ ἐκβαίνει τοῦ βίου τοῦ ἁγιάσματος ἀξιούμενος πίστει τῆς παρὰ Θεοῦ φιλανθρωπίας.





74.  If, however, each man who has committed the former sins is made good, through penitence, he to whom is committed by the loving-kindness of God the power of loosing and binding will not be deserving of condemnation, if he become less severe, as he beholds the exceeding greatness of the penitence of the sinner, so as to lessen the period of punishment, for the history in the Scriptures informs us that all who exercise penitence with greater zeal quickly receive the loving-kindness of God.

217.74 Ἐὰν μέντοι γε ἕκαστος τῶν ἐν τοῖς προγεγραμμέ νοις ἁμαρτήμασι γενομένων σπουδαῖος γένηται ἐξομολο γούμενος͵ ὁ πιστευθεὶς παρὰ τῆς τοῦ Θεοῦ φιλανθρωπίας λύειν καὶ δεσμεῖν͵ εἰ φιλανθρωπότερος γένοιτο τὸ ὑπερ βάλλον τῆς ἐξομολογήσεως ὁρῶν τοῦ ἡμαρτηκότος͵ εἰς τὸ ἐλαττῶσαι τὸν χρόνον τῶν ἐπιτιμίων͵ οὐκ ἔσται καταγνώ σεως ἄξιος͵ τῆς ἐν ταῖς Γραφαῖς ἱστορίας γνωριζούσης ἡμῖν τοὺς μετὰ μείζονος πόνου ἐξομολογουμένους ταχέως τὴν τοῦ Θεοῦ φιλανθρωπίαν καταλαμβάνειν.





75.  The man who has been polluted with his own sister, either on the father’s or the mother’s side, must not be allowed to enter the house of prayer, until he has given up his iniquitous and unlawful conduct.  And, after he has come to a sense of that fearful sin, let him weep for three years standing at the door of the house of prayer, and entreating the people as they go in to prayer that each and all will mercifully offer on his behalf their prayers with earnestness to the Lord.  After this let him be received for another period of three years to hearing alone, and while hearing the Scriptures and the instruction, let him be expelled and not be admitted to prayer.  Afterwards, if he has asked it with tears and has fallen before the Lord with contrition of heart and great humiliation, let kneeling be accorded to him during other three years.  Thus, when he shall have worthily shown the fruits of repentance, let him be received in the tenth year to the prayer of the faithful without oblation; and after standing with the faithful in prayer for two years, then, and not till then, let him be held worthy of the communion of the good thing.

217.75 Ὁ ἀδελφῇ ἰδίᾳ ἐκ πατρὸς ἢ ἐκ μητρὸς συμμιανθεὶς εἰς οἶκον προσευχῆς μὴ ἐπιτρεπέσθω παρεῖναι͵ ἕως ἂν ἀποστῇ τῆς παρανόμου καὶ ἀθεμίτου πράξεως. Μετὰ δὲ τὸ ἐλθεῖν εἰς συναίσθησιν τῆς φοβερᾶς ἁμαρτίας τριετίαν προσκλαιέτω͵ τῇ θύρᾳ τῶν εὐκτηρίων οἴκων παρεστηκὼς καὶ δεόμενος τοῦ λαοῦ εἰσιόντος ἐπὶ τὴν προσευχήν͵ ὥστε ἕκαστον μετὰ συμπαθείας ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ ἐκτενεῖς ποιεῖσθαι πρὸς Κύριον τὰς δεήσεις. Μετὰ δὲ τοῦτο ἄλλην τριετίαν εἰς ἀκρόασιν μόνην παραδεχθήτω͵ καὶ ἀκούων τῶν Γραφῶν καὶ τῆς διδασκαλίας ἐκβαλλέσθω καὶ μὴ καταξιούσθω προσευχῆς. Ἔπειτα͵ εἴπερ μετὰ δακρύων ἐξεζήτησεν αὐτὴν καὶ προσέπεσε τῷ Κυρίῳ μετὰ συν τριμμοῦ καρδίας καὶ ταπεινώσεως ἰσχυρᾶς͵ διδόσθω αὐτῷ ἡ ὑπόπτωσις ἐν ἄλλοις τρισὶν ἔτεσι. Καὶ οὕτως͵ ἐπειδὰν τοὺς καρποὺς τῆς μετανοίας ἀξίους ἐπιδείξηται͵ τῷ δεκάτῳ ἔτει εἰς τὴν τῶν πιστῶν εὐχὴν δεχθήτω χωρὶς προσφορᾶς͵ καὶ δύο ἔτη συστὰς εἰς τὴν εὐχὴν τοῖς πιστοῖς͵ οὕτω λοιπὸν καταξιούσθω τῆς τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ κοινωνίας.





76.  The same rule applies to those who take their own daughters in law.

217.76 Ὁ αὐτὸς τύπος καὶ περὶ τῶν τὰς νύμφας ἑαυτῶν λαμβανόντων.





77.  He who abandons the wife, lawfully united to him, is subject by the sentence of the Lord to the penalty of adultery.  But it has been laid down as a canon by our Fathers that such sinners should weep for a year, be hearers for two years, in kneeling for three years, stand with the faithful in the seventh; and thus be deemed worthy of the oblation, if they have repented with tears.

217.77 Ὁ μέντοι καταλιμπάνων τὴν νομίμως αὐτῷ συναφ θεῖσαν γυναῖκα καὶ ἑτέραν ἀγόμενος κατὰ τὴν τοῦ Κυρίου ἀπόφασιν τῷ τῆς μοιχείας ὑπόκειται κρίματι. Κεκανό νισται δὲ παρὰ τῶν Πατέρων ἡμῶν τοὺς τοιούτους ἐνιαυτὸν προσκλαίειν͵ διετίαν ἐπακροᾶσθαι͵ τριετίαν ὑποπίπτειν͵ τῷ δὲ ἑβδόμῳ συνίστασθαι τοῖς πιστοῖς͵ καὶ οὕτω τῆς προσφορᾶς καταξιοῦσθαι͵ ἐὰν μετὰ δακρύων μετανοήσωσιν.





78.  Let the same rule hold good in the case of those who marry two sisters, although at different times.

217.78 Ὁ αὐτὸς δὲ τύπος κρατείτω καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν δύο ἀδελφὰς λαμβανόντων εἰς συνοικέσιον͵ εἰ καὶ κατὰ διαφό ρους χρόνους.





79.  Men who rage after their stepmothers are subject to the same canon as those who rage after their sisters.

217.79 Οἱ δὲ ταῖς μητρυιαῖς ἑαυτῶν ἐπιμαινόμενοι τῷ αὐτῷ ὑπόκεινται κανόνι͵ ᾧ καὶ οἱ ταῖς ἑαυτῶν ἀδελφαῖς ἐπιμαινόμενοι.





80.  On polygamy the Fathers are silent, as being brutish and altogether inhuman.  The sin seems to me worse than fornication.  It is therefore reasonable that such sinners should be subject to the canons; namely a year’s weeping, three years kneeling and then reception.

217.80 Τὴν δὲ πολυγαμίαν οἱ Πατέρες ἀπεσιώπησαν ὡς κτηνώδη καὶ παντελῶς ἀλλοτρίαν τοῦ γένους τῶν ἀνθρώ πων. Ἡμῖν δὲ παρίσταται πλέον τι πορνείας εἶναι τὸ ἁμάρτημα Διὸ εὔλογον τοὺς τοιούτους ὑποβάλλεσθαι τοῖς κανόσι͵ δηλονότι ἐνιαυτὸν προσκλαύσαντας͵ καὶ τρισὶν ὑποπεσόντας͵ οὕτω δεκτοὺς εἶναι.





81.  During the invasion of the barbarians many men have sworn heathen oaths, tasted things unlawfully offered them in magic temples and so have broken their faith in God.  Let regulations be made in the case of these men in accordance with the canons laid down by our Fathers.  Those who have endured grievous tortures and have been forced to denial, through inability to sustain the anguish, may be excluded for three years, hearers for two, kneelers for three, and so be received into communion.  Those who have abandoned their faith in God, laying hands on the tables of the demons and swearing heathen oaths, without under going great violence, should be excluded for three years, hearers for two.  When they have prayed for three years as kneelers, and have stood other three with the faithful in supplication, then let them be received into the communion of the good thing.

217.81 Ἐπειδὴ δὲ πολλοὶ ἐν τῇ τῶν βαρβάρων καταδρομῇ παρέβησαν τὴν εἰς Θεὸν πίστιν͵ ὅρκους ἐθνικοὺς τελέ σαντες καὶ ἀθεμίτων τινῶν γευσάμενοι τῶν ἐν τοῖς εἰδώλοις τοῖς μαγικοῖς προσενεχθέντων αὐτοῖς͵ οὗτοι κατὰ τοὺς ἤδη παρὰ τῶν Πατέρων ἡμῶν ἐξενεχθέντας κανόνας οἰκονομείσθωσαν. Οἱ μὲν γὰρ ἀνάγκην χαλεπὴν ἐκ βασάνων ὑπομείναντες καὶ μὴ φέροντες τοὺς πόνους καὶ αἰκι σθέντες πρὸς τὴν ἄρνησιν ἐν τρισὶν ἔτεσιν ἀδέκτους εἶναι͵ καὶ ἐν δυσὶν ἀκροᾶσθαι͵ καὶ ἐν τρισὶν ὑποπε σόντας͵ οὕτω δεκτοὺς γενέσθαι εἰς τὴν κοινωνίαν. Οἱ δὲ ἄνευ ἀνάγκης μεγάλης προδόντες τὴν εἰς Θεὸν πίστιν καὶ ἁψάμενοι τῆς τραπέζης τῶν δαιμονίων καὶ ὀμόσαντες ὅρκους Ἑλληνικοὺς ἐκβάλλεσθαι μὲν ἐν τρισὶν ἔτεσι͵ καὶ ἐν δυσὶν ἀκροᾶσθαι͵ ἐν ὑποπτώσει δὲ εὐξαμένους ἐν τρισὶν ἔτεσι͵ καὶ ἐν ἄλλοις τρισὶ συστάντας τοῖς πιστοῖς εἰς τὴν δέησιν͵ οὕτω δεκτοὺς εἶναι τῇ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ κοινωνίᾳ.





82.  As to perjurers, if they have broken their oaths under violent compulsion, they are under lighter penalties and may therefore be received after six years.  If they break their faith without compulsion, let them be weepers for two years, hearers for three, pray as kneelers for five, during two be received into the communion of prayer, without oblation, and so at last, after giving proof of due repentance, they shall be restored to the communion of the body of Christ.

217.82 Καὶ περὶ τῶν ἐπιορκησάντων͵ εἰ μὲν ἐκ βίας καὶ ἀνάγκης παρέβησαν τοὺς ὅρκους͵ κουφοτέροις ὑπόκεινται τοῖς ἐπιτιμίοις͵ ὥστε μετὰ ἓξ ἔτη εἶναι αὐτοὺς δεκτούς. Εἰ δὲ ἄνευ ἀνάγκης προδόντες τὴν ἑαυτῶν πίστιν͵ ἐν δυσὶν ἔτεσι προσκλαύσαντες͵ καὶ ἐν δυσὶν ἀκροασάμενοι͵ καὶ ἐν πέντε ἐν ὑποπτώσει εὐξάμενοι͵ καὶ ἐν δυσὶν ἄλλοις ἄνευ προσφορᾶς εἰς τὴν κοινωνίαν τῆς προσευχῆς παρα δεχθέντες͵ οὕτω τελευταῖον ἀξιόλογον͵ δηλαδή͵ τὴν μετά νοιαν ἐπιδειξάμενοι ἀποκατασταθήσονται εἰς τὴν κοινω νίαν τοῦ σώματος τοῦ Χριστοῦ.





83.  Consulters of soothsayers and they who follow heathen customs, or bring persons into their houses to discover remedies and to effect purification, should fall under the canon of six years.  After weeping a year, hearing a year, kneeling for three years and standing with the faithful for a year so let them be received.

217.83 Οἱ καταμαντευόμενοι καὶ ταῖς συνηθείαις τῶν ἐθνῶν ἐξακολουθοῦντες ἢ εἰσάγοντές τινας εἰς τοὺς ἑαυτῶν οἴκους ἐπὶ ἀνευρέσει φαρμακειῶν καὶ καθάρσει ὑπὸ τὸν κανόνα πιπτέτωσαν τῆς ἑξαετίας. Ἐνιαυτὸν προσκλαύσαντες͵ καὶ ἐνιαυτὸν ἀκροασάμενοι͵ καὶ ἐν τρισὶν ἔτεσιν ὑποπίπτοντες͵ καὶ ἐνιαυτὸν συστάντες τοῖς πιστοῖς͵ οὕτω δεχθήτωσαν.





84.  I write all this with a view to testing the fruits of repentance.  I do not decide such matters absolutely by time, but I give heed to the manner of penance.  If men are in a state in which they find it hard to be weaned from their own ways and choose rather to serve the pleasures of the flesh than to serve the Lord, and refuse to accept the Gospel life, there is no common ground between me and them.  In the midst of a disobedient and gainsaying people I have been taught to hear the words “Save thy own soul.” (Gen. 19. 17, lxx)  Do not then let us consent to perish together with such sinners.  Let us fear the awful judgment.  Let us keep before our eyes the terrible day of the retribution of the Lord.  Let us not consent to perish in other men’s sins, for if the terrors of the Lord have not taught us, if so great calamities have not brought us to feel that it is because of our iniquity that the Lord has abandoned us, and given us into the hands of barbarians, that the people have been led captive before our foes and given over to dispersion, because the bearers of Christ’s name have dared such deeds; if they have not known nor understood that it is for these reasons that the wrath of God has come upon us, what common ground of argument have I with them?

217.84 Πάντα δὲ ταῦτα γράφομεν͵ ὥστε τοὺς καρποὺς δοκιμάζεσθαι τῆς μετανοίας. Οὐ γὰρ πάντως τῷ χρόνῳ κρίνομεν τὰ τοιαῦτα͵ ἀλλὰ τῷ τρόπῳ τῆς μετανοίας προσ έχομεν. Ἐὰν δὲ δυσαποσπάστως ἔχωσι τῶν ἰδίων ἐθῶν καὶ ταῖς ἡδοναῖς τῆς σαρκὸς μᾶλλον δουλεύειν θέλωσιν ἢ τῷ Κυρίῳ͵ καὶ τὴν κατὰ τὸ Εὐαγγέλιον ζωὴν μὴ κατα δέχωνται͵ οὐδεὶς ἡμῖν πρὸς αὐτοὺς κοινὸς λόγος. Ἡμεῖς γὰρ ἐν λαῷ ἀπειθεῖ καὶ ἀντιλέγοντι δεδιδάγμεθα ἀκούειν ὅτι· Σώζων σῶζε τὴν σεαυτοῦ ψυχήν. Μὴ τοίνυν καταδεξώμεθα συναπόλλυσθαι τοῖς τοιούτοις͵ ἀλλὰ φοβη θέντες τὸ βαρὺ κρίμα καὶ τὴν φοβερὰν ἡμέραν τῆς ἀντα ποδόσεως τοῦ Κυρίου πρὸ ὀφθαλμῶν λαβόντες͵ μὴ θελή σωμεν ἁμαρτίαις ἀλλοτρίαις συναπόλλυσθαι. Εἰ γὰρ μὴ ἐπαίδευσεν ἡμᾶς τὰ φοβερὰ τοῦ Κυρίου͵ μηδὲ αἱ τηλι καῦται πληγαὶ εἰς αἴσθησιν ἡμᾶς ἤγαγον ὅτι διὰ τὴν ἀνομίαν ἡμῶν ἐγκατέλιπεν ἡμᾶς ὁ Κύριος καὶ παρέδωκεν εἰς χεῖρας βαρβάρων καὶ ἀπήχθη αἰχμάλωτος εἰς τοὺς πολεμίους ὁ λαὸς καὶ παρεδόθη τῇ διασπορᾷ͵ διότι ταῦτα ἐτόλμων οἱ τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ Χριστοῦ περιφέροντες· εἰ μὴ ἔγνωσαν μηδὲ συνῆκαν ὅτι διὰ ταῦτα ἦλθεν ἐφ΄ ἡμᾶς ἡ ὀργὴ τοῦ Θεοῦ͵ τίς ἡμῖν κοινὸς πρὸς τούτους λόγος;

But we ought to testify to them day and night, alike in public and in private.  Let us not consent to be drawn away with them in their wickedness.  Let us above all pray that we may do them good, and rescue them from the snare of the evil one.  If we cannot do this, let us at all events do our best to save our own souls from everlasting damnation.

Ἀλλὰ διαμαρτύρεσθαι αὐτοῖς καὶ νυκτὸς καὶ ἡμέρας καὶ δημοσίᾳ καὶ ἰδίᾳ ὀφείλομεν͵ συναπάγεσθαι δὲ αὐτῶν ταῖς πονηρίαις μὴ καταδεχώμεθα͵ προσευχόμενοι μάλιστα μὲν κερδῆσαι αὐτοὺς καὶ ἐξελέσθαι τῆς παγίδος τοῦ Πονηροῦ· ἐὰν δὲ τοῦτο μὴ δυνηθῶμεν͵ σπουδάσωμεν τὰς γοῦν ἑαυτῶν ψυχὰς τῆς αἰωνίου κατακρίσεως περισώσασθαι.





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