ATHANASIUS
Letter to Marcellinus
on the Interpretation of Psalms

 

 St. Athanasius. St. Katharine, Sinai,


 tr. L. Dysinger, based in part on tr. by R.C. Gregg, The Life of Antony and the Letter to Marcelinus, ser. Classics of Western Spirituality (New York, Paulist, 1980): 101-129. Greek: Epistula ad Marcellinum de interpretatione Psalmorum PG 27, 12-45 [TLG 2035 059] PG 27.1857-1866


27. Reason for Music in Psalmody28.Psalmody & Harmony of the Soul


 

 

 

 

1. I AM amazed at your resolution in Christ, dear Marcellinus. For you not only bear the present trial, enduring great suffering from it; but you do not neglect ascetical practice.  When I asked the bearer of your letter how you fare in your illness, I discovered you are studying the whole of Sacred Scriptures and especially the Book Psalms, and that you strive to comprehend the inner meanng [nous] of each psalm. [12] ̓́Αγαμαί σε τῆς ἐν Χριστῷ προαιρέσεως, φίλε Μαρκελλῖνε. Καὶ γὰρ καὶ τὸν παρόντα πειρασμὸν, καίτοι πολλὰ παθὼν ἐν αὐτῷ, καλῶς φέρεις, καὶ τῆς ἀσκήσεως οὐκ ἀμελεῖς. Πυνθανόμενος γὰρ τοῦ κομίσαντος τὴν ἐπιστολὴν, πῶς ἄρα καὶ μετὰ τὴν νόσον διάγεις· ἔμαθον πρὸς μὲν πᾶσαν τὴν θείαν Γραφὴν ἔχειν σε τὴν σχολὴν, πυκνότερον δὲ μάλιστα τῇ βίβλῳ τῶν Ψαλμῶν ἐντυγχάνειν, καὶ φιλονεικεῖν τὸν ἐν ἑκάστῳ ψαλμῷ νοῦν ἐγκείμενον καταλαμβάνειν.

And so I commend you for this, since I, too, have a great eagerness [pothos] for the same book and indeed for all of Scripture. And it happens that I spoke with a learned old man, and I wish to write you about the things that master of the Psalter told me about it. For they have a kind of grace and persuasiveness combined with reasonableness. This is what he said:

Καὶ διὰ τοῦτο τοίνυν ἀποδέχομαί σε, πολὺν ἔχων εἰς αὐτὴν τὴν βίβλον κἀγὼ πόθον, ὥσπερ καὶ εἰς πᾶσαν τὴν Γραφήν. Καὶ γὰρ οὕτως ἔχων, συνέτυχόν τινι φιλοπόνῳ γέροντι, καὶ βούλομαι καί σοι, ἅπερ ἐκεῖνος κατέχων τὸ Ψαλτήριον περὶ αὐτοῦ μοι διηγήσατο, γράψαι· ἔχει γάρ τινα χάριν καὶ πιθανότητα μετ' εὐλόγου τοῦ διηγήματος.  ̓́Ελεγε γὰρ οὕτως·  

 

 

 

 

2. MY SON, All our Scripture, both The Old [Testament] and The New, are inspired by God and useful for instruction, as it is written (2 Tim 3:16). But to those who are diligent [or prayerful -προσέ[υ?]χουσιν] the Book of Psalms [reveals] a certain observable trustworthiness. Πᾶσα μὲν, ὦ τέκνον, ἡ καθ' ἡμᾶς Γραφὴ, παλαιά τε καὶ καινὴ, θεόπνευστός ἐστι καὶ ὠφέλιμος πρὸς διδασκαλίαν, ὡς γέγραπται· ἔχει δέ τινα πιθανὴν παρατήρησιν τοῖς προσέχουσιν ἡ τῶν Ψαλμῶν βίβλος.

Indeed, every [biblical] book proclaims and administers its own message.

  ̔Εκάστη μὲν γὰρ βίβλος τὸ ἴδιον ἐπάγγελμα διακονεῖ καὶ ἀπαγγέλλει·

Thus the Pentateuch [relates] the beginning of the world, the actions of the patriarchs, the exodus from Egypt of Israel, and the legal prescriptions. οἷον ἡ Πεντάτευχος γένεσιν κόσμου καὶ τῶν πατριαρχῶν τὰς πράξεις; τήν τε ἀπ' Αἰγύπτου τοῦ  ̓Ισραὴλ ἔξοδον, καὶ τὴν τῆς νομοθεσίας διάταξιν·
The Triteuch [Joshua, Judges, and Ruth] [relates] the distribution of land, the acts of the judges, and the genealogy of David. ἡ Τρίτευχος τὴν κληροδοσίαν, καὶ τῶν κριτῶν τὰς πράξεις, καὶ γενεαλογίαν τοῦ Δαβίδ·
Kings and Chronicles [relate] the actions of the kings αἱ Βασιλεῖαι καὶ Παραλειπόμεναι βασιλέων πράξεις·
Esdras [relates] the release from exile, the return of the people, and the construction of the temple and the city; καὶ ὁ μὲν  ̓́Εσδρας ἀπόλυσιν τῆς αἰχμαλωσίας καὶ ἐπάνοδον τοῦ λαοῦ, καὶ οἰκοδομὴν τοῦ ναοῦ καὶ τῆς πόλεως·
while the Prophets prophesy the advent of the Saviour, remind us of the commandments, reprove transgressors, and prophesy to the Gentiles. οἱ δὲ Προφῆται προφητείας περὶ τῆς ἐπιδημίας τοῦ Σωτῆρος, ὑπομνήσεις τε περὶ τῶν ἐντολῶν, καὶ μέμψεις κατὰ τῶν παραβαινόντων, καὶ προφητείας τοῖς ἔθνεσιν.

BUT the Psalter, on the other hand, is like a pleasure-garden (paradeisos) that yields these fruits set to music and together with them sings forth its own unique [insights].

  ̔Η δέ γε βίβλος τῶν Ψαλμῶν, ὡς παράδεισος τὰ ἐν αὑτῇ φέρουσα μελῳδεῖ, καὶ τὰ ἴδια δὲ πάλιν μετ' αὐτῶν ψάλλουσα δείκνυσι.  

 

 

 

 

3. On the one hand [the Psalter] sings the events of Genesis in Psalm 19, The heavens declare the glory of God: and the firmament shows forth the work of His hands (Ps 19.2); and in 24, The earth is the Lordís and its fullness : the inhabited earth and all that dwell in it. He Himself laid its foundations on the seas (Ps 24.1-2). Τὰ μὲν γὰρ τῆς Γενέσεως ψάλλει ἐν τῷ ὀκτωκαιδεκάτῳ· Οἱ οὐρανοὶ διηγοῦνται δόξαν Θεοῦ, ποίησιν δὲ χειρῶν αὐτοῦ ἀναγγέλλει τὸ στερέωμα· καὶ ἐν τῷ κγ#· Τοῦ Κυρίου ἡ γῆ καὶ τὸ πλήρωμα αὐτῆς, ἡ οἰκουμένη καὶ πάντες οἱ κατοικοῦντες ἐν αὐτῇ· αὐτὸς ἐπὶ θαλασσῶν ἐθεμελίωσεν αὐτήν.
On the other hand, the events of Exodus Numbers, and Deuteronomy record, are beautifully sung in Psalms 78, 106, and 114: When Israel came forth from Egypt, the House of Jacob from a barbarian people, Judah became His holy place and Israel came under His authority (Ps 114.1-2). Τὰ δὲ τῆς  ̓Εξόδου καὶ τῶν  ̓Αριθμῶν καὶ τοῦ Δευτερονομίου ᾄδει καλῶς ἐν τῷ ἑβδομηκοστῷ ἑβδόμῳ ψαλμῷ, καὶ ἐν τῷ ἑκατοστῷ τρισκαιδεκάτῳ ψαλμῷ, λέγων·  ̓Εν ἐξόδῳ  ̓Ισραὴλ ἐξ Αἰγύπτου, οἴκου    27.13  ̓Ιακὼβ ἐκ λαοῦ βαρβάρου, ἐγενήθη  ̓Ιουδαία ἁγίασμα αὐτοῦ ̓Ισραὴλ εἰς ἐξουσίαν αὐτοῦ.
It sings in Psalm 105 of these things: He sent Moses His servant, Aaron whom He chose; He established the words of His signs among them, and of His wonders in the land of Ham. He sent darkness and it was dark, and they rebelled against his words. He changed their waters into blood and killed their fish: their land brought forth frogs in the chambers of the kings. He spoke, and dog-flies came, and gnats in all their districts. (Ps. 105 29-34) Ψάλλει δὲ καὶ ταῦτα ἐν τῷ ἑκατοστῷ τετάρτῳ·  ̓Εξαπέστειλε Μωϋσῆν τὸν δοῦλον αὐτοῦ ̓Ααρὼν, ὃν ἐξελέξατο αὐτόν· ἔθετο ἐν αὐτοῖς τοὺς λόγους τῶν σημείων αὐτοῦ καὶ τῶν τεράτων αὑτοῦ ἐν γῇ Χάμ.  ̓Εξαπέστειλε σκότος, καὶ ἐσκότασε, καὶ παρεπίκραναν τοὺς λόγους αὐτοῦ. Μετέστρεψε τὰ ὕδατα αὐτῶν εἰς αἷμα, καὶ ἀπέκτεινε τοὺς ἰχθύας αὐτῶν.  ̓Εξῆρψεν ἡ γῆ αὐτῶν βατράχους ἐν τοῖς ταμείοις τῶν βασιλέων αὐτῶν. Εἶπε, καὶ ἦλθε κυνόμυια καὶ σκνῖφες ἐν πᾶσι τοῖς ὁρίοις αὐτῶν.
And it may be determined that this whole psalm and the next, 106, were written about these [same] things. Καὶ ὅλως ὅλον τε τὸν ψαλμὸν τοῦτόν τε καὶ ἑκατὸν πέμπτον περὶ τῶν αὐτῶν ἔστιν εὑρεῖν γεγραμμένον.

And the priesthood and tabernacle are declaimed in the bringing forth of the tabernacle in Psalm 29Bring to the Lord, you sons of God, bring to the Lord sons of rams, bring to the Lord glory and honor (Ps. 29.1-2 lxx).

 Καὶ τὰ μὲν ἱερατείας καὶ τῆς σκηνῆς ἀναφωνεῖ ἐν ἐξοδίῳ σκηνῆς ἐν τῷ κη# ψαλμῷ·  ̓Ενέγκατε τῷ Κυρίῳ, υἱοὶ Θεοῦ, ἐνέγκατε τῷ Κυρίῳ υἱοὺς κριῶν, ἐνέγκατε τῷ Κυρίῳ δόξαν καὶ τιμήν.  

 

 

 

 

4. The deeds of [Joshua Son of] Nun, and the Judges also are manifested in Psalm 106, They built them cities to dwell in and sowed fields and planted vineyards (Ps. 107.36-37). For it was unto [Joshua Son of] Nun that the land of  the promises was given to them. Τὰ δὲ τοῦ Ναυῆ καὶ τῶν Κριτῶν ἐμφαίνει πως ἐν τῷ ἑκατοστῷ ἕκτῳ, λέγων· Καὶ συνεστήσαντο πόλεις κατοικεσίας, καὶ ἔσπειραν ἀγροὺς, καὶ ἐφύτευσαν ἀμπελῶνας.  ̓Επὶ γὰρ τοῦ Ναυῆ διαδέδοται αὐτοῖς ἡ γῆ τῆς ἐπαγγελίας.

And the repeated reading in this same Psalm, And they cried unto the Lord in their trouble and He saved them from their distress (Ps.29.1-2), signifies the Book of Judges, [where] when they cry out, He raises judges at the right time [and] saves the people from their distress.

 Λέγων δὲ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ ψαλμῷ συνεχῶς· Καὶ ἐκέκραξαν πρὸς Κύριον ἐν τῷ θλίβεσθαι αὐτοὺς, καὶ ἐκ τῶν ἀναγκῶν αὐτῶν ἔσωσεν αὐτούς· σημαίνει τῶν Κριτῶν τὴν βίβλον· τότε γὰρ κραζόντων αὐτῶν ἤγειρε κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν κριτὰς, καὶ ἔσωζε τὸν λαὸν ἀπὸ τῶν θλιβόντων αὐτούς.

And it sings of the [Book of] Kings in [Psalm] 20, saying, Some trust in chariots and some in horses, but we will glory in the Name of the Lord our God. They are brought down and fallen, but we have arisen and stand upright: Lord, save the king and hear us on whatever day we call You (Ps.20.8-10). Καὶ τὰ τῶν Βασιλειῶν ψάλλει πως ἐν τῷ ἐννεακαιδεκάτῳ, λέγων· Οὗτοι ἐν ἅρμασι καὶ οὗτοι ἐν ἵπποις, ἡμεῖς δὲ ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου Θεοῦ ἡμῶν μεγαλυνθησόμεθα. Αὐτοὶ συνεποδίσθησαν καὶ ἔπεσαν, ἡμεῖς δὲ ἀνέστημεν καὶ ἀνωρθώθημεν. Κύριε, σῶσον τὸν βασιλέα, καὶ ἐπάκουσον ἡμῶν ἐν ᾖ ἂν ἡμέρᾳ ἐπικαλεσώμεθά σε.
And Psalm 126 of the Gradual Psalms (Psalms 119 - 133) speaks things concerning Esdras : When the Lord turned the captivity of Sion, we became as those comforted (Ps.126.1)  Τὰ δὲ τοῦ  ̓́Εσδρα ἐν τῷ ἑκατονεικοστῷ πέμπτῳ τῶν ἀναβαθμῶν ᾄδει·  ̓Εν τῷ ἐπιστρέψαι Κύριον τὴν αἰχμαλωσίαν Σιὼν, ἐγενήθημεν ὡσεὶ παρακεκλημένοι·

And again in Psalm 122, I was glad when they said to me, we will go into the House of the Lord. Our feet were set in your gates, O Jerusalem. Jerusalem is built as a city whose fellowship is complete: for there the tribes go up, the tribes of the Lord Ė a testimony to Israel (Ps.122.1-4).

 καὶ πάλιν ἐν τῷ ἑκατονεικοστῷ πρώτῳ· Εὐφράνθην ἐπὶ τοῖς εἰρηκόσι μοι· Εἰς οἶκον Κυρίου πορευσώμεθα.  ̔Εστῶτες ἦσαν οἱ πόδες ἡμῶν ἐν ταῖς αὐλαῖς σου,  ̔Ιερουσαλήμ.  ̔Ιερουσαλὴμ οἰκοδομουμένη ὡς πόλις, ἧς ἡ μετοχὴ αὐτῆς ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό· ἐκεῖ γὰρ ἀνέβησαν αἱ φυλαὶ, αἱ φυλαὶ Κυρίου, μαρτύριον τῷ  ̓Ισραήλ.  

 

 

 

 

5. The sayings of the prophets are in almost every [Psalm]. Of the advent of the Savior and that he will made his advent as God Psalm 50 declares, The Lord shall come openly Ė our God, and He shall not keep silence (Ps.50.3). Τά τε τῶν Προφητῶν σχεδὸν ἐν ἑκάστῳ σημαίνει. Περὶ τῆς τοῦ Σωτῆρος ἐπιδημίας, καὶ ὅτι μὲν Θεὸς ὢν ἐπιδημήσει, οὕτως φησὶν ἐν μὲν τῷ τεσσαρακοστῷ ἐννάτῳ ψαλμῷ·  ̔Ο Κύριος ἐμφανῶς ἥξει, ὁ Θεὸς ἡμῶν, καὶ οὐ παρασιωπήσεται·

And in [Psalm] 118, Blessed is he Who comes in the Name of the Lord! We have blessed you from the house of the Lord. God is the Lord, and He has shined upon us (Ps.118.26-27). That this one is the Fatherís Word, Psalm 107 thus sings, He sent His Word and healed them, and rescued them from their devastations (Ps.107.28).

ἐν δὲ τῷ ἑκατοστῷ ἑπτακαιδεκάτῳ· Εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου. Εὐλογήκαμεν ὑμᾶς ἐξ οἴκου Κυρίου· Θεὸς Κύριος, καὶ ἐπέφανεν ἡμῖν.  ̔́Οτι δὲ οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ τοῦ Πατρὸς Λόγος, οὕτως ἐν τῷ ἑκατοστῷ ἕκτῳ ψάλλει·  ̓Απέστειλε τὸν Λόγον αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἰάσατο αὐτοὺς, καὶ ἐῤῥύσατο αὐτοὺς ἐκ τῶν διαφθορῶν αὐτῶν.

For the One who comes is [both] God Himself and the Word that is sent. Knowing that this Word is the Son of God Psalm 45, in the voice of the Father, sings,  My heart utters a good Word (Ps.45.1); and again in [Psalm] 110, From the womb, before the dawn I have  begotten You (Ps.110.2).  ̔Ο γὰρ ἐρχόμενος Θεὸς αὐτός ἐστι καὶ Λόγος ἀποστελλόμενος. Τοῦτον δὲ τὸν Λόγον εἰδὼς ὄντα τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ, ᾄδει φωνὴν τοῦ Πατρὸς ἐν τῷ τεσσαρακοστῷ τετάρτῳ ψαλμῷ·  ̓Εξηρεύξατο ἡ καρδία μου Λόγον ἀγαθόν· καὶ πάλιν ἐν τῷ ἑκαοστῷ  27.16 τἐννάτῳ·  ̓Εκ γαστρὸς πρὸ  ̔Εωσφόρου ἐξεγέννησά σε.

For what should one call the Begotten of the Father other than His own Word and Wisdom? And truly knowing this the Father says, Let there be light and a firmament. Let there be all things, (Gen 1:3 ff) says again in Psalm 33, By the Word of the Lord were the heavens made, and by the Breath of His mouth all of their powers (Ps.33.6).

Τί γὰρ ἂν ἄλλο τις εἴποι γέννημα τοῦ Πάτρος ἢ τὸν Λόγον καὶ τὴν Σοφίαν αὐτοῦ; Τοῦτον εἰδυῖα ὄντα, ᾧ εἶπεν ὁ Πατήρ· Γενηθήτω φῶς, καὶ στερέωμα, καὶ τὰ πάντα, καὶ αὕτη ἡ βίβλος περιέχει λέγουσα· Τῷ Λόγῳ Κυρίου οἱ οὐρανοὶ ἐστερεώθησαν, καὶ τῷ πνεύματι τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦ πᾶσα ἡ δύναμις αὐτῶν.

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6. And, so far from being ignorant of the coming of Messiah, he makes mention of it first and foremost in Psalm 45, Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever, a scepter of justice is the sceptre of Thy kingdom. Thou has loved righteousness and hated lawlessness: wherefore God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows. Further, lest any one should think this coming was in appearance only, Psalm 87 shows that He Who was to come should both come as man and at the same time be He by Whom all things were made. Mother Sion shall say, A man, a man indeed is born in her:

Καὶ Χριστὸν δὲ αὐτὸν ἐρχόμενον οὐκ ἠγνόησεν· ἀλλὰ καὶ μάλιστα περὶ τούτου λέγει ἐν τῷ τεσσαρακοστῷ τετάρτῳ ψαλμῷ·  ̔Ο θρόνος σου, ὁ Θεὸς, εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα τοῦ αἰῶνος· ῥάβδος εὐθύτητος ἡ ῥάβδος τῆς βασιλείας σου.  ̓Ηγάπησας δικαιοσύνην, καὶ ἐμίσησας ἀδικίαν· διὰ τοῦτο ἔχρισέ σε ὁ Θεὸς ὁ Θεός σου ἔλαιον ἀγαλλιάσεως παρὰ τοὺς μετόχους σου. Καὶ ἵνα μὴ κατὰ φαντασίαν τις ἔρχεσθαι αὐτὸν ̔εἶναἰ νομίσῃ, σημαίνει αὐτὸν ἄνθρωπον γενησόμενον, καὶ τοῦτον εἶναι δι' οὗ τὰ πάντα γέγονε, λέγων ἐν τῷ ὀγδοηκοστῷ ἕκτῳ· Μήτηρ Σιὼν ἐρεῖ·  ̓́Ανθρωπος, καὶ ἄνθρωπος ἐγεννήθη ἐν αὐτῇ,

and He himself, the Most Highest, founded her, it says; and that is equivalent to saying The Word was God, all things were made by Him, and the Word became flesh. (Jn 1:1, 2, 14) Neither is the Psalmist silent about the fact that He should be born of a virgin - no, he underlines it straight away in 45, which we were quoting, but a moment since. Harken, O daughter, he says, and see and incline thine ear, and forget thine own people and thy fathersís house. For the King has desired thy beauty, and He is thy Lord. Is not this like what Gabriel said, Hail, thou that art full of grace, the Lord is with thee? (Lk 1:28) For the Psalmist, having called Him the Anointed One, that is Messiah or Christ, fortwith declares His human birth by saying, Harken, O daughter, and see; the only difference being that Gabriel addresses Mary by an epithet, because he is of another race from her, while David fitly calls her his own daughter, because it was from him that she should spring.

καὶ αὐτὸς ἐθεμελίωσεν αὐτὴν ὁ  ̔́Υψιστος. Τοῦτο γὰρ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ εἰπεῖν· Καὶ Θεὸς ἦν ὁ Λόγος· πάντα δι' αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο, καὶ ὁ Λόγος σὰρξ ἐγένετο. Διὰ τοῦτο καὶ τὸ, ἐκ Παρθένου, γινώσκων οὐκ ἐσιώπησεν, ἀλλ' εὐθὺς ἔμφασίν τινα δίδωσιν ἐν τῷ τεσσαρακοστῷ τετάρτῳ ψαλμῷ, λέγων·  ̓́Ακουσον, θύγατερ, καὶ ἴδε, καὶ κλῖνον τὸ οὖς σου, καὶ ἐπιλάθου τοῦ λαοῦ σου καὶ τοῦ οἴκου τοῦ πατρός σου, ὅτι ἐπεθύμησεν ὁ βασιλεὺς τοῦ κάλλους σου. Τοῦτο γὰρ πάλιν ὅμοιόν ἐστι τοῦ λεγομένου παρὰ τοῦ Γαβριήλ· Χαῖρε, κεχαριτωμένη, ὁ Κύριος μετὰ σοῦ. Καὶ γὰρ εἰρηκὼς αὐτὸν Χριστὸν, εὐθὺς καὶ τὴν ἀνθρωπίνην γένεσιν ἐκ τῆς Παρθένου ἐδήλωσε, λέγων·  ̓́Ακουσον, θύγατερ.  ̓Ιδὲ ὁ μὲν Γαβριὴλ ἐξ ὀνόματος καλεῖ Μαρίαν, ξένος ὢν αὐτῆς κατὰ τὴν γένεσιν· ὁ δὲ Δαβὶδ ἐκ τοῦ σπέρματος αὑτοῦ τυγχάνουσαν αὐτὴν εἰκότως θυγατέρα προσφωνεῖ ταύτην.

 

 

 

 

7. Having thus shown that Christ should come in human form, the Psalter goes on to show that He can suffer in the flesh He has assumed. It is as foreseeing how the Jews would plot against Him that Psalm 2 sings, Why do the heathen rage and peoples meditate vain things? The kings of the earth stood up and their rulers took counsel together against the Lord and against His Christ. And Psalm 22, speaking in the Saviourís own person, describes the manner of His death. Thou has brought me into the dust of death, for many dogs have compassed me, the assembly of the wicked have laid siege to me. They peirced my hands and my feet, they numbered all my bones, they gazed and stared at me, they parted my garments among them and cast lots for my vesture. They pierced my hands and my feet- what else can that mean except the cross? and Psalms 88 and 69, again speaking in the Lordís own person, tell us further that He suffered these things, not for His own sake but for ours. Thou has made Thy wrath to rest upon me, says the one; and the other adds, I paid them things I never took.

 ̓́Ανθρωπον δὲ αὐτὸν εἰρηκυῖα γενησόμενον, ἀκολούθως καὶ παθητὸν αὐτὸν σαρκὶ σημαίνει. Τήν τε ἐπιβουλὴν παρὰ τῶν  ̓Ιουδαίων ὁρῶσα γινομένην, ψάλλει ἐν μὲν τῷ δευτέρῳ ψαλμῷ·  ̔́Ινα τί ἐφρύαξαν ἔθνη, καὶ λαοὶ ἐμελέτησαν κενά; Παρέστησαν οἱ βασιλεῖς τῆς γῆς, καὶ οἱ ἄρχοντες συνήχθησαν ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ κατὰ τοῦ Κυρίου καὶ κατὰ τοῦ Χριστοῦ αὐτοῦ· ἐν δὲ τῷ εἰκοστῷ καὶ πρώτῳ τὴν ποιότητα τοῦ θανάτου ἐκ προσώπου τοῦ Σωτῆρός φησιν· Εἰς χοῦν θανάτου κατήγαγές με· ὅτι ἐκύκλωσάν με κύνες πολλοὶ, συναγωγὴ πονηρευομένων περιέσχον με.  ̓́Ωρυξαν χεῖράς μου καὶ πόδας μου, ἐξηρίθμησαν πάντα τὰ ὀστᾶ μου. Αὐτοὶ δὲ κατενόησαν, καὶ ἐπεῖδόν με· διεμερίσαντο τὰ ἱμάτιά μου ἑαυτοῖς, καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν ἱματισμόν μου ἔβαλον κλῆρον. Τὸ δὲ τὰς χεῖρας καὶ τοὺς πόδας ὀρύττεσθαι, τί ἕτερον ἢ σταυρὸν λέγων σημαίνει; Πάντα ταῦτα διδάσκουσα προστίθησιν, ὅτι μὴ δι' ἑαυτὸν, δι' ἡμᾶς δὲ ταῦτα πάσχει ὁ Κύριος. Καί φησιν ἐκ προσώπου πάλιν αὐτοῦ ἐν μὲν τῷ πζ#·  ̓Επ' ἐμὲ ἐπεστηρίχθη ὁ θυμός σου· ἐν δὲ τῷ ἑξηκοστῷ ὀγδόῳ·  ̔̀Α οὐχ ἥρπασα, τότε ἀπετίννυον.

For He did not die as being Himself liable to death: He suffered for us, and bore in Himself the wrath that was the penalty of our transgression, even as Isaiah says, Himself bore our weaknesses. (Mt 8:17) So in Psalm 138 we say, The Lord will make requital for me; and in the 72nd the Spirit says, He shall save the children of the poor and bring the slanderer low, for from the hand of the mighty He has set the poor man free, the needy man whom there was none to help

Οὐ γὰρ 27.17 ὑπεύθυνος ὢν ἀπέθνησκεν, ἀλλ' ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν ἔπασχε, καὶ τὸν καθ' ἡμῶν θυμὸν διὰ τὴν παράβασιν ἐφ' ἑαυτὸν ἐβάσταζε, λέγοντα διὰ τοῦ  ̔Ησαί̈ου· Αὐτὸς τὰς ἀσθενείας ἡμῶν ἔλαβε· καὶ λεγόντων μὲν ἡμῶν ἐν τῷ ἑκατοστῷ τριακοστῷ ἑβδόμῳ ψαλμῷ· Κύριος ἀνταποδώσει ὑπὲρ ἐμοῦ· λέγοντος δὲ καὶ τοῦ Πνεύματος ἐν ἑβδομηκοστῷ πρώτῳ· Καὶ σώσει τοὺς υἱοὺς τῶν πενήτων, καὶ ταπεινώσει συκοφάντην, ὅτι ἐῤῥύσατο, πτωχὸν ἐκ χειρὸς δυνάστου, καὶ πένητα, ᾧ οὐχ ὑπῆρχε βοηθός.

 

 

 

 

8. Nor is this all. The Psalter further indicates beforehand the bodily Ascension of the Saviour into heaven, saying in Psalm 24, Lift up your gates, ye princes, and be ye lift up, ye everlasting doors, and the king of glory shall come in! And again in 47, God is gone up with a merry noise, the Lord with the voice of the trumpet. The Session also it proclaims, saying in Psalm 110, The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou on My right hand, until I make thine enemies the footstool of thy feet. And Psalm 9 mentions also the coming destruction of the devil, crying, Thou satest on Thy throne, Thou that judgest righteousness, Thou hast rebuked the heathen and the wicked one is destroyed. And that He should receive all judgement from the Father, this also the Psalter does not hide from us, but foreshows Him as coming to be the judge of all in 72, Give the King Thy judgements, O God, and Thy righteousness unto the Kingís Son, that He may judge Thy people in righteousness and Thy poor with justice. In Psalm 50 too we read, He shall call the heaven from above, and the earth, that He may judge His people. And the heavens shall declare His righteousness, that God is judge indeed. The 82nd like-wise says, God standeth in the assembly of gods, in the midst He judges gods.

Διὰ τοῦτο καὶ τὴν εἰς οὐρανοὺς σωματικὴν αὐτοῦ ἄνοδον προμηνύει, καὶ λέγει ἐν μὲν εἰκοστῷ καὶ τρίτῳ·  ̓́Αρατε πύλας, οἱ ἄρχοντες, ὑμῶν, καὶ ἐπάρθητε, πύλαι αἰώνιοι, καὶ εἰσελεύσεται ὁ βασιλεὺς τῆς δόξης· ἐν δὲ τῷ τεσσαρακοστῷ·  ̓Ανέβη ὁ Θεὸς ἐν ἀλαλαγμῷ, Κύριος ἐν φωνῇ σάλπιγγος. Τὴν μὲν κάθισιν ἀναγγέλλει, καί φησιν ἐν μὲν τῷ ἑκατοστῷ ἐννάτῳ· Εἶπεν ὁ Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου· Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου, ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου ὑποπόδιον τῶν ποδῶν σου· ἐν δὲ τῷ ἐννάτῳ καὶ τὴν γενομένην ἀπώλειαν τοῦ διαβόλου βοᾷ·  ̓Εκάθισας ἐπὶ θρόνου, ὁ κρίνων δικαιοσύνην· ἐπετίμησας ἔθνεσι, καὶ ἀπώλετο ὁ ἀσεβής. Καὶ γὰρ ὅτι τὴν κρίσιν πᾶσαν ἔλαβε παρὰ τοῦ Πατρὸς, οὐκ ἔκρυψεν, ἀλλὰ καὶ κριτὴν πάντων αὐτὸν ἐρχόμενον προμηνύει ἐν μὲν οα#·  ̔Ο Θεὸς, τὸ κρῖμά σου τῷ βασιλεῖ δὸς, καὶ τὴν δικαιοσύνην σου τῷ υἷ τοῦ βασιλέως, κρίνειν τὸν λαόν σου ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ, καὶ τοὺς πτωχούς σου ἐν κρίσει· ἐν δὲ τῷ μθ# φησί· Προσκαλέσεται τὸν οὐρανὸν ἄνω καὶ τὴν γῆν, τοῦ διακρῖναι τὸν λαὸν αὑτοῦ. Καὶ ἀναγγελοῦσιν οἱ οὐρανοὶ τὴν δικαιοσύνην αὐτοῦ· ὅτι ὁ Θεὸς κριτής ἐστι· καὶ ἐν τῷ πα#·  ̔Ο Θεὸς ἔστη ἐν συναγωγῇ θεῶν· ἐν μέσῳ δὲ θεοὺς διακρινεῖ.

The calling of the Gentiles also is to be learnt from many passages in this same book, especially in these words of Psalm 47, O clap your hands together, all ye Gentiles, shout unto God with the voice of triumph; and again in the 72nd, The Ethiopians shall fall down before Him, His enemies shall lick the dust. The kings of Tarsis and of the islands shall bring presents, the kings of Arabia and Saba shall offer gifts. All these things are sung of in the Psalter; and they are shown forth separately in the other books as well.

Καὶ μὴν καὶ τὴν κλῆσιν τῶν ἐθνῶν ἔστιν ἀπ' αὐτῆς μαθεῖν ἐπὶ πολλῶν μὲν, μάλιστα δὲ ἀπὸ τοῦ μϛ#· Πάντα τὰ ἔθνη, κροτήσατε χεῖρας, ἀλαλάξατε τῷ Θεῷ ἐν φωνῇ ἀγαλλιάσεως· ἐν δὲ τῷ οα#·  ̓Ενώπιον αὐτοῦ προπεσοῦνται Αἰθίοπες, καὶ οἱ ἐχθροὶ αὐτοῦ χοῦν λείξουσι· βασιλεῖς Θαρσεῖς καὶ αἱ νῆσοι δῶρα προσοίσουσι· βασιλεῖς  ̓Αράβων καὶ Σαβὰ δῶρα προσάξουσι· καὶ προσκυνήσουσιν αὐτῷ πάντες οἱ βασιλεῖς τῆς γῆς, πάντα τὰ ἔθνη δουλεύσουσιν αὐτῷ. Ταῦτα μὲν ἐν τοῖς Ψαλμοῖς ᾄδεται, ἐν δὲ ἑκάστῃ τῶν ἄλλων βίβλων προαπαγγέλλεται.

 

 

 

 

9. And not being ignorant of this, he would say that the things we find in the Psalms about the Saviour are stated in the other books of Scripture too; he stressed the fact that one interpretation is common to them all, and that they have but one voice in the Holy Spirit.

Οὐκ ἀγνοῶν δὲ πάλιν ἔλεγεν, ὅτι καὶ ἐν ἑκάστῃ βίβλῳ τῆς Γραφῆς τὰ αὐτὰ περὶ τοῦ Σωτῆρος ἐξαιρέτως σημαίνεται· καὶ ἔστι τοῦτο πάσαις αὐταῖς ἀπάγγελμα, καὶ συμφωνία ἡ αὐτὴ τοῦ Πνεύματος.

Moreover, he went on, the opposite is true, to some extent; for, just as the Psalter includes the special subjects of all the other books, so also do they often contain something of the special feature of the Psalter. Moses, for example, writes a song; Isaiah does the same, and Habakkuk offers prayer in form of song.

Καὶ γὰρ ὥσπερ τὰ τῶν ἄλλων ἐν ταύτῃ δυνατὸν εὑρεῖν· οὕτως καὶ τὰ ταύτης ἐν ταῖς ἑτέραις πολλάκις εὑρίσκεται. Καὶ γὰρ Μωϋσῆς ᾠδὴν γράφει, καὶ  ̔Ησαί̈ας ᾄδει, καὶ ὁ  ̓Αμβακοὺμ προσεύχεται μετ' ᾠδῆς.

And in the same way in every book we see something alike of prophecy, of law-giving, and of history; for the same Spirit is over all

Πάλιν τε ἐν ἑκάστῃ βίβλῳ ἔστιν ἰδεῖν καὶ προφητείας καὶ νομοθεσίας καὶ ἱστορίας. Τὸ γὰρ αὐτὸ Πνεῦμα ἐπὶ πάντας ἐστί·

and in accordance with the distinction that belongs to each, in every case each serves and fulfills the grace given to it,

καὶ κατὰ μὲν τὴν εἰς ἕκαστον γενομένην αὐτοῦ διαίρεσιν ἕκαστος τὴν δοθεῖσαν αὐτῷ 27.20 χάριν διακονεῖ καὶ πληροῖ,

whether it is prophecy, or legislation, or the memorial of history, or the grace of the psalms. Since it is one and the same Spirit, from whom are all distinctions, and it is indivisible by nature--because of this surely the whole is in each, and as determined by service the revelations and the distinctions of the Spirit pertain to all and to each severally.

εἴτε προφητεία ἐστὶν,εἴτε νομοθεσία, εἴτε τῆς ἱστορίας ἡ μνήμη, εἴτε τῶν ψαλμῶν ἡ χάρις· ἐπειδὴ δὲ τὸ ἓν καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ Πνεῦμά ἐστιν, οὗπερ καὶ πᾶσαι διαιρέσεις εἰσὶν, αὐτὸ δὲ ἀδιαίρετόν ἐστι κατὰ φύσιν· διά τοι τοῦτο τὸ ὅλον μέν ἐστιν ἑκάστῳ, κατὰ δὲ τὴν διακονίαν αἱ φανερώσεις καὶ αἱ διαιρέσεις τοῦ Πνεύματος ἑκάστοις γίνονται·

Furthermore, according to the reserved need, each frequently, when the Spirit takes over, serves the Word.

καὶ λοιπὸν κατὰ τὴν ἀποκειμένην χρείαν πολλάκις ἕκαστος, ὑποσχοῦντος τοῦ Πνεύματος, διακονεῖ τὸν λόγον·

Thus (as I said before) Moses is at times a prophet and a psalmist, and the Prophets on occasion both lay down laws (like Wash you, make you clean. Wash clean your heart from wickedness, Jerusalem (Is 1:16; Jer 4:14)), and also record history, as when Daniel relates the story of Susanna (((Dan 12))) or Isaiah tells us about the Rab-shakeh and Sennacherib (Is 36-37).

ὥστε, καθὰ προεῖπον, νομοθετοῦντα Μωϋσῆν προφητεύειν ποτὲ καὶ ᾄδειν, καὶ προφητεύοντας τοὺς προφήτας ἐντέλλεσθαί ποτε· Λούσασθε, καθαροὶ γίνεσθε.  ̓Απόπλυνε ἀπὸ κακίας τὴν καρδίαν σου,  ̔Ιερουσαλήμ· καὶ ἱστορεῖν ποτε, τὸν μὲν Δανιὴλ τὰ κατὰ Σουσάνναν, τὸν δὲ  ̔Ησαί̈αν τὰ κατὰ τὸν  ̔Ραψάκην καὶ τὸν Σενναχηρείμ.

Similarly the Psalter, whose special function is to utter songs, generalizes in song matters that are treated in detail in the other books, as I have shown you. It also even lays down laws at times, such as Leave off from wrath and let go displeasure, incline thine heart from evil and do good. Seek peace and ensue it, as well as telling us the history of Israelís journey and prophesying the coming of the Saviour, as I said just now.

Οὕτως γὰρ καὶ ἡ τῶν Ψαλμῶν βίβλος, ἔχουσα τὸ ἴδιον τῶν ᾠδῶν, ὅπερ ἐν ταῖς ἄλλαις βίβλοις διεξοδικῶς εἴρηται, ταῦτα αὐτὴ τῇ κατὰ πλάτος φωνῇ μετὰ μέλους ψάλλει, καθὼς προείρηται. Νομοθετεῖ γοῦν ποτε καὶ αὐτή· Παῦσαι ἀπὸ ὀργῆς, καὶ ἐγκατάλιπε θυμόν· καὶ,  ̓́Εκκλινον ἀπὸ κακοῦ, καὶ ποίησον ἀγαθόν· ζήτησον εἰρήνην, καὶ δίωξον αὐτήν. Καὶ ἱστορεῖ δέ ποτε κατὰ τὴν ὁδὸν τοῦ  ̓Ισραὴλ, καὶ προφητεύει περὶ τοῦ Σωτῆρος, ὥσπερ εἴρηται πρότερον.

 

 

 

 

10. You see, then, that the grace of the one Spirit is common to every writer and all the books of Scripture, and differs in its expression only as need requires and the Spirit wills. Obviously, therefore, the only thing that matters is for each writer to hold fast unyieldingly the grace he personally has received and so fulfil perfectly his individual mission.

Κοινὴ μὲν οὖν τοιαύτη τοῦ Πνεύματος χάρις ἔστω παρὰ πᾶσι, καὶ ἐν ἑκάστῳ γινομένη εὑρισκέσθω, καὶ παρὰ πᾶσιν ἡ αὐτὴ, ὡς ἐὰν ἡ χρεία ἀπαιτῇ, καὶ τὸ Πνεῦμα βούληται. Οὐ διαφέρει γὰρ τὸ πλέον καὶ ἔλαττον ἐν ταύτῃ τῇ χρείᾳ, ὡς ἕκαστος ἀνενδότως τὴν ἰδίαν ἀποπληροῖ καὶ τελειοῖ διακονίαν.

And, among all the books, the Psalter has certainly a very special grace, a choiceness of quality well worthy to be pondered; for, besides the characteristics which it shares with others, it has this peculiar marvel of its own, that within it are represented and portrayed in all their great variety the movements of the human soul. It is like a picture, in which you see yourself portrayed, and seeing, may understand and consequently form yourself upon the pattern given.

̔Η δέ γε βίβλος τῶν Ψαλμῶν καὶ οὕτως ἔχει τινὰ πάλιν χάριν ἰδίαν καὶ παρατήρησιν ἐξαίρετον· πρὸς γὰρ τοῖς ἄλλοις, ἐν οἷς πρὸς τὰς ἄλλας βίβλους ἔχει τὴν σχέσιν καὶ κοινωνίαν, λοιπὸν καὶ ἴδιον ἔχει τοῦτο θαῦμα, ὅτι καὶ τὰ ἑκάστης ψυχῆς κινήματα, τάς τε τούτων μεταβολὰς καὶ διορθώσεις ἔχει διαγεγραμμένας καὶ διατετυπωμένας ἐν ἑαυτῇ· ὥστε τινὰ τὸν βουλόμενον ὡς ἄπειρον ἐξ αὐτῆς λαμβάνειν καὶ κατανοεῖν, οὕτω τὸ τυποῦν ἑαυτὸν, ἐκεῖ γέγραπται.

Elsewhere in the Bible you read only that the Law commands this or that to be done, you listen to the Prophets to learn about the Saviourís coming, or you turn to the historical books to learn the doings of the kings and holy men;

̓Εν μὲν γὰρ ταῖς ἄλλαις βίβλοις μόνον τις ἀκούει τὸν νόμον προστάττοντα, ἃ ̔μὴ̓ δεῖ ποιεῖν καὶ μὴ δεῖ πράττειν· προφητείας τε κατακούει, ὥστε μόνον εἰδέναι τὸν ἐρχόμενον Σωτῆρα· καὶ ἱστορίαις δὲ προσέχει, ἐξ ὧν γινώσκειν δύναται τὰς τῶν βασιλέων καὶ τὰς τῶν ἁγίων πράξεις.

but in the Psalter, besides all these things, you learn about yourself. You find depicted in it all the movements of your soul, all its changes, its ups and downs, its failures and recoveries.

̓Εν δὲ τῇ βίβλῳ τῶν Ψαλμῶν, πρὸς τῷ ταῦτα μανθάνειν τὸν ἀκούοντα, ἔτι καὶ τὰ κινήματα τῆς ἑαυτοῦ ψυχῆς ἐν αὐτῇ κατανοεῖ καὶ διδάσκεται·

Moreover, whatever your particular need or trouble, from this same book you can select a form of words to fit it, so that you do not merely hear and then pass on, but learn the way to remedy your ill.

καὶ λοιπὸν πρὸς ὃ πάσχει καὶ ἐν ᾧ συνέχεται, δύναται πάλιν ἐκ ταύτης ἔχεσθαι τὴν εἰκόνα τῶν λόγων· ὥστε μὴ μόνον ἀκούσαντα παρέρχεσθαι, ἀλλὰ καὶ πῶς δεῖ λέγοντα καὶ ποιοῦντα θεραπεύειν τὸ πάθος, διδάσκει,

Prohibitions of evil-doing are plentiful in Scripture, but only the Psalter tells you how to obey these orders and abstain from sin. Repentance, for example, is enjoined repeatedly; but to repent means to leave off sinning, and it is the Psalms that show you how to set about repenting and with what words your penitence may be expressed. Again, Saint Paul says, Tribulation worketh endurance, and endurance experience, and experience hope, and hope maketh not ashamed (Rom 5:3, 5); but it is in the Psalms that we find written and described how afflictions should be borne, and what the afflicted ought to say, both at the time and when his troubles cease: the whole process of his testing is set forth in them and we are shown exactly with what words to voice our hope in God.

Εἰσὶ μὲν γὰρ καὶ ἐν ταῖς ἄλλαις βίβλοις κωλυτικοὶ λόγοι ἀπαγορεύοντες τὰ φαῦλα·ἐν ταύτῃ δὲ καὶ πῶς ἀπέχεσθαι δεῖ τετύπωται· οἷον [27.21] παράγγελμά ἐστι τὸ μετανοεῖν· τὸ δὲ μετανοεῖν παύεσθαι τῆς ἁμαρτίας ἐστίν· ἐνταῦθα δὲ καὶ πῶς μετανοεῖν, καὶ τί δεῖ λέγειν ἐπὶ τῇ μετανοίᾳ, τετύπωτος. Καὶ πάλιν εἴρηκεν ὁ Παῦλος·  ̔Η θλίψις τῇ ψυχῇ ὑπομονὴν κατεργάζεται, ἡ δὲ ὑπομονὴ δοκιμὴν, ἡ δὲ δοκιμὴ ἐλπίδα, ἡ δὲ ἐλπὶς οὐ καταισχύνει.  ̓Εν δὲ τοῖς Ψαλμοῖς καὶ πῶς δεῖ φέρειν τὰς θλίψεις, καὶ τί θλιβόμενον δεῖ λέγειν, καὶ τί μετὰ τὰς θλίψεις, καὶ πῶς ἕκαστος δοκιμάζεται, καὶ τίνες οἱ λόγοι τῶν ἐλπιζόντων ἐπὶ Κύριον, γέγραπται καὶ κεχάρακται.

Or take the commandment, In everything give thanks. (1 Thess 5:18) The Psalms not only exhort us to be thankful, they also provide us with fitting words to say. We are told, too, by other writers that all who would live godly in Christ must suffer persecution; (2 Tim 3:12) and here again the Psalms supply words with which both those who flee persecution and those who suffer under it may suitably address themselves to God, and it does the same for those who have been rescued from it. We are bidden elsewhere in the Bible also to bless the Lord and to acknowledge Him: here in the Psalms we are shown the way to do it, and with what sort of words His majesty may meetly be confessed. In fact, under all the circumstances of life, we shall find that these divine songs suit ourselves and meet our own soulsí need at every turn.

Πάλιν τε ἐντολή ἐστιν ἐν παντὶ εὐχαριστεῖν· ἀλλὰ καὶ τί δεῖ λέγειν εὐχαριστοῦντας διδάσκουσιν οἱ Ψαλμοί. Εἶτα παρ' ἑτέρων ἀκούοντες·  ̔́Οσοι θέλουσιν εὐσεβῶς ζῇν διωχθήσονται, παρὰ τούτων διδασκόμεθα, καὶ πῶς δεῖ φεύγοντας φωνεῖν, καὶ τίνας διωκομένους καὶ μετὰ τὸν διωγμὸν ῥυσθέντας δεῖ λόγους ἀναφέρειν τῷ Θεῷ. Εὐλογεῖν παραγγελλόμεθα τὸν Κύριον, καὶ ἐξομολογεῖσθαι αὐτῷ· ἀλλ' ἐν τοῖς Ψαλμοῖς τυπούμεθα πῶς τε αἰνεῖν δεῖ τὸν Κύριον, καὶ τίνα ῥήματα λέγοντες ἐξομολογούμεθα πρεπόντως. Καὶ ἐφ' ἑκάστου δέ τις οὕτως ἂν εὕροι τὰς θείας ᾠδὰς, πρὸς ἡμᾶς καὶ ἡμῶν κινήσεις καὶ καταστάσεις κειμένας.

 

 

 

 

11. And here is yet another amazing thing about the Psalms. In the other books of Scripture we read or hear the words of holy men as belonging only to those who spoke them, not at all as though they were our own; and in the same way the doings there narrated are to us material for wonder and examples to be followed, but not in any sense things we have done ourselves.

Καὶ γὰρ καὶ τοῦτο παράδοξόν ἐστι πάλιν ἐν τοῖς Ψαλμοῖς, ὅτι ἐν μὲν ταῖς ἄλλαις βίβλοις ἃ λέγουσιν οἱ ἅγιοι, καὶ περὶ ὧν ἂν λέγωσι, ταῦτα καὶ οἱ ἀναγινώσκοντες, περὶ ὧν ἐκεῖνα γέγραπται, ἀπαγγέλλοντές εἰσιν· οἵ τε ἀκούοντες ἄλλους ἑαυτοὺς ἐκείνων ἡγοῦνται, περὶ ὧν ὁ λόγος φησὶ, καὶ τὰς ἐπαγγελλομένας δὲ πράξεις, ἄχρι τοῦ θαυμάζειν καὶ ζηλοῦν αὐτὰς, εἰς τὸ μιμεῖσθαι γίνονται.

With this book, however, though one does read the prophecies about the Saviour in that way, with reverence and with awe, in the case of all the other Psalms it is as though it were oneís own words that one read; and anyone who hears them is moved at heart, as though they voiced for him his deepest thoughts. To make this clear and, like Saint Paul not fearing somewhat to repeat ourselves, let us take some examples.

Ταύτην δὲ βίβλον ὁ λαμβάνων τὰς μὲν περὶ τοῦ Σωτῆρος προφητείας συνήθως ἐν ταῖς ἄλλαις Γραφαῖς θαυμάζων καὶ προσκυνῶν διεξέρχεται, τοὺς δὲ ἑτέρους ψαλμοὺς ὡς ἰδίους ὄντας λόγους ἀναγινώσκει· καὶ ὁ ἀκούων δὲ ὡς αὐτὸς λέγων κατανύσσεται, καὶ συνδιατίθεται τοῖς τῶν ᾠδῶν ῥήμασιν, ὡς ἰδίαν ὄντων αὐτοῦ. Σαφηνείας δὲ χάριν οὐκ ὀκνητέον, κατὰ τὸν μακάριον  ̓Απόστολον, ἐπαναλαβόντα τὸ αὐτὸ λέγειν.

 

The patriarchs spoke many things, all fitting to themselves; Moses also spoke, and God answered; Elijah and Elisha, seated on Mount Carmel, called upon the Lord and said, The Lord liveth, before Whom I stand. [ See for Elijah I Kings 18: 15, 19, and for Elisha II Kings 2: 25 and 3: 14.] And the other prophets, while speaking specially about the Saviour, addressed themselves also at times to Israel or to the heathen.

Πλεῖστοι λόγοι τῶν πατριαρχῶν εἰσι, καὶ ἴδιοι παρ' αὐτῶν εἰρημένοι· καὶ Μωϋσῆς ἐλάλει, ὁ δὲ Θεὸς ἀπεκρίνατο·  ̔Ηλίας τε καὶ  ̔Ελισσαῖος ἐπὶ τὸ Καρμήλιον ὄρος καθήμενοι ἐπεκαλοῦντο τὸν Κύριον, καὶ ἀεὶ ἔλεγον· Ζῇ Κύριος, ᾧ παρέστην ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ σήμερον. Οἵ τε τῶν ἄλλων ἁγίων προφητῶν λόγοι προηγούμενοι μέν εἰσιν οἱ περὶ τοῦ Σωτῆρος· ἔπειτα δὲ καὶ πλεῖστοι γεγόνασι τοῖς τε ἔθνεσι καὶ τῷ  ̓Ισραήλ.

Yet no one would ever speak the patriarchsí words as though they were his own, or dare to imitate the utterance of Moses or use the words of Abraham concerning the great Isaac, or about Ishmael and the home-born slave, as though they were his own, even though like necessity oppressed him. Neither, if any man suffer with those that suffer or be gripped with desire of some better thing, would he ever say as Moses said, Show me Thyself, (Ex 33:13) or If Thou remittest their sin; then remit it; but if not, then blot me out of Thy book that Thou hast written. (Ex 32:32)

Καὶ ὅμως οὐδεὶς οὔτε τῶν πατριαρχῶν λόγους ὡς ἰδίους ἄν ποτε εἴποι, οὔτε τολμήσοι τις μιμήσασθαι καὶ εἰπεῖν τὰ Μωϋσέως ἴδια ῥήματα, οὐδὲ τοῦ  ̓Αβραὰμ περὶ τοῦ οἰκογενοῦς καὶ τοῦ  ̓Ισμαὴλ καὶ τὰ περὶ τοῦ μεγάλου  ̓Ισαὰκ, κἂν ἡ αὐτὴ χρεία τινὰ καὶ ἀνάγκη καταλάβῃ, τολμήσας ἄν τις ὡς ἴδια εἴποι.  ̓̀Αν δὲ καὶ συμπάσχῃ τις τοῖς πάσχουσι, καὶ πόθον ποτὲ λάβῃ τοῦ κρείττονος, οὔποτ' ἂν εἴποι ὡς 27.24 Μωϋσῆς·  ̓Εμφάνισόν μοι σεαυτόν· ἢ πάλιν· Εἰ μὲν ἀφῇς αὐτοῖς τὴν ἁμαρτίαν, ἄφες· εἰ δὲ μὴ ἀφῇς, ἐξάλειψόν με ἐκ τῆς βίβλου σου, ἧς ἔγραψας.

No more would any one use the prophetsí words of praise or blame as though they were his own, or say, The Lord lives, in Whose sight I stand today. For he who reads those books is clearly reading not his own words but those of holy men and other people about whom they write;

̓Αλλ' οὐδὲ, τὰς τῶν προφητῶν τις λαμβάνων ὡς ἴδια ῥήματα, μέμψαιτό τις ἢ ἐπαινέσειε τούτοις τὰ ὅμοια πράξαντας, οἷς ἐμέμψαντο καὶ ἐπῄνεσαν ἐκεῖνοι· οὐδὲ τὸ, Ζῇ Κύριος, ᾧ παρέστην ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ σήμερον, μιμήσηται ἄν τις εἰπεῖν ὡς ἴδιον λόγον. Καὶ γὰρ καὶ ὁ ἐντυγχάνων ταῖς βίβλοις φανερός ἐστι μὴ ὡς ἰδίους, ἀλλὰ τῶν ἁγίων καὶ τῶν δι' αὐτῶν δηλουμένων λέγων τοὺς λόγους.

but the marvel with the Psalter is that, barring those prophecies about the Saviour and some about the Gentiles, the reader takes all its words upon his lips as though they were his own, and each one sings the Psalms as though they had been written for his special benefit, and takes them and recites them, not as though someone else were speaking or another personís feelings being described, but as himself speaking of himself, offering the words to God as his own heartís utterance, just as though he himself had made them up.

Τοὺς δέ γε Ψαλμοὺς, τὸ παράδοξον, μετὰ τὰς περὶ τοῦ Σωτῆρος καὶ τῶν ἐθνῶν προφητείας ὁ λέγων τὰ ἄλλα ὡς ἴδια ῥήματα λαλῶν ἐστι, καὶ ὡς περὶ αὑτοῦ γραφέντας αὐτοὺς ἕκαστος ψάλλει, καὶ οὐχ ὡς ἑτέρου λέγοντος ἢ περὶ ἑτέρου σημαίνοντος δέχεται, καὶ διεξέρχεται· ἀλλ' ὡς αὐτὸς περὶ αὐτοῦ λαλῶν διατίθεται· καὶ οἷά ἐστι τὰ λεγόμενα, ταῦτα ὡς αὐτὸς πράξας καὶ ἐξ ἑαυτοῦ λαλῶν ἀναφέρει τῷ Θεῷ.

Not as the words of the patriarchs or of Moses and the other prophets will he reverence these: no, he is bold to take them as his own and written for his very self. Whether he has kept the Law or whether he has broken it, it is his own doings that the Psalms describe; every one is bound to find his very self in them and, be he faithful soul or be he sinner, each reads in them descriptions of himself.

Οὐ γὰρ ὡς τὰ τῶν πατριαρχῶν ῥήματα, καὶ Μωϋσέως, καὶ τῶν ἄλλων προφητῶν, εὐλαβηθήσεται καὶ ταῦτα·  ἀλλὰ καὶ μάλιστα ὡς ἴδια καὶ περὶ ἑαυτοῦ γραφέντα θαρσεῖ λέγων ὁ ψάλλων ταῦτα. Τὸν γὰρ φυλάξαντα τὴν ἐντολὴν, καὶ παραβάντα ταύτην, τήν τε ἑκατέρου πρᾶξιν περιέχουσιν οἱ Ψαλμοί.  ̓Ανάγκη δὲ πάντα ἄνθρωπον ἐν τούτοις συνέχεσθαι, καὶ ἢ ὡς φυλάξαντα τὴν ἐντολὴν, ἢ ὡς παραβάντα ταύτην, λέγειν τοὺς περὶ ἑκάστου γεγραμμένους λόγους.

 

 

 

 

12. It seems to me, moreover, that because the Psalms thus serve him who sings them as a mirror, wherein he sees himself and his own soul, he cannot help but render them in such a manner that their words go home with equal force to those who hear him sing, and stir them also to a like reaction. Sometimes it is repentance that is generated in this way, as by the conscience-stirring words of Psalm 51; another time, hearing how God helps those who hope and trust in Him, the listener too rejoices and begins to render thanks, as though that gracious help already were his own. Psalm 3, to take another instance, a man will sing, bearing his own afflictions in his mind; Psalms 11 and 12 he will use as the expression of his own faith and prayer;

Καί μοι δοκεῖ τῷ ψάλλοντι γίνεσθαι τούτους ὥσπερ εἴσοπτρον, εἰς τὸ κατανοεῖν καὶ αὐτὸν ἐν αὐτοῖς καὶ τὰ τῆς ἑαυτοῦ ψυχῆς κινήματα, καὶ οὕτως αἰσθόμενον ἀπαγγέλλειν αὐτούς. Καὶ γὰρ καὶ ὁ ἀκούων τοῦ ἀναγινώσκοντος ὡς περὶ αὐτοῦ λεγομένην τὴν ᾠδὴν καταδέχεται· καὶ ἢ ἐλεγχόμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ συνειδότος κατανυγεὶς μετανοήσει, ἢ περὶ τῆς εἰς Θεὸν ἐλπίδος ἀκούων καὶ τῆς εἰς τοὺς πιστεύοντας γινομένης ἀντιλήψεως, ὡς εἰς αὐτὸν γενομένης τοιαύτης χάριτος ἀγαλλιᾶται, καὶ εὐχαριστεῖν ἄρχεται τῷ Θεῷ ̔́Οτε γοῦν τὸν τρίτον ψάλλει τις εἰς τὰς ἰδίας θλίψεις συνορῶν, ὡς αὑτοῦ εἶναι νομίζει τὰ ἐν τῷ ψαλμῷ ῥήματα· καὶ τότε τὸν ια# καὶ τὸν ιϛ# ὡς εἰς τὴν ἰδίαν πεποίθησιν καὶ προσευχήν ἐστιν ἀπαγγέλλων· καὶ τὸν μὲν ν# ψαλμὸν ὡς αὐτός ἐστι τὰ ἴδια τῆς μετανοίας ἑαυτοῦ λέγων ῥήματα·

and singing the 54th, the 56th, the 57th, and the 142nd, it is not as though someone else were being persecuted but out of his own experience that he renders praise to God. And every other Psalm is spoken and composed by the Spirit in the selfsame way: just as in a mirror, the movements of our own souls are reflected in them and the words are indeed our very own, given us to serve both as a reminder of our changes of condition and as a pattern and model for the amendment of our lives.

τὸν δὲ νγ#, καὶ τὸν νε#, καὶ τὸν νϛ#, καὶ τὸν ρμα#, ὅτε ψάλλει τις, οὐχ ὡς ἄλλου διωκομένου, ἀλλ' ὡς ὢν ὁ πάσχων συνδιατίθεται, καὶ ᾄδει τῷ Κυρίῳ ὡς ἰδίους τοὺς λόγους τούτους. Καὶ ὅλως οὕτως ἕκαστος ψαλμὸς παρὰ τοῦ Πνεύματος εἴρηταί τε καὶ συντέτακται, ὡς ἐν αὐτοῖς, καθὰ πρότερον εἴρηται, τὰ κινήματα τῆς ψυχῆς ἡμῶν κατανοεῖσθαι, καὶ πάντας αὐτοὺς ὡς περὶ ἡμῶν εἰρῆσθαι, καὶ εἶναι ἡμῶν αὐτοὺς ὡς ἰδίους λόγους, εἰς ἀνάμνησιν τῶν ἐν ἡμῖν κινημάτων καὶ διόρθωσιν τῆς ἡμῶν πολιτείας.  ̔̀Α γὰρ οἱ ψάλλοντες εἰρήκασι, ταῦτα καὶ ἡμῶν δύνανται τύποι καὶ χαρακτῆρες εἶναι.

 

 

 

 

13. This is the further kindness of the Saviour that, having become man for our sake, He not only offered His own body to death on our behalf, that He might redeem all from death, but also, desiring to display to us His own heavenly and perfect way of living, He expressed this in His very self. It was as knowing how easily the devil might deceive us, that He gave us, for our peace of mind, the pledge of His own victory that He had won on our behalf.

Αὕτη δὲ πάλιν τοῦ Σωτῆρός ἐστιν ἡ χάρις· ἄνθρωπος γὰρ δι' ἡμᾶς γενόμενος, τὸ μὲν σῶμα τὸ ἴδιον ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν προσήνεγκεν εἰς θάνατον, ἵνα πάντας ἀπαλλάξῃ τοῦ θανάτου· τὴν δὲ οὐράνιον καὶ 27.25 εὐάρεστον ἑαυτοῦ πολιτείαν δεῖξαι θέλων ἡμῖν, ἐν ἑαυτῷ ταύτην ἐτύπωσεν, ὑπὲρ τοῦ μηκέτι τινὰς εὐχερῶς ἀπατᾶσθαι παρὰ τοῦ ἐχθροῦ, ἔχοντας ἐνέχυρον πρὸς ἀσφάλειαν, τὴν παρ' αὐτοῦ γενομένην ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν κατὰ τοῦ διαβόλου νίκην.

But He did not stop there: He went still further, and His own self performed the things He had enjoined on us. Every man therefore may both hear Him speaking and at the same time see in His behaviour the pattern for his own, even as He himself has bidden, saying, Learn of Me, for I am meek and lowly of heart. (Mt 11:29) Nowhere is more perfect teaching of virtue to be found than in the Lordís own life. Forbearance, love of men, goodness, courage, mercy, righteousness, all are found in Him; and in the same way no virtue will be lacking to him who fully contemplates this human life of Christ. It was as knowing this that Saint Paul said, Be ye imitators of me, even as I myself am of Christ. (1 Cor 11:1)

Διὰ τοῦτο γοῦν οὐ μόνον ἐδίδαξεν, ἀλλὰ καὶ πεποίηκεν ἃ ἐδίδαξεν, ἵνα ἕκαστος ἀκούῃ μὲν αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος, ὡς ἐν εἰκόνι δὲ βλέπων λαμβάνῃ παρ' αὐτοῦ τὸ παράδειγμα τοῦ ποιεῖν, ἀκούων· Μάθετε ἀπ' ἐμοῦ, ὅτι πραύ̈ς εἰμι καὶ ταπεινὸς τῇ καρδίᾳ. Τελειοτέραν δὲ καὶ εἰς ἀρετὴν διδασκαλίαν οὐκ ἄν τις εὕροι, ἧς ὁ Κύριος ἐτύπωσεν ἐν ἑαυτῷ. Εἴτε γὰρ ἀνεξικακίαν, εἴτε φιλανθρωπίαν, εἴτε ἀγαθότητα, εἴτε ἀνδρίαν, εἴτε ἐλεημοσύνην, εἴτε δικαιοσύνην, πάντα ἐν αὐτῷ τις εὑρήσει γενόμενα, ὥστε μηδὲν εἰς ἀρετὴν λείπειν τῷ κατανοοῦντι τὸν ἀνθρώπινον βίον τοῦτον. Τοῦτο γὰρ ὁ Παῦλος εἰδὼς ἔλεγε· Μιμηταί μου γίνεσθε, καθὼς κἀγὼ Χριστοῦ.

The Greek legislators had indeed a great command of language; but the Lord, the true Lord of all, Who cares for all His works, did not only lay down precepts but also gave Himself as model of how they should be -carried out, for all who would to know and imitate. And therefore, before He came among us, He sketched the likeness of this perfect life for us in words, in this same book of Psalms; in order that, just as He revealed Himself in flesh to be the perfect, heavenly Man, so in the Psalms also men of good-will might see the pattern life portrayed, and find therein the healing and correction of their own.

Οἱ μὲν παρ'  ̔́Ελλησι νομοθέται ἄχρι τοῦ λέγειν ἔχουσι τὴν χάριν· ὁ δὲ Κύριος, ὡς ἀληθῶς Κύριος ὢν τοῦ παντὸς, καὶ κηδόμενος ὧν εἰργάσατο, οὐ μόνον νομοθετεῖ, ἀλλὰ καὶ τύπον ἑαυτὸν δέδωκεν, εἰς τὸ εἰδέναι τοὺς βουλομένους τὴν τοῦ ποιεῖν δύναμιν. Διὰ τοῦτο γοῦν καὶ πρὸ τῆς εἰς ἡμᾶς αὐτοῦ ἐπιδημίας ἐνήχησε καὶ ἐν τοῖς ψάλλουσι τοῦτο, ἵν' ὥσπερ ἐν αὐτῷ τὸν ἐπίγειον καὶ οὐράνιον ἄνθρωπον τυπῶν ἔδειξεν, οὕτω καὶ ἐκ τῶν Ψαλμῶν τὰ κινήματα καὶ τὰς διαθέσεις τῶν ψυχῶν ὁ βουλόμενος καταμαθεῖν δύνηται, εὑρίσκων ἐν αὐτοῖς καὶ τὴν ἑκάστου κινήματος θεραπείαν τε καὶ  διόρθωσιν.

 

 

 

 

14. Briefly, then, if indeed any more is needed to drive home the point, the whole divine Scripture is the teacher of virtue and true faith, but the Psalter gives a picture of the spiritual life. And, just as one who draws near to an earthly king observes the formalities in regard to dress and bearing and the correct forms of words lest, transgressing in these matters, he be deemed a boor, so he who seeks to live the good life and learn about the Saviourís conduct in the body is by the reading of this holy book first put in mind of his own soulís condition and then supplied with fit words for a suppliantís use. For it is a feature of this book that the Psalms which compose it are of many different sorts.

   Εἰ γὰρ δεῖ καὶ πιθανώτερον εἰπεῖν, πᾶσα μὲν ἡ θεία Γραφὴ διδάσκαλός ἐστιν ἀρετῆς καὶ πίστεως ἀληθοῦς· ἡ δέ γε βίβλος τῶν Ψαλμῶν ἔχει καὶ τὴν εἰκόνα πως τῆς διαγωγῆς τῶν ψυχῶν.  ̔Ως γὰρ ὁ εἰσερχόμενος πρὸς βασιλέα τυποῦται καὶ τῷ σχήματι καὶ τοῖς ῥήμασιν, ἵνα μὴ, παρὰ ταῦτα λέγων, ὡς ἀπαίδευτος ἐκβληθῇ· οὕτως ἡ θεία βίβλος τὸν ἐπ' ἀρετῇ τρέχοντα καὶ βουλόμενον κατανοῆσαι τὴν τοῦ Σωτῆρος ἐν σώματι πολιτείαν ὑπομιμνήσκει πρῶτον διὰ τῆς ἀναγνώσεως τὰ κινήματα τῆς ψυχῆς, καὶ οὕτω λοιπὸν τυποῖ καὶ διδάσκει τοὺς ἐντυγχάνοντας τοῖς τοιούτοις λόγοις.

 

And so that one may in that book first of all take careful note of this, there are psalms that are said in narrative form, others that consist of moral admonition, others [said] in prophecy, others in prayer and still others in confession.

 Εἰσὶ μὲν οὖν, ἵνα τοῦτο πρῶτόν τις τῆς βίβλου παρατηρήσηται, οἱ μὲν ἐν διηγήματι λεγόμενοι, οἱ δὲ ἐν παραινέσει, οἱ δὲ ἐν προφητείᾳ, οἱ δὲ ὡς ἐν εὐχῇ, οἱ δὲ ἐν ἐξομολογήσει.

Those cast in the form of narrative are Psalms 18, 43, 48, 49, 72, 76, 88, 89, 106, 113, 126, and 136.

Those in the form of prayer are 16, 67, 89, 101, 131, & 141.

Those spoken in petition and in prayer and in entreaty are 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 15, 24, 27, 30, 34, 37, 42, 53, 54, 55, 56, 58, 59, 60, 63, 82, 85, 87, 137, 139, and 142.

And that in the mode of appeal and thanksgiving is 138.

Καὶ εἰσὶ μὲν οἱ ἐν διηγήματι ιη#, μγ#, μη#, μθ#, οβ#, οϛ#, οζ#, πη#, ρϛ#, ριγ#, ρκϛ#, ρλϛ#.

Οἱ δὲ ὡς ἐν εὐχῇ, ιϛ#, ξζ#, πθ#, ρα# ρλα#, ρμα#.   Οἱ δὲ ὡς ἐν ἐντυχίᾳ καὶ εὐχῇ καὶ δεήσει ε#, ϛ#, ζ#, ια#, ιβ#, ιε#, κδ#, κζ#, λ#, λδ#, λζ#, μβ#, νγ#, νδ#, νε#, νϛ#, νη#, νθ#, ξ#, ξγ#, πβ#, πε#, πζ#, ρλζ#, ρλθ#, ρμβ#.

Καὶ ὁ μὲν ὡς ἐν ἐντυχίᾳ καὶ εὐχαριστίᾳ ρλη#.

Those that feature petition only are 3, 25, 68, 69, 70, 73, 78, 79, 108, 122, 129, and 130.

Psalms 9, 74, 91, 104, 105, 106, 107, 110, 117, 135, and 137 have the form of confession.

Those having confession and narrative interwoven are 9, 74, 105, 106, 117, and 137.

Οἱ δὲ ὡς ἐν ἐντυχίᾳ μόνῃ γ#, κε#, ξη#, ξθ#, ο#, ογ#, οη#, οθ#, ρη#, ρκβ#, ρκθ#, ρλ#.

[27.28] Καὶ οἱ μὲν ἐν ἐξομολογήσει θ#, οδ#, ϛα#, ρδ#, ρε#, ρϛ#, ρζ#, ρι#, ριζ#, ρλε#, ρλζ#.

Οἱ δὲ συμπεπλεγμένην ἔχοντες ἐξομολόγησιν καὶ διήγησιν θ#, οδ#, ρε#, ρϛ#, ριζ#, ρλζ#.

A psalm that has confession interwoven with narrative, along with praise, is 110.

 And Psalm 36 features exhortation.

Those containing prophecy are 20, 21, 44, 46, and 75.

In 109 there is announcement along with prophecy.

 ̔Ο δὲ συμπεπλεγμένην ἔχων ἐξομολόγησιν καὶ διήγησιν μετὰ αἰνέσεως ρι#.

Καὶ ὁ μὲν ἐν παραινέσει ἐστὶ λϛ#.

Οἱ δὲ ἐν προφητείᾳ κ#, κα#, μδ#, μϛ#, οε#.

Καὶ ἀπαγγελτικὸς μὲν μετὰ προφητείας ρθ#.

The psalms that urge and prescribe are 28, 32, 80, 94, 95, 96, 97, 102, 103, and 113.

Psalm 149 was spoken as exhortation combined with the singing of praise.

Those describing a life adorned with virtue are 104, 111, 118, 124, 132.

Προτρεπτικοὶ δὲ καὶ ὡς παρακελευόμενοί εἰσι κη#, λβ#, π#, ϛδ#, ϛε#, ϛϛ#, ϛζ#, ρβ#, ργ#, ριγ#·

Προτρεπτικὸς δὲ μετὰ ᾄσματος ἐλέχθη ρμθ#.

Καὶ οἱ μὲν διαγράφοντες τὸν ἐνάρετον βίον εἰσὶ ρδ#, ρια#, ριη#, ρκδ#, ρλβ#.

Those expressing praise are 90, 112, 116, 134, 144, 145, 146, 148, and 150.

Psalms 8, 9, 17, 33, 45, 62, 76, 84, 114, 115, 120, 121, 123, 125, 128, and 143 are songs of thanksgiving.

Those announcing a promise of blessedness are 1, 31, 40, 118, and 127.

Οἱ δὲ αἶνον ἀπαγγέλλοντες οὗτοί εἰσιν ϛ#, ριβ#, ριϛ#, ρλδ#, ρμδ#, ρμε#, ρμϛ#, ρμη#, ρν#

Καὶ οἱ μὲν εὐχαριστικοί εἰσιν η#, θ#, ιζ#, λγ#, με#, ξβ#, οϛ#, πδ#, ριδ#, ριε#, ρκ#, ρκα#, ρκγ#, ρκε#, ρκη#, ρμγ#.

Οἱ δὲ μακαρισμὸν ἀναφωνοῦντές εἰσιν α#, λα#, μ#, ριη#, ρκζ#.

Another demonstrative of holy readiness in song is Psalm 107.

Psalm 80 is one that exhorts to courage.

Those that lay charges against the impious and law-breakers are 2, 13, 35, 51, and 52.

And the fourth psalm has to do with invocation

There are also those that announce supplications to God, like 19 and 63.

Καὶ ἄλλος ἐπιδεικτικὸς προθυμίας μετ' ᾠδῆς ρζ#.

Καὶ ὁ μὲν προτρεπτικὸς εἰς ἀνδρίαν ἐστὶ π#.

Οἱ δὲ κατηγορικοὶ τῶν ἀσεβῶν καὶ παρανόμων εἰσὶ β#, ιγ#, λε#, να#, νβ#.

Καὶ ὁ μὲν ἐπικλήσεώς ἐστι δ#.

Οἱ δὲ ἐπευκτικὰ ἀπαγγέλλουσιν, ὡς ιθ# καὶ ξγ#

Those proclaiming words that boast in the Lord are 22, 26, 38, 39, 41, 61, 75, 83, 96, 98, and 151.

Those that arouse a sense of shame are 57 and 81.

And Psalms 47 and 64 voice the phrases of a hymn.

Psalm 65 is one of exultation, and concerns resurrection.

Another that speaks only exultant words is 99.

Καὶ οἱ μὲν καυχήσεως τῆς ἐν Κυρίῳ ἀπαγγέλλοντες λόγους εἰσὶ κβ# καὶ κϛ#, λη#, λθ#, μα#, ξα#, οε#, πγ#, ϛϛ#, ϛη#, ρνα#.

Οἱ δὲ ἐντρεπτικοί εἰσι νζ#, πα#.

Καὶ οἱ μὲν ὕμνου ῥήματα λέγουσι μζ#, ξδ#.

 ̔Ο δὲ ἀλαλαγμοῦ καὶ περὶ ἀναστάσεως ξε#. Καὶ ἕτερος ἀλαλαγμοῦ μόνον ῥήματα λέγει ϛθ#.

 

 

 

 

15. It is possible for us, therefore, to find in the Psalter not only the reflection of our own soulís state, together with precept and example for all possible conditions,

 Τοιαύτης οὖν τῆς διατάξεως οὔσης τῶν Ψαλμῶν, ἔστι λοιπὸν δυνατὸν τοὺς ἐντυγχάνοντας εὑρεῖν ἐν ἑκάστῳ, καθὰ προεῖπον, τὰ κινήματα καὶ τὴν κατάστασιν τῆς ἰδίας ψυχῆς, οὕτως τε περὶ ἑκάστου τὸν τύπον καὶ τὴν διδασκαλίαν·

but also a fit form of words wherewith to please the Lord on each of lifeís occasions, words both of repentance and of thankfulness, so that we fall not into sin; for it is not for our actions only that we must give account before the judge, but also for our every idle word.

 καὶ τίνα μὲν λέγων ἀρέσκειν δύναται τῷ Κυρίῳ, διὰ ποίων δὲ ῥημάτων ἑαυτὸν διορθοῦσθαι δύναται, καὶ εὐχαριστεῖν τῷ Κυρίῳ, ὑπὲρ τοῦ μὴ εἰς ἀσέβειαν ἐκπίπτειν τὸν παρὰ τοιαῦτα λέγοντα. Οὐ γὰρ μόνον περὶ τῶν ἔργων, ἀλλὰ καὶ περὶ ἀργοῦ ῥήματος ἀποδοῦναι λόγον ἔχομεν τῷ Κριτῇ.

Suppose, then, for example, that you want to declare anyone to be blessed; you find the way to do it in Psalm 1, and likewise in 32, 41, 112, 119, and 128. If you want to rebuke the conspiracy of the Jews against the Saviour, you have Psalm 2.

  ̓́Αν τε τοίνυν μακαρίσαι τινὰ θελήσῃς, ἔχεις πῶς δεῖ, καὶ ἐπὶ τίνι, καὶ τίνα δεῖ λέγειν, τόν τε α# καὶ τὸν λα#, καὶ μ#, καὶ ρια#, καὶ ριη#, καὶ ρκζ#· ἄν τε μέμψασθαι τὴν  ̓Ιουδαίων κατὰ τοῦ Σωτῆρος ἐπιβουλὴν, ἔχεις τὴν δευτέραν ᾠδήν.

 

If you are persecuted by your own family and opposed by many, say Psalm 3; and when you would give thanks to God at your afflictionís end, sing 4 and 75 and 116.

  ̓̀Αν δὲ διώκῃ παρὰ τῶν ἰδίων, καὶ πολλοὺς ἔχῃς τοὺς ἐπαναστάντας κατὰ σοῦ, λέγε τὸν γ# ψαλμόν. Εἰ δὲ οὕτως θλιβόμενος ἐπεκαλέσω τὸν Κύριον, καὶ εἰσακουσθεὶς θέλεις εὐχαριστεῖν, ψάλλε τὸν τέταρτον, καὶ οδ#, καὶ ριδ#.

When you see the wicked wanting to ensnare you and you wish your prayer to reach Godís ears, then wake up early and sing 5; and if you feel yourself beneath the cloud of His displeasure, you can say 6 and 38.

Καὶ ἐὰν, ἔτι τοὺς πονηρευομένους βλέπων ἐνεδρεύειν θέλοντας, ἐνωτίζεσθαί σου θέλῃς τὴν εὐχὴν, ὀρθρίζων [27.29] τὸ πρωὶ̈ ψάλλε τὸν ε#. Αἰσθόμενος δὲ ἀπειλῆς τοῦ Κυρίου, ἐὰν διὰ τοῦτο ταραττόμενον σεαυτὸν βλέπῃς, δύνασαι λέγειν τὸν ϛ# καὶ τὸν λζ#.  ̓

If any plot against you, as did Ahithophel against David,, and someone tells you of it, sing Psalm 7, and put your trust in God Who will deliver you.

 Εὰν δὲ καὶ βουλεύωνταί τινες κατὰ σοῦ, ὡς ὁ  ̓Αχιτόφελ κατὰ τοῦ Δαβὶδ, καὶ τοῦτό σοί τις ἀπαγγείλῃ, ψάλλε τὸν ζ#, καὶ θάῤῥει τῷ ῥυομένῳ σε Θεῷ.

 

 

 

 

 

16. Contemplating humanityís redemption and the Saviourís universal grace, sing Psalm 8 to the Lord; and with this same Psalm or the 19th you may thank Him for the vintage. For victory over the enemy and the saving of created things, take not glory to yourself but, knowing that it is the Son of God Who has thus brought things to a happy issue, say to Him Psalm 9;

   Βλέπων δὲ τὴν πανταχοῦ χάριν τοῦ Σωτῆρος ἐκτεταμένην, καὶ σωθὲν τὸ γένος τῶν ἀνθρώπων, ἐὰν προσφωνεῖν θέλῃς τῷ Κυρίῳ, ψάλλε τὸν η#.  ̓Αλλὰ πάλιν ᾆσαι θέλεις ἐπιλήνιον, εὐχαριστῶν τῷ Κυρίῳ, ἔχεις αὐτὸν πάλιν τὸν η# καὶ τὸν πγ#.  ̓Επὶ δὲ τῷ κατηργῆσθαι τὸν ἐχθρὸν καὶ σεσῶσθαι τὴν κτίσιν, μὴ καυχώμενος ἐπὶ σαυτῷ, ἀλλὰ εἰδὼς τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ τοῦτο κατορθώσαντα, λέγε τὸν εἰς αὐτὸν εἰρημένον θ# ψαλμόν.

and, if any wishes to alarm you, the 11th, still trusting in the Lord. When you see the boundless pride of many, and evil passing great, so that among men (so it seems) no holy thing remains, take refuge with the Lord and say Psalm 12. And if this state of things be long drawn out, be not faint-hearted, as though God had forgotten you, but call upon Him with Psalm 27.

  ̔́Οταν δὲ τὴν τῶν πολλῶν ὑπερηφανίαν ἴδῃς καὶ πλεονάζουσαν τὴν κακίαν, ὥστε μηδὲν ὅσιον ἐπ' ἀνθρώποις γενέσθαι, κατάφυγε σὺ ἐπὶ τὸν Κύριον, καὶ λέγε τὸν ια#.  ̓Εγχρονιζούσης δὲ τῆς παρὰ τῶν ἐχθρῶν ἐπιβουλῆς, μὴ ὀλιγώρει ὡς ἐπιλησθεὶς παρὰ τῷ Θεῷ, ἀλλὰ παρακάλει τὸν Κύριον ᾄδων τὸν ιβ#.

Should you hear others blaspheme the providence of God, do not join with them in their profanity but intercede with God, using the 14th and the 53rd. And if, by way of contrast, you want to learn what sort of person is citizen of heavenís kingdom, then sing Psalm 15.

̓Επειδὰν βλασφημούντων τινῶν κατὰ τῆς Προνοίας ἀκούσῃς, μὴ κοινώνει μὲν αὐτῶν τῇ ἀσεβείᾳ, ἐντυγχάνων δὲ τῷ Θεῷ, λέγε τὸν ιγ# καὶ νβ#. Καὶ λοιπὸν ἐὰν θέλῃς μαθεῖν ὁποῖός ἐστι τῆς βασιλείας τῶν οὐρανῶν ὁ πολίτης, ψάλλε τὸν ιδ#.

 

 

 

 

17. When, again, you need to pray against your enemies and those who straiten you, Psalms 17, 86, 88, and 140 will all meet your need; and if you want to know how Moses prayed, you have the 90th. [Headed in the Septuagint, A Prayer of Moses, Man of God.] When you have been delivered from these enemies and oppressors, then sing Psalm 18;

  Προσευχῆς σοι χρεία διὰ τοὺς ἀνθεστηκότας σοι καὶ περιέχοντάς σου τὴν ψυχὴν, ᾆδε τὸν ιϛ#, καὶ τὸν πε#, καὶ τὸν πϛ#, καὶ τὸν ρμ#.  ̓Αλλὰ θέλεις μαθεῖν, πῶς Μωϋσῆς προσηύξατο, ἔχεις τὸν πθ#.  ̓Αλλ' ἐσώθης ἀπὸ τῶν ἐχθρῶν σου, καὶ ἐῤῥύσθης ἀπὸ τῶν διωκόντων σε, ᾆδε καὶ σὺ τὸν ιϛ# ψαλμόν.

and when you marvel at the order of creation and Godís good providence therein and at the holy precepts of the Law, 19 and 24 will voice your prayer;

Θαυμάζεις τὴν τῆς κτίσεως τάξιν, καὶ τὴν εἰς αὐτὴν τῆς Προνοίας χάριν, τοῦ τε νόμου τὰ ἱερὰ προστάγματα, ψάλλε τὸν ιη# καὶ τὸν κγ#.

while 20 will give you words to comfort and to pray with others in distress. When you yourself are fed and guided by the Lord and, seeing it, rejoice, the 23rd awaits you.

Θλιβομένους δὲ ὁρῶν, παρακάλει τούτους, ἐπευχόμενος καὶ λέγων αὐτοῖς τὰ ἐν τῷ ιθ# ψαλμῷ ῥήματα.  ̔Ορᾷς σεαυτὸν ποιμαινόμενον καὶ εὐοδούμενον παρὰ τοῦ Κυρίου, χαίρων ἐπὶ τούτῳ ψάλλε τὸν κβ#.

Do enemies surround you? Then lift up your heart to God and say Psalm 25, and you will surely see the sinners put to rout.

Οἱ ἐχθροὶ περὶ σὲ, ἀλλὰ σὺ τὴν ψυχὴν ἐπαίρων πρὸς Θεὸν, λέγε τὸν κδ#, καὶ ὄψει τούτους ἁμαρτάνοντας διακενῆς.  ̓

If they persist, their murderous intent unslaked, then let manís judgement go and pray to God, the Only Righteous, that He alone will judge according unto right, using Psalms 26 and 35 and 43.

Επιμένουσιν οἱ ἐχθροὶ, οὐδὲν ἕτερον ἢ τὰς χεῖρας ἔχοντες αἱμάτων πλήρεις, καὶ ζητοῦντες ἑλκῦσαί σε καὶ ἀπολέσαι, μὴ δῷς ἀνθρώπῳ τὸ κρῖμα ̔ὕποπτα γὰρ πάντα τὰ ἀνθρώπινἀ·

They abide still, possessing nothing other than bloody hands, and seeking to wound and destroy you. Do not entrust to a man the judgment over them (for all things human are suspect), but counting God worthy to be judge (for he only is just), say the things in Psalms 26 and 35 and 43.

  ̓Επιμένουσιν οἱ ἐχθροὶ, οὐδὲν ἕτερον ἢ τὰς χεῖρας ἔχοντες αἱμάτων πλήρεις, καὶ ζητοῦντες ἑλκῦσαί σε καὶ ἀπολέσαι, μὴ δῷς ἀνθρώπῳ τὸ κρῖμα ̔ὕποπτα γὰρ πάντα τὰ ἀνθρώπινἀ· ἀλλὰ τὸν Θεὸν ἀξιῶν κριτὴν γενέσθαι ̔μόνος γὰρ αὐτὸς δίκαιος̓, λέγε τὰ ἐν τῷ κε#, καὶ τὸν λδ#, καὶ τὸν μβ#.

And if they savagely attack you, and the enemies become multitudinous, as rank upon rank, eyeing you with contempt, as if you have not yet been visited by grace-and on this account they wish to do battle--do not crouch in fear, but sing the twenty-sixth psalm.

  ̓Εὰν δὲ καὶ τραχύτερον ἐπίθωνται, καὶ πλῆθος ὡς παρεμβολαὶ γένωνται οἱ ἐχθροὶ, καταφρονοῦντες ὡς μήπω σου χρισθέντος, καὶ διὰ τοῦτο πολεμεῖν ἐθέλοντες· μὴ πτήξῃς, ἀλλ' ᾆδε τὸν κϛ# ψαλμόν.

But since the nature of humankind is weak, should those who lay snares act shamelessly, call out to God in order that you may disregard them, reciting what is in Psalm 27.

̓Επειδὴ δὲ ἀσθενής ἐστιν ἡ φύσις τῶν ἀνθρώπων, ἐὰν πάλιν ἀναισχυντῶσιν οἱ ἐπιβουλεύοντες, ἵνα μὴ πρὸς ἐκείνους ἔχῃς τὴν σχολὴν, κράζε πρὸς τὸν Θεὸν, λέγων τὰ ἐν τῷ κζ#.

And when you want the right way of approach to God in thankfulness, with spiritual understanding sing Psalm 29.

Καὶ ἐὰν θέλῃς εὐχαριστῶν μαθεῖν πῶς δεῖ προσφέρειν τῷ Κυρίῳ, νοητῶς νοῶν ψάλλε τὸν κη#.

And finally, when you dedicate your home, that is your soul in which you receive the Lord and the house of your senses, in which corporeally your spirit dwells, give thanks and say the 30th and, from the Gradual Psalms [Psalms 119 - 133] , the 127th.

Καὶ λοιπὸν ἐγκαινίζων τὸν οἶκόν σου τήν τε ψυχὴν τὴν τὸν Κύριον ὑποδεχομένην, καὶ τὸν σωματικὸν οἶκον, ἐν ᾧ σωματικῶς κατοικεῖς, εὐχαρίστει, καὶ λέγε τόν τε κθ# καὶ τὸν ἐν τοῖς ἀναβαθμοῖς ρκϛ#.

Again, when you find yourself hated and persecuted by all your friends and kinsfolk because of your faith in Christ, do not despair on this account nor be afraid of them, but go apart and, looking to the future, sing Psalm 31. And when you see people baptized and ransomed from this evil world, be filled with wonder at the love of God for men, and in thanksgiving for them sing the 32nd. And whenever a number of you want to sing together, being all good and upright men, then use the 33rd.

 ̔́Οταν δὲ σαυτὸν διὰ τὴν ἀλήθειαν μισούμενον καὶ διωκόμενον παρὰ πάντων τῶν τε φίλων καὶ συγγενῶν βλέπῃς, μὴ τούτοις μηδὲ σαυτῷ κατανοῶν ὀλιγωρήσῃς, μηδ', ἂν τοὺς γνωρίμους ἴδῃς ἀποστρεφομένους σε, πτήξῃς, ἀλλ' ἐκστὰς ἀπὸ τούτων, καὶ σκοπῶν τὰ μέλλοντα, ψάλλε τὸν λ#. Τοὺς δὲ βαπτιζομένους καὶ λυτρουμένους ἀπὸ τῆς φθαρτῆς γενέσεως βλέπων, καὶ θαυμάζων τὴν τοῦ Θεοῦ φιλανθρωπίαν, ᾆδε εἰς ἐκείνους τὸν λα#. Καὶ ὅταν μὲν ψάλλειν μετὰ πολλῶν ἐθέλῃς, τοὺς δικαίους ἄνδρας καὶ τοὺς ὀρθοὺς τῷ βίῳ συναγαγὼν, λέγε καὶ σὺ τὸν λβ#.

When you have fallen among enemies but have escaped by wise refusal of their evil counsel, then also gather holy men together and sing with them the 34th. And when you see how zealous are the lawless in their evil-doing, think not the evil is innate in them, as some false teachers say, but read Psalm 36 and you will see they are themselves the authors of their sin.

̓Εμπεσὼν δὲ εἰς τοὺς ἐχθροὺς, καὶ σοφῶς αὐτοὺς διαφυγὼν, καὶ ἐκκλίνας ἀπὸ τῆς ἐπιβουλῆς αὐτῶν, εἰ θέλεις εὐχαριστῆσαι, συγκαλέσας τοὺς πραεῖς ἄνδρας, ἐπ' αὐτῶν ψάλλε τὸν λγ#. Καὶ ἐὰν ἴδῃς τῶν παρανομούντων τὴν ἐπὶ τὸ κακὸν φιλονεικίαν, μὴ νόμιζε ἐν αὐτοῖς κατὰ φύσιν τὴν κακίαν εἶναι, οἷα λέγουσιν οἱ αἱρετικοί· ἀλλὰ λέγε τὸν λε#, καὶ ὄψει, ὅτι αὐτοὶ τοῦ ἁμαρτάνειν εἰσὶν αἴτιοι.

And if you see these same wicked men trying, among other evils, to attack the weak and you wish to warn their victims to pay no heed to them, nor envy them, since they will soon be brought to nought, both to yourself and others say the 37th.

 ̓Εὰν δὲ πολλὰ πράττοντας ἄνομα τοὺς πονηροὺς βλέπῃς, καὶ ἐπαιρομένους αὐτοὺς κατὰ τῶν μικρῶν, καὶ θέλῃς παραινεῖν τισι μὴ προσέχειν τούτοις, μηδὲ παραζηλοῦν αὐτοὺς, διὰ τὸ ταχέως αὐτοὺς ἀποσβέννυσθαι, λέγε καὶ σαυτῷ καὶ τοῖς ἑτέροις τὸν λϛ#.

 

 

 

 

19. When, on the other hand, it is your own safety that is in question, by reason of the enemyís attacks, and you wish to bestir yourself against him, say the 39th; and if, when he attacks, you then endure afflictions, and wish to learn the value of endurance, sing Psalm 40. When you see people in poverty, obliged to beg their bread, and you want to show them pity, you can applaud those who have already helped them and incite others to like works of mercy by using 41.

 ̓Αλλὰ δὴ καὶ σὺ, προθέμενος προσέχειν σαυτῷ, ἐὰν βλέπῃς ἐπιτιθέμενον τὸν ἐχθρὸν ̔τότε γὰρ μᾶλλον ἐπεγείρεται κατὰ τῶν τοιούτων̓, καὶ θέλῃς ἐπαλείφειν σαυτὸν κατ' αὐτοῦ, ᾆδε τὸν λη# ψαλμόν. Καὶ ἐὰν, τῶν ἐχθρῶν ἐπιτιθεμένων, ὑπομένῃς τὰς θλίψεις, καὶ θέλῃς μαθεῖν τὴν ἐκ τῆς ὑπομονῆς ὠφέλειαν, ψάλλε τὸν λθ# ψαλμόν. Βλέπων δὲ πολλοὺς πένητας καὶ πτωχοὺς, καὶ θέλεις ἐλεεῖσθαι αὐτοὺς, δύνασαι τοὺς μὲν ἤδη ἐλεήσαντας ἀποδέχεσθαι, τοὺς δὲ ἄλλους εἰς τὸ ποιεῖν προτρέπεσθαι, ἐν τῷ λέγειν τὸν μ#.

Then again, if you are aflame with longing for God, be not disturbed at the reviling of your enemies but, knowing the immortal fruit that such desire shall bear, comfort your soul and ease your pains with hope in God, and say the 42nd.

Εἶτα ἐὰν, πάνυ τὸν πόθον ἔχων εἰς τὸν Θεὸν, ἀκούσῃς τῶν ἐχθρῶν ὀνειδιζόντων, μὴ ταράσσου· ἀλλὰ συνιεὶς τὸν ἐκ τοῦ τοιούτου πόθου ἀθάνατον καρπὸν, παρακάλει σαυτοῦ τὴν ψυχὴν τῇ εἰς Θεὸν ἐλπίδι, καὶ ταύτῃ ἐπικουφίζων καὶ καταπραύ̈νων τὰς ἐν τῷ βίῳ λύπας αὐτῆς, λέγε τὸν μα# ψαλμόν.

When you wish to recall in detail the loving-kindnesses which God showed to the fathers, both in their exodus from Egypt and in the wilderness, and to reflect how good God is and how ungrateful are men, you have the 44th, the 78th, the 89th, the 105th, 106th, 107th, and also the 114th and 115th. And the 46th will supply your need when after deliverance from afflictions you flee to God, and want to give Him thanks and tell of all His loving mercy shown towards yourself.

Συνεχῶς δὲ ἀναμιμνήσκεσθαι θέλων τὰς εὐεργεσίας τοῦ Θεοῦ τὰς γενομένας εἰς τοὺς πατέρας, καὶ περὶ τῆς ἐξόδου τῆς Αἰγύπτου καὶ τῆς ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ διαγωγῆς, πῶς τε ὁ μὲν Θεὸς ἀγαθὸς, οἱ δὲ ἄνθρωποι ἀχάριστοι, ἔχεις τὸν μγ#, καὶ τὸν οζ#, καὶ πη#, καὶ τὸν ρδ#, καὶ τὸν ρε#, καὶ ρϛ#, καὶ ριγ#. Καταφυγὼν δὲ πρὸς τὸν Θεὸν καὶ διασωθεὶς ἀπὸ τῶν περὶ σὲ γενομένων θλίψεων, ἐὰν θέλῃς εὐχαριστῆσαι τῷ Θεῷ, καὶ διηγήσασθαι τὴν εἰς σὲ γενομένην φιλανθρωπίαν, ἔχεις τὸν με#.

 

 

 

 

20. But suppose now that you have sinned and, having been put to confusion, are repenting and begging for forgiveness, then you have the words of confession and repentance in Psalm 51. Or you have been slandered, perhaps, before an evil king, and you see the slanderer boasting of his deed: then go away and say Psalm 52. And when they persecute and slander you, as did the Ziphites and the strangers to King David (1 Kings 23:13ff), be not disturbed but with full confidence in God sing praise to Him, using Psalms 54 and 56.

   ̓Αλλ' ἥμαρτες, καὶ ἐντραπεὶς μεταγινώσκεις καὶ ἐλεηθῆναι ἀξιοῖς, ἔχεις τοὺς τῆς ἐξομολογήσεως καὶ μετανοίας λόγους ἐν τῷ ν#. Εἰ δὲ καὶ διεβλήθης πονηρῷ βασιλεῖ, καὶ ὁρᾷς τὸν διάβολον κατακαυχώμενον, ἀναχώρει, καὶ λέγε καὶ σὺ τὰ ἐν τῷ να#. Καὶ ὅτε μὲν διώκῃ, καὶ διαβάλλουσί τινες παραδοῦναί σε θέλοντες, ὡς οἱ Ζιφαῖοι καὶ οἱ ἀλλόφυλοι τὸν Δαβὶδ, μὴ ἀκηδιάσῃς, ἀλλὰ θαῤῥῶν τῷ Κυρίῳ, καὶ ὑμνῶν αὐτὸν, λέγε τὰ ἐν τῷ νγ# καὶ νε#.

If still the persecution follows hard on you, and he who seeks your life enters (though he knows it not) the very cave in which you hide (1 Kings 24:3), still you must not fear; for even in such extremity as this you have encouragement in Psalm 57 and also in the 142nd. The plotter, it may be, gives orders that a watch be kept over your house, and yet you manage to escape; give thanks to God, then, and let Psalm 59 be written on your heart, as on a pillar, as a memorial of your deliverance. And if not only your enemies cast you in the teeth but those also whom you thought to be your friends reproach and slander you and hurt you sorely for a time, you can still call upon God for help, using Psalm 55. Against hypocrites and those who glory in appearances, say for their reproach the 58th.

 27.33 δράμῃ ὁ διώκων, καὶ μὴ γινώσκων εἰσέλθῃ εἰς τὸ σπήλαιον ἐν ᾧ καὶ σὺ κρύπτῃ, μηδ' οὕτως πτήξῃς· ἔχεις γὰρ τοὺς ἐν τοιαύτῃ ἀνάγκῃ χρησμοὺς εἰς παράκλησιν καὶ στηλογραφίας λόγους, τοὺς ἐν τῷ νϛ# καὶ τοὺς ἐν τῷ ρμα#.  ̓Εὰν δὲ καὶ φυλαχθῆναι τὴν οἰκίαν κελεύσῃ ὁ ἐπιβουλεύων, καὶ διαφύγῃς, ἀνατίθει τῷ Κυρίῳ τὴν χάριν, ὡς ἐν στήλαις γράφων αὐτὴν ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ, μνημόσυνον οὖσαν τοῦ μὴ διεφθάρθαι σε, καὶ λέγε τὰ ἐν τῷ νη# ψαλμῷ ̓Εὰν δὲ καὶ ὀνειδίζωσι θλίβοντες οἱ ἐχθροὶ, καὶ φλυαροῦντες διαβάλλωσιν οἱ δοκοῦντες εἶναι φίλοι, καὶ λυπηθῇς ἐν τῇ ἀδολεσχίᾳ σου πρὸς ὀλίγον, ἀλλὰ δύνασαι παρακαλεῖσθαι ὑμνῶν καὶ σὺ τὸν Θεὸν, καὶ λέγων τὰ ἐν τῷ νδ# ῥήματα. Καὶ πρὸς μὲν ὑποκρινομένους καὶ ἐν προσώπῳ καυχωμένους λέγε πρὸς ἐντροπὴν ἐκείνων τὸν νζ# ψαλμόν·

But against those whose enmity is such that they would even take away your life, you must simply oppose your own obedience to the Lord, having no fear at all but all the more submitting to His will as they grow fiercer in their rage, and your form of words for this will be the 62nd Psalm. Should persecution drive you to the desert, fear not as though you were alone in it, for God is with you, and there at daybreak you may sing to Him the 63rd. And if even there the fear of foes and their unceasing plots pursues you, be they never so many or so insistent in their search for you, still you must not yield; for the toy arrows of a child will be enough to wound them, while Psalms 64, 65, 70, and 71 are on your lips.

 πρὸς δὲ τοὺς ὁρμῶντας ἀγρίως κατὰ σοῦ, καὶ θέλοντας λαβεῖν σου τὴν ψυχὴν, ἀντίθες σὺ τὴν πρὸς τὸν Θεόν σου ὑποταγὴν, καὶ θάῤῥει.  ̔́Οσῳ γὰρ ἐκεῖνοι μαίνονται, τοσούτῳ μᾶλλον ὑποτάσσου σὺ τῷ Κυρίῳ, καὶ λέγε τὰ ἐν τῷ ξα#. Καὶ ἐὰν μὲν διωκόμενος εἰς ἐρημίαν ἀπέλθῃς, μὴ φοβηθῇς ὡς μόνος ὢν ἐκεῖ, ἔχων δὲ τὸν Θεὸν ἐκεῖ καὶ πρὸς αὐτὸν ὀρθρίζων ψάλλε τὸν ξβ#.  ̓Εκφοβούντων δὲ τῶν ἐχθρῶν καὶ μὴ παυομένων τοῦ ἐνεδρεύειν, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐξερευνώντων πᾶν κατὰ σοῦ, κἂν πλῆθος ὦσι, μὴ ὑπενδῷς· βέλη γὰρ νηπίων ἔσονται τούτων αἱ πληγαὶ, ψάλλοντός σου τὸν ξγ#, καὶ τὸν ξδ#, καὶ ξθ#, καὶ ο#.

 

 

 

 

21 The 65th Psalm will meet your need, whenever you desire to sing praise to God: and if you want to teach any one about the Resurrection, sing the 66th. When asking mercy from the Lord, praise Him with the 67th. When you see wicked men enjoying prosperity and peace and good men in sore trouble, be not offended or disturbed at it but say Psalm 73.

Καὶ ὅταν μὲν ὑμνῆσαι βούλῃ τὸν Κύριον, ᾆδε τὰ ἐν τῷ ξδ#.  ̓Εὰν δὲ κατηχῆσαι θέλῃς τινὰς περὶ ἀναστάσεως, ᾆδε τὰ ἐν τῷ ξε#. Οἰκτιρμοὺς δὲ αἰτῶν παρὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ, ὕμνει αὐτὸν, ψάλλων τὸν ξϛ#.  ̔́Οτε δὲ βλέπεις τοὺς μὲν ἀσεβεῖς ἐν εἰρήνῃ εὐθηνουμένους καὶ καταθυμίως ζῶντας τοὺς δὲ δικαίους θλιβομένους, ἵνα μὴ σκανδαλισθῇς καὶ παρασαλευθῇς, λέγε καὶ σὺ τὰ ἐν τῷ οβ# ψαλμῷ.

When God is angry with His people, you have wise words of comfort in Psalm 74. When you have occasion to testify concerning God, 9, 71, 75, 92, 105 to 108, 111, 118, 126, 136, and 138 all fit the case; and Psalm 76, when used intelligently, provides you with an answer for the heathen and the heretics, showing that the knowledge of God is not with them at all, but only in the Church.

Καὶ ὅταν μὲν ὀργισθῇ ὁ Θεὸς ἐπὶ τὸν λαὸν, ἔχεις εἰς παράκλησιν περὶ τούτου λόγους συνετοὺς τοὺς ἐν τῷ ογ#· ὅτε δὲ χρεία σοι ἐξομολογήσεώς ἐστι ψάλλε τὸν θ#, οδ# καὶ ϛα#, καὶ ρδ#, καὶ ρε#, καὶ ρϛ#, καὶ ρζ#, καὶ ρι#, καὶ ριζ#, καὶ ρλε#, καὶ ρλζ#. Καὶ δυσωπῆσαι μὲν θέλων τὰ τῶν  ̔Ελλήνων καὶ τὰ τῶν αἱρετικῶν, ὅτι μὴ παρ' αὐτοῖς ἔνι θεογνωσία, ἀλλ' ἐν μόνῃ τῇ καθολικῇ  ̓Εκκλησίᾳ, δύνασαι νοῶν ᾄδειν καὶ λέγειν τὰ ἐν τῷ οε#.

And when the enemy takes possession of your place of refuge, even though sorely harassed and afflicted, do not despair but pray: and when your crying has been heard, give thanks to God, using Psalm 77. And if they have profaned the house of God and slain the saints, throwing their bodies to the birds of prey, do not be crushed or frightened at such cruelty, but, suffering with those that suffer it, plead you for them with God, using Psalm 79.

Τῶν δὲ ἐχθρῶν προκαταλαβόντων τὰς διεκφυγὰς, καὶ πάνυ θλιβόμενος, κἂν ταραχθῇς, μὴ ἀπελπίσῃς, ἀλλὰ εὔχου· καὶ ἐὰν κράζων εἰσακουσθῇς, εὐχαρίστει τῷ Θεῷ, λέγων τὰ ἐν τῷ οϛ#.  ̓Εὰν δὲ ἐπιμένοντες οἱ ἐχθροὶ ἐπεισέλθωσι, καὶ μιάνωσι τὸν οἶκον τοῦ Θεοῦ, τούς τε ἁγίους ἀποκτείνωσι, καὶ τὰ σώματα αὐτῶν ῥίψωσι τοῖς πετεινοῖς τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, ἵνα μὴ συνελκυσθεὶς καταπτήξῃς αὐτῶν τὴν ὠμότητα, σύμπασχε μὲν τοῖς πάσχουσιν, ἐντύγχανε δὲ τῷ Θεῷ, λέγων τὸν οη# ψαλμόν.

 

 

 

 

22. Psalms 81 and 95 are suitable if you want to sing on a festival, together with other servants of the Lord; and when the enemy once more muster round you, threatening Godís House and joining forces against His holy ones, do not you be frightened of either their numbers or their strength, for you have a very anchor of hope available in Psalm 83.

̓Εν ἑορτῇ δὲ, θέλων ᾆσαι τῷ Κυρίῳ, συγκαλέσας τοὺς τοῦ Θεοῦ δούλους, ψάλλε τὰ ἐν τῷ π# καὶ ϛδ#. Τῶν δὲ ἐχθρῶν πάλιν ἐπισυναχθέντων πάντων πανταχόθεν, καὶ ἀπειλούντων κατὰ τοῦ οἴκου τοῦ Θεοῦ, συνθήκας τε ποιούντων κατὰ τῆς εὐσεβείας, [27.36] ἵνα μὴ ἀθυμήσῃς διὰ τὸ πλῆθος καὶ τὴν δυναστείαν αὑτῶν, ἔχεις ὥσπερ ἄγκυραν ἐλπίδος τὰ ἐν τῷ πβ# ῥήματα.

If, moreover, you behold the House of God and His eternal dwelling, and have a longing for them, as the Apostle had, then say the 84th; and when at length their anger is abated and you are free again, voice your thanksgiving in the 85th and in the 116th. To see the difference between the Church and schism and to confound schismatics, you can say 87

Καὶ ἐὰν, βλέπων τὸν οἶκον τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ τὰ αἰώνια αὐτοῦ σκηνώματα, τὸν πόθον ἔχῃς εἰς αὐτὰ, ὡς εἶχεν ὁ  ̓Απόστολος, λέγε καὶ σὺ τὸν πγ# ψαλμόν. Παυσαμένης δέ ποτε τῆς ὀργῆς, καὶ τῆς αἰχμαλωσίας λυθείσης, ἐὰν θέλῃς εὐχαριστῆσαι, ἔχεις εἰς τὸ λέγειν τὰ ἐν τῷ πδ# καὶ ρκε#. Καὶ τὴν μὲν διαφορὰν τῆς καθολικῆς  ̓Εκκλησίας πρὸς τὰ σχίσματα ἐὰν θέλῃς γινώσκειν, καὶ ἐντρέπειν ἐκείνους, δύνασαι λέγειν τὰ ἐν τῷ πϛ# γεγραμμένα.

. To encourage yourself and others in the fear of God and to show how fearless is the soul that hopes in Him, say 91.

Παραθαρσῦναι θέλων σεαυτὸν καὶ τοὺς ἑτέρους εἰς θεοσέβειαν, καὶ ὡς εἰς τὸν Θεὸν ἐλπὶς οὔτε καταισχύνει, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἄφοβον τὴν ψυχὴν κατασκευάζει, αἴνει τὸν Θεὸν, λέγων τὰ ἐν τῷ ϛ#.

 

 

 

 

23. Do you want to give thanks on the Lordís Day? Then say the 24th; if on a Monday, then the 95th; and if on a Friday, your words of praise are in the 93rd, for it was when the Crucifixion was accomplished that the House of God was built, for all the enemy attempted to prevent it, so it is fitting we should sing on Friday a song of victory, such as that Psalm is. Psalm 96 is apt,

Ψάλαι θέλεις τῷ Σαββάτῳ; ἔχεις τὸν ϛα#. Εὐχαριστῆσαι θέλεις τῇ Κυριακῇ; ἔχεις τὸν κγ#.  ̓͂Ασαι θέλεις δευτέρᾳ Σαββάτων; λέγε τὰ ἐν τῷ μζ#. Αἰνέσαι βούλει τῇ Παρασκευῇ; ἔχεις τὸν αἶνον ἐν τῷ ϛβ#. Τότε γὰρ, γενομένου τοῦ σταυροῦ, ὁ οἶκος τοῦ Θεοῦ̓κοδομήθη, καίτοι τῶν ἐχθρῶν ἐπιχειρησάντων κωλῦσαι· καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ἐπινίκιον ᾄδειν τῷ Θεῷ πρέπει τότε τὰ εἰρημένα ἐν τῷ ϛβ#.  ̓Εὰν δὲ καὶ, αἰχμαλωσίας γενομένης, καθαιρεθῇ ὁ οἶκος, καὶ πάλιν οἰκοδομηθῇ, ᾆδε τὰ ἐν τῷ ϛε#.

if Godís House has been captured and destroyed and then re-built; and when the land has rest from war and peace returns, sing that The Lord is King in 97.

Τῆς δὲ γῆς κατάστασιν λαβούσης ἀπὸ τῶν πολεμούντων, καὶ λοιπὸν ἠρεμούσης, καὶ βασιλεύσαντος τοῦ Κυρίου, ἐὰν θέλῃς ᾆσαι περὶ τούτου, ἔχεις τὸν ϛϛ#.

You want to sing on Wednesday? The Psalm then is 94; for it was on the fourth day from the Sabbath [This Psalm is headed in the Septuagint, A Psalm of David for the fourth day from do Sabbath] that the Lord through His betrayal entered on His Passion, by which He should redeem us and by the which He triumphed gloriously. So when you read in the Gospel how on the Wednesday the jews took counsel against the Lord, seeing Him thus boldly challenging the devil on our behalf, sing the words of this Psalm 94.

Θέλεις τῇ τετράδι τοῦ Σαββάτου ψάλλειν; ἔχεις τὸν ϛγ#· τότε γὰρ παραδοθεὶς ὁ Κύριος ἐκδικεῖν ἤρξατο τὴν κατὰ τοῦ θανάτου δίκην, καὶ θριαμβεύειν αὐτὸν παῤῥησίᾳ.  ̔́Οτ' ἂν οὖν, ἀναγινώσκων τὸ Εὐαγγέλιον, ἴδῃς τῇ τετράδι τοῦ Σαββάτου συμβούλιον λαβόντας τοὺς  ̓Ιουδαίους κατὰ τοῦ Κυρίου, ὁρῶν αὐτὸν τότε παῤῥησιαζόμενον ἐν τῇ κατὰ τοῦ διαβόλου ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν ἐκδικίᾳ, ψάλλε τὰ ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ ϛγ#.

And again, when you see the providence and power of God in all things and want to instruct others in His faith and obedience, get them first to say the 100th Psalm. And when you have yourself experienced His power in judgement (for always His justice is tempered by His mercy) the next Psalm [101] will express your need.

Πάλιν βλέπων τὴν εἰς πάντα πρόνοιαν τοῦ Κυρίου καὶ τὴν κυριότητα αὐτοῦ, καὶ θέλων κατηχῆσαί τινας εἰς τὴν αὐτοῦ πίστιν καὶ ὑπακοὴν, πείθων αὐτοὺς πρῶτον ἐξομολογεῖσθαι, ψάλλε τὸν ϛθ#. Καὶ ἐὰν, μαθὼν αὐτοῦ τὴν κριτικὴν δύναμιν, καὶ ὅτι ἐλέῳ τὴν κρίσιν κεράσας κρίνει ὁ Κύριος, θελήσῃς αὐτῷ προσελθεῖν, ἔχεις εἰς τοῦτο λόγους τοὺς ἐν τῷ ρ#.

 

 

 

 

24. If through the weakness of your nature and the strain of life you find yourself at times downcast and poor, sing for your consolation Psalm 102, and use the two that follow it [103, 104] to lift your heart in thankful praise to God, as in and through all circumstances we should always do. Psalms 105, 107, 113, 117, 135, and 146 to 150 not only show the reasons why God should be praised, but tell you how to do it.

̓Ασθενοῦς δὲ ἡμῶν τῆς φύσεως οὔσης, ἐὰν διὰ τὰς συνοχὰς τοῦ βίου ὡς πτωχὸς γενόμενος ἀκηδιάσῃς ποτὲ, καὶ θέλῃς παρακληθῆναι, ἔχεις τὸν ρα# ψαλμόν. Καὶ ἐπειδὴ πρέπει διὰ πάντων καὶ ἐν πᾶσιν εὐχαριστεῖν ἡμᾶς τῷ Θεῷ, ὅτε θέλεις εὐλογεῖν αὐτὸν, ἔχεις εἰς τοῦτο προτρέπεσθαι σαυτοῦ τὴν ψυχὴν, καὶ λέγειν τὸν ρβ# καὶ ργ#. Αἰνεῖν θέλεις τὸν Θεὸν, καὶ εἰδέναι πῶς καὶ ἐπὶ τίνι δεῖ αἰνεῖν, καὶ τίνας πρέπει λέγειν τὸν αἶνον; ἔχεις τὸν ρδ#, καὶ τὸν ρϛ#, καὶ ρλδ#, καὶ ρμε#, καὶ τὸν ρμϛ#, καὶ τὸν ρμζ#, καὶ τὸν ρμη#, καὶ τὸν ρν#.

Have you faith, as the Lord bade, and believe in the prayers you utter? Then say the 116th Psalm, from the tenth verse on. You feel that, like the Apostle, you can now press forward, forgetting all the things that lie behind? (Phil 3:14) Then you have the fifteen Gradual Psalms [Psalms 119 - 133] for every step of your advance.

  ̓́Εχεις πίστιν, ὡς εἶπεν ὁ Κύριος, καὶ πιστεύεις οἷς εὐχόμενος λαλεῖς; λέγε τὸν ριε#.  ̓Αλλὰ ἀναβαίνοντα σαυτὸν αἴσθῃ ταῖς πράξεσιν, ὥστε λέγειν· Τὰ μὲν ὀπίσω ἐπιλανθάνομαι, τοῖς δὲ ἔμπροσθεν ἐπεκτείνομαι; ἔχεις καθ' ἑκάστην προκοπὴν εἰς τὸ λέγειν τὰς ιε# τῶν ἀναβαθμῶν ᾠδάς.

 

 

 

 

25. Another time, perhaps, you find you have been led astray by othersí arguments-well, then, the moment you perceive it, stop your sinning, sit down and weep, as they did of old by Babylonís waters, using the words of Psalm 137. Since it is precisely by being tempted that oneís worth is proved, Psalm 139 will meet your need when you thank God for testing safely past.

[27.37] ̓Ηχμαλωτεύθης ὑπὸ ἀλλοτρίων λογισμῶν, καὶ ᾔσθου σεαυτὸν ἀπαγόμενον, καὶ μετέγνως, παῦσαι τοῦ λοιποῦ, καὶ μείνας ἐφ' οἷς ἁμαρτάνοντα σεαυτὸν κατέλαβες, κάθου, καὶ κλαῦσον καὶ σὺ, ὡς πεποίηκεν ὁ τότε λαὸς, λέγων τὰ ἐν τῷ ρλϛ#. Τοὺς δὲ πειρασμοὺς ἡγούμενος εἶναί σου δοκιμὴν, μετὰ τοὺς πειρασμοὺς ἐὰν εὐχαριστῆσαι θελήσῃς, ἔχεις τὸν ρλη# ψαλμόν.

And if the enemy once more gets hold of you and you desire to be free, then say 140. For prayer and supplication, sing Psalms 5, 141 to 143, and 146. Has some Goliath risen up against the people and yourself? Fear not, but trust in God, as David did, and sing his words in Psalm 144. Then, marvelling at Godís kindnesses to everyone and mindful of His goodness to yourself and all, praise Him, again in Davidís words, with Psalm 105.

Συνέχῃ πάλιν ἀπὸ ἐχθρῶν, καὶ ῥυσθῆναι θέλεις; λέγε τὰ ἐν τῷ ρλθ#. Δεηθῆναι δὲ καὶ προσεύξασθαι θέλεις; ψάλλε τὸν ε# καὶ ρμβ#.  ̓Εχθρὸς τύραννος ἐπανέστη τῷ λαῷ καί σοι, ὥσπερ Γολιὰθ τῷ Δαβὶδ, μὴ πτήξῃς· ἀλλὰ πίστευε καὶ σὺ, ὡς ὁ Δαβὶδ, καὶ λέγε τὰ ἐν τῷ ρμγ#. Εἶτα θαυμάζων τὰς εἰς πάντας τοῦ Θεοῦ εὐεργεσίας, καὶ μνημονεύων τῆς τε εἰς σὲ καὶ εἰς πάντας γενομένης ἀγαθότητος αὐτοῦ, ἐὰν θέλῃς διὰ ταῦτα εὐλογεῖν τὸν Θεὸν, λέγε τὰ τοῦ Δαβὶδ ῥήματα, ἅπερ καὶ αὐτὸς εἶπεν ἐν τῷ ρμδ# ψαλμῷ.

You want to sing to Him? Use 96 and 98. If, weak as you are, you yet are chosen for some position of authority among the brethren, you must not be puffed up as though. you were superior to them, but rather glorify the Lord Who chose you and sing Psalm 151, which is especially the Psalm of David. And for Psalms in praise of God, having some of them the title Alleluya, you have all these, 105 to 107, 111 to 118, 135, 136, 146, 147, 148, 149, and 150.

  ̓͂Ασαι θέλεις τῷ Κυρίῳ; ἔχεις εἰς τὸ λέγειν τὸν ϛβ# καὶ ϛζ#.  ̓Εὰν μικρὸς ὢν προκριθῇς εἰς ἀρχήν τινα τῶν ἀδελφῶν σου, μὴ ἐπαίρου κατ' αὐτῶν· ἀλλὰ τῷ ἐκλεξαμένῳ Κυρίῳ διδοὺς δόξαν, ψάλλε καὶ σὺ τὸν ρνα# ἴδιον ὄντα τοῦ Δαβίδ.  ̓Αλλὰ θέλεις ψάλλειν ἐπακοὴν ἔχοντας τὸ  ̓Αλληλούϊα, ἔχεις τὸν ρδ#, ρε#, ρϛ#, ρια#, ριβ#, ριγ#, ριδ#, ριε#, ριϛ#, ριζ# ριη#, ρλδ#, ρλε#, ρμε#, ρμϛ#, ρμζ#, ρμη#, ρμθ#, ρν#.

 

 

 

 

26. If, again, you want to sing Psalms that speak especially about the Saviour, you will find something in almost all of them; but 45 and 110 to relate particularly to His Divine Begetting from the Father and His coming in the flesh, while 22 and 69 foretell the holy cross, the grievous plots He bore and how great things He suffered for our sakes. The 3rd and 109th also display the snares and malice of the Jews and how Iscariot betrayed Him; 21, 50, and 72 all set Him forth as judge and foretell His Second Coming in the flesh to us; they also show the Gentilesí call.

̔́Οτε δὲ θέλῃς κατ' ἰδίαν τὰ περὶ τοῦ Σωτῆρος ψάλλειν, ἐν ἑκάστῳ μὲν σχεδὸν εὑρίσκεις ψαλμῷ τὰ τοιαῦτα· ἔχεις δὲ μάλιστα τὸν μὲν μδ# καὶ τὸν ρθ# δηλοῦντας τὴν ἐκ τοῦ Πατρὸς αὐτοῦ γνησίαν γέννησιν καὶ τὴν ἔνσαρκον αὐτοῦ παρουσίαν· τὸν δὲ κα# καὶ ξη# προλέγοντας περὶ τοῦ θείου σταυροῦ, καὶ ὅσην δι' ἡμᾶς ἐπιβουλὴν ἀνεδέξατο, καὶ πόσα πέπονθε· καὶ τὸν μὲν β# καὶ ρη# σημαίνοντας τήν τε τῶν  ̓Ιουδαίων ἐπιβουλὴν καὶ πονηρίαν, καὶ τὴν  ̓Ιούδα τοῦ  ̓Ισκαριώτου προδοσίαν· τόν τε κ#, καὶ μθ#, καὶ οα# ̔καὶ̓ δηλοῦντας τήν τε βασιλείαν αὐτοῦ καὶ κριτικὴν δύναμιν, καὶ τὴν εἰς ἡμᾶς αὐτοῦ πάλιν ἔνσαρκον παρουσίαν, καὶ τὴν κλῆσιν τῶν ἐθνῶν.

The 16th shows His resurrection from the dead, in flesh, the 24th and 47th His ascension into heaven. And in the four Psalms 93, 96, 98, and 99, all the benefits deriving to us from the Saviourís Passion are set forth together.

Καὶ ὁ μὲν ιε# δείκνυσιν αὐτοῦ τὴν ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀνάστασιν· ὁ δὲ κγ# καὶ μϛ# ἀπαγγέλλουσι τὴν εἰς οὐρανοὺς ἄνοδον αὐτοῦ· τὸν δὲ ϛβ#, καὶ ϛε#, καὶ ϛζ#, καὶ ϛη# ἀναγινώσκων, θεωρῆσαι δυνήσῃ τὰς εἰς ἡμᾶς τοῦ Σωτῆρος διὰ τῶν παθημάτων αὐτοῦ γενομένας εὐεργεσίας.

7_why_sing_the_psalms

 

 

 

27. SUCH, then, is the character of the Book of Psalms, and such the uses to which it may be put, some of its number serving for the correction of individual souls, and many of them, as I said just now, foretelling the coming in human form of our Saviour Jesus Christ. But we must not omit to explain the reason why words of this kind should be not merely said, but rendered with melody and song; for there are actually some simple folk among us who, though they believe the words to be inspired, yet think the reason for singing them is just to make them more pleasing to the ear! This is by no means so;

Τοιοῦτος μὲν οὖν ἐστι καὶ ὁ χαρακτὴρ εἰς ὠφέλειαν τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ἐκ τῆς βίβλου τῶν Ψαλμῶν, ἐχούσης αὐτῆς ἰδίους ψαλμοὺς, καὶ ἐν τοῖς λοιποῖς δὲ περὶ τῆς ἐν σώματι παρουσίας τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν καὶ Σωτῆρος  ̓Ιησοῦ Χριστοῦ πυκνοτέρας τὰς προφητείας, καθὰ προεῖπον. Διὰ τί δὲ μετὰ μέλους καὶ ᾠδῆς ψάλλονται οἱ τοιοῦτοι λόγοι, ἀναγκαῖον μηδὲ τοῦτο παρελθεῖν. Τινὲς μὲν γὰρ τῶν παρ' ἡμῖν ἀκεραίων, καίτοι πιστευόντων εἶναι θεόπνευστα τὰ ῥήματα, ὅμως νομίζουσι διὰ τὸ εὔφωνον καὶ τέρψεως ἕνεκεν τῆς ἀκοῆς μελῳδεῖσθαι τοὺς ψαλμούς. Οὐκ ἔστι δὲ οὕτως·

Holy Scripture is not designed to tickle the aesthetic palate, and it is rather for the soulís own profit that the Psalms are sung. This is so chiefly for two reasons.

οὐ γὰρ τὸ ἡδὺ καὶ πιθανὸν ἐζήτησεν ἡ Γραφή· ἀλλὰ καὶ τοῦτο ὠφελείας ἕνεκεν τῆς ψυχῆς τετύπωται διὰ πάντα μὲν, μάλιστα δὲ διὰ δύο ταῦτα·

In the first place, it is fitting that the sacred writings should praise God in poetry as well as prose,

πρῶτον μὲν, ὅτι ἔπρεπε τὴν θείαν Γραφὴν μὴ μόνον τῇ συνεχείᾳ, ἀλλὰ καὶ τῇ κατὰ πλάτος φωνῇ τὸν Θεὸν ὑμνεῖν.

because the freer, less restricted form of verse, in which the Psalms, together with the Canticles and Odes, [The reference is probably to the hymns in Exodus 15: 1-18, Deuteronomy 32: 1-43, and Habakkuk 3, which are called Odes in the Septuagint. Some other Old Testament hymns, e.g. the Song of Hannah and the Benedicite, may be included.] are cast, ensures that by them men should express their love to God with all the strength and power they possess.

[27.40] Κατὰ συνέχειαν μὲν οὖν εἴρηται, οἷά ἐστι τὰ τοῦ νόμου καὶ τῶν προφητῶν, καὶ τὰ ἱστορούμενα πάντα, μετὰ τῆς Καινῆς Διαθήκης· κατὰ πλάτος δὲ λέγεται, οἷά ἐστι τὰ τῶν ψαλμῶν καὶ ᾠδῶν καὶ ᾀσμάτων ῥήματα· καὶ οὕτως γὰρ σωθήσεται τὸ ἐξ ὅλης ἰσχύος καὶ δυνάμεως ἀγαπᾷν τὸν Θεὸν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους.

And, secondly, the reason lies in the unifying effect which chanting the Psalms has upon the singer. For to sing the Psalms demands such concentration of a manís whole being on them that, in doing it, his usual disharmony of mind and corresponding bodily confusion is resolved, just as the notes of several flutes are brought by harmony to one effect;

Δεύτερον δὲ, ὅτι, ὥσπερ ἁρμονία τοὺς αὐλοὺς συντιθεῖσα μίαν τὴν συμφωνίαν ἀποτελεῖ, οὕτως, ἐπειδὴ καὶ ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ διάφορα κινήματα φαίνεται, καὶ ἔστιν ἐν αὐτῇ τὸ λογίζεσθαι, καὶ τὸ ἐπιθυμεῖν, καὶ τὸ θυμοειδὲς, ἐκ δὲ τῆς τούτων κινήσεως καὶ ἡ τῶν μελῶν γίνεται τοῦ σώματος ἐνέργεια, βούλεται ὁ λόγος μὴ ἀσύμφωνον εἶναι τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἑαυτῷ, μηδὲ διίστασθαι πρὸς ἑαυτόν·

and he is thus no longer to be found thinking good and doing evil, as Pilate did when, though saying I find no crime in Him, (Jn 18:38) he yet allowed the Jews to have their way; nor desiring evil though unable to achieve it, as did the elders in their sin against Susanna - or again he does not commit adultery, but he steals; or he forgoes stealing in favor of committing murder, or he does no murder, but commits blasphemy.

ὥστε λογίζεσθαι μὲν τὰ βέλτιστα, πράττειν δὲ τῷ θυμῷ τὰ φαῦλα, ὡς ὁ Πιλᾶτος λέγων μέν· Οὐδεμίαν αἰτίαν εὑρίσκω εἰς αὐτόν· συντρέχων δὲ τῇ γνώμῃ τῶν  ̓Ιουδαίων· ἢ ἐπιθυμεῖν μὲν τὰ φαῦλα, μὴ δύνασθαι δὲ πράττειν, ὡς οἱ κατὰ Σουσάννης πρεσβύτεροι· ἢ πάλιν μὴ μοιχεύειν μὲν, κλέπτειν δέ· ἢ μὴ κλέπτειν μὲν, φονεύειν δέ· ἢ μὴ φονεύειν μὲν, βλασφημεῖν δέ.

28_psalmody_restores_harmony

 

 

 

28. IN order this kind of disturbance may not occur in us, the logos (word/reason/meaning) wills that the soul possessing the mind (nous) of Christ, as the Apostle says, (cf. 1Cor. 2:15) use this as a guide, and through it to both master the passions and govern the bodyís members, so as to give heed to the logos. Ιν' οὖν μὴ τοιαύτη τις ἐν ἡμῖν ταραχὴ γίνηται, θέλει τὴν ψυχὴν ὁ λόγος ἔχουσαν Χριστοῦ νοῦν, ὡς εἶπεν ὁ  ̓Απόστολος, τούτῳ καθηγεμόνι χρήσασθαι, καὶ ἐν τούτῳ τῶν μὲν ἐν αὐτῇ παθητικῶν κρατεῖν, τῶν δὲ τοῦ σώματος μελῶν ἄρχειν, εἰς τὸ ὑπακούειν τῷ λόγῳ·

This is so that just as in [musical] harmony there is a plectrum, so the man becoming himself an instrument of psalmody (psalterion/harp) and wholly devoting himself to the Spirit may be obedient in all his members and movements (kinemata/emotions)