The Didache
The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles)

Διδαχὴ κυρίου τοῖς ἔθνεσιν

 Διδαχαὶ τῶν ἀποστολῶν  ed. J.P. Audet La Didachè. Instructions des Apôtres (Lecoffre, Paris 1958) pp. 226-242. TLG 1311

CONTENTS   [Oxf.Dict.C.C. entry]


 XXX  »cont. . . .

Dating of Didache hotly contested; prob. late 2nd or 3rd cent. redaction of VERY EARLY (1st Cent.) DOCUMENT 

1 (?bapt) Paranesis  »cont. . . .

Chapters 1-6 perhaps baptismal catechesis explaining Christian Life to Neophytes 


[The Two Ways; The First Commandment]


1THERE are two ways,2 one of life and one of death;3 but a great difference between the two ways. 2. The way of life, then, is this: First, you shall love God4 who made you; second, your neighbor as yourself;5 and whatever you do not want to happen to you, do not do to another.6 1.1Ὁδοὶ δύο εἰσί, μία τῆς ζωῆς καὶ μία τοῦ θανάτου, διαφορὰ δὲ πολλὴ μεταξὺ τῶν ὁδῶν. 1.2Ἡ μὲν οὖν ὁδὸς τῆς ζωῆς ἐστιν αὕτη· πρῶτον ἀγαπήσεις τὸν θεὸν τὸν ποιήσαντά σε, δεύτερον τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν· πάντα δὲ ὅσα ἐὰν θελήσῃς μὴ γίνεσθαί σοι, καὶ σὺ ἄλλῳ μὴ ποίει.

  3. And of these sayings7 the teaching is this: Bless those who curse you, and pray for your enemies, and fast for those who persecute you.8 For what grace [thanks] is there, if you love those who love you? Do not also the Gentiles do the same?9 But you are to love those who hate you; and you shall not have an enemy.10

1.3 Τούτων δὲ τῶν λόγων ἡ διδαχή ἐστιν αὕτη· [Εὐλογεῖτε τοὺς καταρωμένους ὑμῖν καὶ προσεύχεσθε ὑπὲρ τῶν ἐχθρῶν ὑμῶν, νηστεύετε δὲ ὑπὲρ τῶν διωκόντων ὑμᾶς· ποία γὰρ χάρις, ἐὰν φιλῆτε τοὺς φιλοῦντας ὑμᾶς; Οὐχὶ καὶ τὰ ἔθνη τοῦτο ποιοῦσιν;Ὑμεῖς δὲ φιλεῖτε τοὺς μισοῦντας ὑμᾶς καὶ οὐχ ἕξετε ἐχθρόν. 1.4

  4. Abstain from fleshly desires.11 If someone strikes you on your right cheek, turn to him the other as well,12 and you will be perfect. If someone impresses you for one mile, go with him two.13 If someone takes away your cloak, give him also your coat.14 If someone takes from you what is yours, do not ask for it back15 for indeed you are not able.

̓Απέχου τῶν σαρκικῶν ἐπιθυμιῶν.Ἐάν τις σοι δῷ ῥάπισμα εἰς τὴν δεξιὰν σιαγόνα, στρέψον αὐτῷ καὶ τὴν ἄλλην, καὶ ἔσῃ τέλειος· ἐὰν ἀγγαρεύσῃ σέ τις μίλιον ἕν, ὕπαγε μετ' αὐτοῦ δύο· ἐὰν ἄρῃ τις τὸ ἱμάτιόν σου, δὸς αὐτῷ καὶ τὸν χιτῶνα· ἐὰν λάβῃ τις ἀπὸ σοῦ τὸ σόν, μὴ ἀπαίτει· οὐδὲ γὰρ δύνασαι.
5. Give to every one who asks you, and do not ask for it back;16 for the Father wills that to all should be given from our own  [free] gifts.17 1.5 Παντὶ τῷ αἰτοῦντί σε δίδου καὶ μὴ ἀπαίτει· πᾶσα γὰρ θέλει δίδοσθαι ὁ πατὴρ ἐκ τῶν ἰδίων χαρισμάτων.

Happy is he who gives according to the commandment; for he is guiltless. Woe to him who receives; for if one having need receives, he is guiltless; but he who receives without having need, shall pay the penalty: why he received; and for what; and, coming into confinement18 he shall be examined concerning the things he has done; and he shall not escape from there until he pays back the last penny.19

Μακάριος ὁ διδοὺς κατὰ τὴν ἐντολήν· ἀθῷος γάρ ἐστιν. Οὐαὶ τῷ λαμβάνοντι· εἰ μὲν γὰρ χρείαν ἔχων λαμβάνει τις, ἀθῷος ἔσται· ὁ δὲ μὴ χρείαν ἔχων δώσει δίκην, ἵνα τί ἔλαβε καὶ εἰς τί· ἐν συνοχῇ δὲ γενόμενος ἐξετασθήσεται περὶ ὧν ἔπραξε καὶ οὐκ ἐξελεύσεται ἐκεῖθεν, μέχρις οὗ ἀποδῷ τὸν ἔσχατον κοδράντην.
6. And also concerning this, it has been said, Let your alms sweat in your hands, until you know to whom you should give. 1.6 Ἀλλὰ καὶ περὶ τούτου δὲ εἴρηται·Ἱδρωσάτω ἡ ἐλεημοσύνη σου εἰς τὰς χεῖράς σου, μέχρις ἂν γνῷς, τίνι δῷς.

The Second Commandment: Gross Sin Forbidden.

1 AND the second commandment of the Teaching: 2. You shall not commit murder, you shall not commit adultery,22 you shall not commit pederasty [lit. corrupt a youth],23 you shall not commit fornication, you shall not steal,24 2.1 Δευτέρα δὲ ἐντολὴ τῆς διδαχῆς·] 2.2 οὐ φονεύσεις, οὐ μοιχεύσεις, οὐ παιδοφθορήσεις, οὐ πορνεύσεις, οὐ κλέψεις,

you shall not practise magic,
   you shall not practise witchcraft,

you shall not murder a child by abortion
   nor kill that which is begotten.

οὐ μαγεύσεις,
̈̈ οὐ φαρμακεύσεις,

οὐ φονεύσεις τέκνον ἐν φθορᾷ
̈̈̈ οὐδὲ γεννηθὲν ἀποκτενεῖς,

You shall not covet the things of your neighbour,26 3. you shall not forswear yourself,27 you shall not bear false witness,28 you shall not speak, evil, you shall bear no grudge.29 οὐκ ἐπιθυμήσεις τὰ τοῦ πλησίον. 2.3 Οὐκ ἐπιορκήσεις, οὐ ψευδομαρτυρήσεις, οὐ κακολογήσεις, οὐ μνησικακήσεις.

4. You shall not be double-minded nor double-tongued; for to be double-tongued is a snare of death.30 5. Your speech shall not be false, nor empty, but fulfilled by deed.31 6. You shall not be covetous, nor rapacious, nor a hypocrite, nor evil disposed, nor haughty. You shall not take evil counsel against your neighbour.32 7. You shall not hate any man; but some you shall reprove,33 and concerning some you shall pray, and some you shall love more than your own life.34

2.4 Οὐκ ἔσῃ διγνώμων οὐδὲ δίγλωσσος· παγὶς γὰρ θανάτου ἡ διγλωσσία. 2.5 Οὐκ ἔσται ὁ λόγος σου ψευδής, οὐ κενός, ἀλλὰ μεμεστωμένος πράξει. 2.6 Οὐκ ἔσῃ πλεονέκτης οὐδὲ ἅρπαξ οὐδὲ ὑποκριτὴς οὐδὲ κακοήθης οὐδὲ ὑπερήφανος. Οὐ λήψῃ βουλὴν πονηρὰν κατὰ τοῦ πλησίον σου, 2.7 οὐ μισήσεις πάντα ἄνθρωπον, ἀλλὰ οὓς μὲν ἐλέγξεις, περὶ δὲ ὧν προσεύξῃ, οὓς δὲ ἀγαπήσεις ὑπὲρ τὴν ψυχήν σου.

Other Sins Forbidden.


1. MY CHILD,36 flee from every evil thing, and from every likeness of it. 2. Be not prone to anger, for anger leads the way to murder; neither jealous, nor quarrelsome, nor of hot temper; for out of all these murders are engendered. 3. My child, do not be lustful; for lust leads the way to fornication; neither a filthy talker, nor of lofty eye; for out of all these adulteries are engendered. 4.

3.1 Τέκνον μου, φεῦγε ἀπὸ παντὸς πονηροῦ καὶ ἀπὸ παντὸς ὁμοίου αὐτοῦ. 3.2 Μὴ γίνου ὀργίλος· ὁδηγεῖ γὰρ ἡ ὀργὴ πρὸς τὸν φόνον· μηδὲ ζηλωτὴς μηδὲ ἐριστικὸς μηδὲ θυμικός· ἐκ γὰρ τούτων ἁπάντων φόνοι γεννῶνται. 3.3 Τέκνον μου, μὴ γίνου ἐπιθυμητής· ὁδηγεῖ γὰρ ἡ ἐπιθυμία πρὸς τὴν πορνείαν· μηδὲ αἰσχρολόγος μηδὲ ὑψηλόφθαλμος· ἐκ γὰρ τούτων ἁπάντων μοιχεῖαι γεννῶνται.
My child, be not an observer of omens, since it leads the way to idolatry; neither an enchanter, nor an astrologer, nor a purifier, nor be willing to took at these things; for out of all these idolatry is engendered. 5. My child, be not a liar, since a lie leads the way to theft; neither money-loving, nor vainglorious, for out of all these thefts are engendered. 3.4 Τέκνον μου, μὴ γίνου οἰωνοσκόπος, ἐπειδὴ ὁδηγεῖ εἰς τὴν εἰδωλολατρίαν· μηδὲ ἐπαοιδὸς μηδὲ μαθηματικὸς μηδὲ περικαθαίρων, μηδὲ θέλε αὐτὰ βλέπειν μηδὲ ἀκούειν· ἐκ γὰρ τούτων ἁπάντων εἰδωλολατρία γεννᾶται. 3.5 Τέκνον μου, μὴ γίνου ψεύστης, ἐπειδὴ ὁδηγεῖ τὸ ψεῦσμα εἰς τὴν κλοπήν· μηδὲ φιλάργυρος μηδὲ κενόδοξος· ἐκ γὰρ τούτων ἁπάντων κλοπαὶ γεννῶνται.

6. My child, be not a murmurer, since it leads the way to blasphemy; neither self-willed nor evil-minded, for out of all these blasphemies are engendered. 7. But be you meek, since the meek shall inherit the earth.37 8. Be long-suffering and pitiful and guileless and gentle and good and always trembling at the words which you have heard.38 9.

3.6 Τέκνον μου, μὴ γίνου γόγγυσος, ἐπειδὴ ὁδηγεῖ εἰς τὴν βλασφημίαν· μηδὲ αὐθάδης μηδὲ πονηρόφρων· ἐκ γὰρ τούτων ἁπάντων βλασφημίαι γεννῶνται. 3.7Ἴσθι δὲ πραΰς, ἐπεὶ οἱ πραεῖς κληρονομήσουσι τὴν γῆν. 3.8 Γίνου μακρόθυμος καὶ ἐλεήμων καὶ ἄκακος καὶ ἡσύχιος καὶ ἀγαθὸς καὶ τρέ- μων τοὺς λόγους διὰ παντός, οὓς ἤκουσας.
Do not exalt yourself,39 nor give over-confidence to your soul. Do not join your soul with those who are exalted, but conduct yourself with the just and lowly. 10. Accept the things that happen to you as good, knowing that nothing happens apart from God .40 3.9 Οὐχ ὑψώσεις σεαυτὸν οὐδὲ δώσεις τῇ ψυχῇ σου θράσος. Οὐ κολληθήσεται ἡ ψυχή σου μετὰ ὑψηλῶν, ἀλλὰ μετὰ δικαίων καὶ ταπεινῶν ἀναστραφήσῃ. 3.10 Τὰ συμβαίνοντά σοι ἐνεργήματα ὡς ἀγαθὰ προσδέξῃ, εἰδὼς ὅτι ἄτερ θεοῦ οὐδὲν γίνεται.

Various Precepts.


MY CHILD, the one who speaks to you the word of God  - remember him night and day; and you shall honor him as the Lord;42 for in the place whence lordly rule is uttered,43 there is the Lord. 2. And you shall seek out day by day the faces of the saints, in order that you may rest upon44 their words.

4.1 Τέκνον μου, τοῦ λαλοῦντός σοι τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ μνησθήσῃ νυκτὸς καὶ ἡμέρας, τιμήσεις δὲ αὐτὸν ὡς κύριον· ὅθεν γὰρ ἡ κυριότης λαλεῖται, ἐκεῖ κύριός ἐστιν. 4.2Ἐκζητήσεις δὲ καθ' ἡμέραν τὰ πρόσωπα τῶν ἁγίων, ἵνα ἐπαναπαῇς τοῖς λόγοις αὐτῶν.
3. You shall not create schism: [instead,] bring to peace those who fight . You shall judge righteously, you shall not respect persons in reproving for transgressions. 4. You shall not be undecided whether it shall be or no.46 5. Be not a stretcher forth of the hands to receive and a drawer of them back to give.47 6. If you have any, through your hands you shall give ransom for your sins.48 4.3 Οὐ ποιήσεις σχίσμα, εἰρηνεύσεις δὲ μαχομένους· κρινεῖς δικαίως, οὐ λήψῃ πρόσωπον ἐλέγξαι ἐπὶ παραπτώμασιν. 4.4 Οὐ διψυχήσεις, πότερον ἔσται ἢ οὔ. 4.5 Μὴ γίνου πρὸς μὲν τὸ λαβεῖν ἐκτείνων τὰς χεῖρας, πρὸς δὲ τὸ δοῦναι συσπῶν. 4.6Ἐὰν ἔχῃς διὰ τῶν χειρῶν σου, δὸς εἰς λύτρωσιν ἁμαρτιῶν σου.

     7. You shall not hesitate to give, nor murmur when you give; for you shall know who is the good repayer of the hire. 8. You shall not turn away from him that is in want, but you shall share all things with your brother, and shall not say that they are your own; for if you are partakers in that which is immortal, how much more in things which are mortal?49 9. You shall not remove your hand from your son or from your daughter, but from their youth shall teach them the fear of God.50

4.7 Οὐ διστάσεις δοῦναι οὐδὲ διδοὺς γογγύσεις· γνώσῃ γὰρ τίς ἐστιν ὁ τοῦ μισθοῦ καλὸς ἀνταποδότης. 4.8 Οὐκ ἀποστραφήσῃ τὸν ἐνδεόμενον, συγκοινωνήσεις δὲ πάντα τῷ ἀδελφῷ σου καὶ οὐκ ἐρεῖς ἴδια εἶναι· εἰ γὰρ ἐν τῷ ἀθανάτῳ κοινωνοί ἐστε, πόσῳ μᾶλλον ἐν τοῖς θνητοῖς. 4.9 Οὐκ ἀρεῖς τὴν χεῖρά σου ἀπὸ τοῦ υἱοῦ σου ἢ ἀπὸ τῆς θυγατρός σου, ἀλλὰ ἀπὸ νεότητος διδάξεις αὐτοὺς τὸν φόβον τοῦ θεοῦ.

    10 You shall not command anything in your bitterness upon your bondman or maidservant who hope in the same God, lest they ever cease to fear God who is over both;51 for he comes not to call according to outward appearance, but to those the Spirit has prepared. 11. And you, bondmen, shall be subject to your52 masters as to a type of God, in modesty and fear.53

4.10 Οὐκ ἐπιτάξεις δούλῳ σου ἢ παιδίσκῃ, τοῖς ἐπὶ τὸν αὐτὸν θεὸν ἐλπίζουσιν, ἐν πικρίᾳ σου, μήποτε οὐ μὴ φοβηθήσονται τὸν ἐπ' ἀμφοτέροις θεόν· οὐ γὰρ ἔρχεται κατὰ πρόσωπον καλέσαι, ἀλλ' ἐφ' οὓς τὸ πνεῦμα ἡτοίμασεν. 4.11Ὑμεῖς δὲ οἱ δοῦλοι ὑποταγήσεσθε τοῖς κυρίοις ὑμῶν ὡς τύπῳ θεοῦ ἐν αἰσχύνῃ καὶ φόβῳ.
12. You shall hate all hypocrisy and everything which is not pleasing to the Lord. 13. Do you in no wise forsake the commandments of the Lord; but you shall keep what you have received, neither adding thereto nor taking away therefrom.54 14. In the church55 you shall acknowledge your transgressions, and you shall not come near for your prayer56 with an evil conscience.57 This is the way of life.58 4.12 Μισήσεις πᾶσαν ὑπόκρισιν καὶ πᾶν ὃ μὴ ἀρεστὸν τῷ κυρίῳ. 4.13 Οὐ μὴ ἐγκαταλίπῃς ἐντολὰς κυρίου, φυλάξεις δὲ ἃ παρέλαβες, μήτε προστιθεὶς μήτε ἀφαιρῶν. 4.14Ἐν ἐκκλησίᾳ ἐξομολογήσῃ τὰ παραπτώματά σου, καὶ οὐ προσελεύσῃ ἐπὶ προσευχήν σου ἐν συνειδήσει πονηρᾷ. – Αὕτη ἐστὶν ἡ ὁδὸς τῆς ζωῆς.

The Way of Death.


1. AND the way of death60 is this: First of all it is evil and full of curse:61 murders,62 adulteries, lusts, fornications, thefts, idolatries, magic arts, witchcrafts, rapines, false witnessings, hypocrisies, double-heartedness, deceit, haughtiness, depravity, self-will, greediness, filthy talking, jealousy, over-confidence, loftiness, boastfulness;

5.1Ἡ δὲ τοῦ θανάτου ὁδός ἐστιν αὕτη· πρῶτον πάντων πονηρά ἐστι καὶ κατάρας μεστή· φόνοι, μοιχεῖαι, ἐπιθυμίαι, πορνεῖαι, κλοπαί, εἰδωλο- λατρίαι, μαγεῖαι, φαρμακίαι, ἁρπαγαί, ψευδομαρτυρίαι, ὑποκρίσεις, διπλοκαρδία, δόλος, ὑπερηφανία, κακία, αὐθάδεια, πλεονεξία, αἰσχρολογία, ζηλοτυπία, θρασύτης, ὕψος, ἀλαζονεία, ἀφοβία <θεοῦ>·

2. persecutors of the good,63 hating truth, loving a lie, not knowing a reward for righteousness, not cleaving64 to good nor to righteous judgment, watching not for that which is good, but for that which is evil; from whom meekness and endurance are far, loving vanities, pursuing requital, not pitying a poor man, not labouring for the afflicted, not knowing Him that made them, murderers of children, destroyers of the handiwork of God, turning away from him that is in want afflicting him that is distressed, advocates of the rich, lawless judges of the poor, utter sinners.65 Be delivered, children, from all these.66

5.2 διῶκται ἀγαθῶν, μισοῦντες ἀλήθειαν, ἀγαπῶντες ψεῦδος, οὐ γινώσκοντες μισθὸν δικαιοσύνης, οὐ κολλώμενοι ἀγαθῷ οὐδὲ κρίσει δικαίᾳ, ἀγρυπνοῦντες οὐκ εἰς τὸ ἀγαθόν, ἀλλ' εἰς τὸ πονηρόν· ὧν μακρὰν πραΰτης καὶ ὑπομονή, μάταια ἀγαπῶντες, διώκοντες ἀνταπόδομα, οὐκ ἐλεοῦντες πτωχόν, οὑ πονοῦντες ἐπὶ καταπονουμένῳ, οὑ γινώσκοντες τὸν ποιήσαντα αὐτούς, φονεῖς τέκνων, φθορεῖς πλάσματος θεοῦ, ἀποστρεφόμενοι τὸν ἐνδεόμενον, καταπονοῦντες τὸν θλιβόμενον, πλουσίων παράκλητοι, πενήτων ἄνομοι κριταί, πανθαμαρτητοί. –Ῥυσθείητι, τέκνον, ἀπὸ τούτων ἁπάντων.

False Teachers, and Food Offered to Idols.


1SEE that no one cause you to err68 from this way of the Teaching, since apart from God it teaches you. 2. For if you are able to bear all the yoke69 of the Lord, you wilt be perfect; but if you are not able, what you are able that do. 3. And concerning food,70 bear what you are able; but against that which is sacrificed to idols71 be exceedingly on your guard; for it is the service of dead gods.72

6.1Ὅρα μή τις σε πλανήσῃ ἀπὸ ταύτης τῆς ὁδοῦ τῆς διδαχῆς, ἐπεὶ παρεκτὸς θεοῦ σε διδάσκει. 6.2 [Εἰ μὲν γὰρ δύνασαι βαστάσαι ὅλον τὸν ζυγὸν τοῦ κυρίου, τέλειος ἔσῃ· εἰ δ' οὐ δύνασαι, ὃ δύνῃ, τοῦτο ποίει. 6.3 Περὶ δὲ τῆς βρώσεως, ὃ δύνασαι, βάστασον· ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ εἰδωλοθύτου λίαν πρόσεχε· λατρεία γάρ ἐστι θεῶν νεκρῶν.]

 2 Baptism    »cont. . . .


Baptismal Liturgy


CHAPTER 7 Chapter VII.—Concerning Baptism.


1AND concerning baptism,73 baptize thus :74 Having first said all these things, baptize in[to] the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit,75 in living [i.e flowing] water.76 2. But if you do have living water, baptize in[to] other water; and if you cannot [baptize] in cold, [then] in warm. 3. But if you do not have either, pour water out three times 77 upon the head in[to] the name of Father and Son and Holy Spirit. 4. But before the baptism let the baptizer fast, and the baptized, and whatever others can; but you shall order the baptized to fast one or two days before.78  

7.1 Περὶ δὲ τοῦ βαπτίσματος, οὕτω βαπτίσατε, εἰς τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ πατρὸς καὶ τοῦ υἱοῦ καὶ τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος ἐν ὕδατι ζῶντι. 7.2 [Ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ἔχῃς ὕδωρ ζῶν, εἰς ἄλλο ὕδωρ βάπτισον· εἰ δ' οὐ δύνασαι ἐν ψυχρῷ, ἐν θερμῷ. 7.3Ἐὰν δὲ ἀμφότερα μὴ ἔχῃς, ἔκχεον εἰς τὴν κεφαλὴν τρὶς ὕδωρ εἰς ὄνομα πατρὸς καὶ υἱοῦ καῖ ἁγίου πνεύματος. 7.4 Πρὸ δὲ τοῦ βαπτίσματος προνηστευσάτω ὁ βαπτίζων καὶ ὁ βαπτιζόμενος καὶ εἴ τινες ἄλλοι δύνανται· κελεύεις δὲ νηστεῦσαι τὸν βαπτιζόμενον πρὸ μιᾶς ἢ δύο.]

 3Fasting and Prayer  »cont. . . .


Fasting and the Lord's Prayer




1BUT do not let your fasts be with the hypocrites;80 for they fast on the second and fifth day of the week; but do you fast on the fourth day [Wednesday] and the Preparation [Friday] .81 8.1 Αἱ δὲ νηστεῖαι ὑμῶν μὴ ἔστωσαν μετὰ τῶν ὑποκριτῶν· νηστεύουσι γὰρ δευτέρᾳ σαββάτων καὶ πέμπῃ· ὑμεῖς δὲ νηστεύσατε τετράδα καὶ παρασκευήν.
2. Neither pray as the hypocrites; but as the Lord commanded in His Gospel,82 pray thus : 8.2 Μηδὲ προσεύχεσθε ὡς οἱ ὑποκριταί, ἀλλ' ὡς ἐκέλευσεν ὁ κύριος ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ αὐτοῦ, οὕτως προσεύχεσθε·

OUR Father who art in heaven, hallowed be Your name. Your kingdom come. Your will be done, as in heaven, so on earth. Give us today our daily bread,83 and forgive us our debt as we also forgive our debtors. And bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil [one]; for Yours is the power and the glory for ever.84

Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ, ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου, ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου, γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς· τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον, καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὴν ὀφειλὴν ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφίεμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν, καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ· ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. 8.3
3. Three times in the day pray thus.85 Τρὶς τῆς ἡμέρας οὕτω προσεύχεσθε.

 4 Eucharist  »cont. . . .


Eucharistic Liturgy





1CONCERNING the Eucharist [Thanksgiving]  give thanks thus. 9.1 Περὶ δὲ τῆς εὐχαριστίας, οὕτως εὐχαριστήσατε·
    2. First, concerning the cup:87 We thank you, our Father, for the holy vine of David Your servant,88 which You made known to us through Jesus Your Servant; to You be the glory for ever. [Amen] 9.2 πρῶτον περὶ τοῦ ποτηρίου· Εὐχαριστοῦμέν σοι, πάτερ ἡμῶν, ὑπὲρ τῆς ἁγίας ἀμπέλου Δαυὶδ τοῦ παιδός σου, ἧς ἐγνώρισας ἡμῖν διὰἸησοῦ τοῦ παιδός σου· σοὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. <Ἀμήν>.

     3. And concerning the broken bread:89 We thank You, our Father, for the life and knowledge which You made known to us through Jesus Your Child [or servant]; to You be the glory for ever.  [Amen]

9.3 Περὶ δὲ τοῦ κλάσματος· Εὐχαριστοῦμέν σοι, πάτερ ἡμῶν, ὑπὲρ τῆς ζωῆς καὶ γνώσεως, ἧς ἐγνώρισας ἡμῖν διὰἸησοῦ τοῦ παιδός σου· σοὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. <Ἀμήν>.
        4. Even as this broken bread was scattered over the hills,90 and was gathered together and became one, so let Your Church be gathered together from the ends of the earth into Your kingdom;91 for Yours is the glory and the power through Jesus Christ for ever. [Amen] 9.4Ὥσπερ ἦν τοῦτο <τὸ> κλάσμα διεσκορπισμένον ἐπάνω τῶν ὀρέων καὶ συναχθὲν ἐγένετο ἕν, οὕτω συναχθήτω σου ἡ ἐκκλησία ἀπὸ τῶν περάτων τῆς γῆς εἰς τὴν σὴν βασιλείαν· ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ δόξα καὶ ἡ δύναμις εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. <Ἀμήν>.

     5. BUT let no one eat or drink of your Eucharist (Thanksgiving ), except those who have been baptized into the name of the Lord; for concerning this the Lord has also said, Do not give what is holy to the dogs.92

9.5 Μηδεὶς δὲ φαγέτω μηδὲ πιέτω ἀπὸ τῆς εὐχαριστίας ὑμῶν, ἀλλ' οἱ βαπτισθέντες εἰς ὄνομα κυρίου· καὶ γὰρ περὶ τούτου εἴρηκεν ὁ κύριος· Μὴ δῶτε τὸ ἅγιον τοῖς κυσί.

Prayer After Communion.


1AND after you are filled,94 give thanks thus: 2. We thank You, holy Father, for Your holy name which You made to tabernacle in our hearts, and for the knowledge and faith and immortality, which You made known to us through Jesus Your Servant; to You be the glory for ever. [Amen] 10.1 Μετὰ δὲ τὸ ἐμπλησθῆναι οὕτως εὐχαριστήσατε· 10.2 Εὐχαριστοῦμέν σοι, πάτερ ἅγιε, ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἁγίου ὀνόματός σου, οὗ κατεσκήνωσας ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ἡμῶν, καὶ ὑπὲρ τῆς γνώσεως καὶ πίστεως καὶ ἀθανασίας, ἧς ἐγνώρισας ἡμῖν διὰἸησοῦ τοῦ παιδός σου· σοὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. <Ἀμήν>.

      3. You, almighty Master, created all things for Your name’s sake; You gave food and drink to the sons of men for enjoyment, that they might give thanks to You; but to us You gave spiritual food and drink and life eternal through Your Child [or servant].95

10.3 Σύ, δέσποτα παντοκράτορ, ἔκτισας τὰ πάντα ἕνεκεν τοῦ ὀνόματός σου, τροφήν τε καὶ ποτὸν ἔδωκας τοῖς υἱοῖς τῶν ἀνθρώπων εἰς ἀπόλαυσιν, ἵνα σοι εὐχαριστήσωσιν, ἡμῖν δὲ ἐχαρίσω πνευματικὴν τροφὴν καὶ ποτὸν εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον διὰἸησοῦ τοῦ παιδός σου.
      4. Before all things we thank You that You are mighty; to You be the glory for ever.    Amen 10.4 Πρὸ πάντων εὐχαριστοῦμέν σοι, ὅτι δυνατὸς εἶ· σοὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας.Ἀμήν.

          5. Remember, Lord, Your Church, to deliver it from all evil and to make it perfect in Your love, and gather it from the four winds, sanctified for Your kingdom which You have prepared for it;96

10.5 Μνήσθητι, κύριε, τῆς ἐκκλησίας σου, τοῦ ῥύσασθαι αὐτὴν ἀπὸ παντὸς πονηροῦ καὶ τελειῶσαι αὐτὴν ἐν τῇ ἀγάπῃ σου, καὶ σύναξον αὐτὴν ἀπὸ τῶν τεσσάρων ἀνέμων, τὴν ἁγιασθεῖσαν, εἰς τὴν σὴν βασιλείαν, ἣν ἡτοίμασας αὐτῇ
for Yours is the power and the glory for ever.    Amen ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας.Ἀμήν.
   6. Let grace come, and let this world pass away.97     Amen 10.6Ἐλθέτω χάρις καὶ παρελθέτω ὁ κόσμος οὗτος.Ἀμήν.
     Hosanna to the house of David! If any one is holy, let him come; if any one is not so, let him repent.99 Maranatha.100 Amen. ὡσαννὰ τῷ οἴκῳ Δαυίδ. Εἴ τις ἅγιός ἐστιν, ἐρχέσθω· εἴ τι οὐκ ἐστι, μετανοείτω· μαραναθά.Ἀμήν.
7. But permit the prophets to give thanks as much as they wish.101 10.7 Τοῖς δὲ προφήταις ἐπιτρέπετε εὐχαριστεῖν, ὅσα θέλουσιν.

5 Apostles & Prophets  »cont. . . .


Apostles, Prophets, and Teachers




1WHOEVER therefore, comes and teaches you all these things that have been said before, receive him.103 2. But if the teacher himself turn104 and teach another doctrine to the destruction of this, do not listen to him; but if he teaches so as to increase righteousness and the knowledge of the Lord, receive him as the Lord. 3. But concerning the apostles and prophets, according to the decree of the Gospel, do this: 4. Let every apostle that comes to you be received as the Lord.105 5. But he shall not remain except one day; but if there be need, also the next; but if he remain three days, he is a false prophet. 6. And when the apostle goes away, let him take nothing but bread until he lodges;106 but if he asks for money, he is a false prophet.

11.1Ὃς ἂν οὖν ἐλθὼν διδάξῃ ὑμᾶς ταῦτα πάντα τὰ προειρημένα, δέξασθε αὐτόν· 11.2 ἐὰν δὲ αὐτὸς ὁ διδάσκων στραφεὶς διδάσκῃ ἄλλας διδαχὰς εἰς τὸ καταλῦσαι, μὴ αὐτοῦ ἀκούσητε· εἰς δὲ τὸ προσθεῖναι δικαιοσύνην καὶ γνῶσιν κυρίου, δέξασθε αὐτὸν ὡς κύριον. 11.3 Περὶ δὲ τῶν ἀποστόλων καὶ προφητῶν κατὰ τὸ δόγμα τοῦ εὐαγγελίου, οὕτως ποιήσατε. 11.4 Πᾶς δὲ ἀπόστολος ἐρχόμενος πρὸς ὑμᾶς δεχθήτω ὡς κύριος· 11.5 οὐ μενεῖ δὲ εἰ μὴ ἡμέραν μίαν· ἐὰν δὲ ᾗ χρεία, καὶ τὴν ἄλλην· τρεῖς δὲ ἐὰν μείνῃ, ψευδοπροφήτης ἐστίν. 11.6Ἐξερχόμενος δὲ ὁ ἀπόστολος μηδὲν λαμβανέτω εἰ μὴ ἄρτον, ἕως οὗ αὐλισθῇ· ἐὰν δὲ ἀργύριον αἰτῇ, ψευδοπροφήτης ἐστίν.

7. And every prophet that speaks in the Spirit107 you shall neither try nor judge; for every sin shall be forgiven, but this sin shall not be forgiven.108 8. But not every one that speaks in the Spirit is a prophet; but only if he hold the ways of the Lord. Therefore from their ways shall the false prophet and the prophet be known. 9. And every prophet who orders a meal109 in the Spirit does not eat from it, unless indeed he is a false prophet; 10. and every prophet who teaches the truth, if he do not what he teaches, is a false prophet.

11.7 Καὶ πάντα προφήτην λαλοῦντα ἐν πνεύματι οὐ πειράσετε οὐδὲ διακρινεῖτε· πᾶσα γὰρ ἁμαρτία ἀφεθήσεται, αὕτη δὲ ἡ ἁμαρτία οὐκ ἀφεθήσεται. 11.8 Οὐ πᾶς δὲ ὁ λαλῶν ἐν πνεύματι προφήτης ἐστίν, ἀλλ' ἐὰν ἔχῃ τοὺς τρόπους κυρίου. ἀπὸ οὖν τῶν τρόπων γνωσθήσεται ὁ ψευδοφροφήτης καὶ ὁ προφήτης. 11.9 Καὶ πᾶς προφήτης ὁρίζων τράπεζαν ἐν πνεύματι, οὐ φάγεται ἀπ' αὐτῆς, εἰ δὲ μήγε, ψευδοπροφήτης ἐστίν. 11.10 Πᾶς δὲ προφήτης διδάσκων τὴν ἀλήθειαν, εἰ ἃ διδάσκει οὐ ποιεῖ, ψευδοπροφήτης ἐστίν.

11. And every prophet, proved true, working unto the mystery of the Church in the world, yet not teaching others to do what he himself does, shall not be judged among you, for with God he has his judgment; for so did also the ancient prophets. But whoever saith in the Spirit, Give me money, or something else, you shall not listen to him; but if he saith to you to give for others’ sake who are in need, let no one judge him.

11.11 Πᾶς δὲ προφήτης δεδοκιμασμένος ἀληθινός, ποιῶν εἰς μυστήριον κοσμικὸν ἐκκλησίας, μὴ διδάσκων δὲ ποιεῖν, ὅσα αὐτὸς ποιεῖ, οὐ κριθήσεται ἐφ' ὑμῶν· μετὰ θεοῦ γὰρ ἔχει τὴν κρίσιν· ὡσαύτως γὰρ ἐποίησαν καὶ οἱ ἀρχαῖοι προφῆται. 11.12Ὃς δ' ἂν εἴπῃ ἐν πνεύματι· δός μοι ἀργύρια, ἢ ἕτερά τινα, οὐκ ἀκούσεσθε αὐτοῦ· ἐὰν δὲ περὶ ἄλλων ὑστερούντων εἴπῃ δοῦναι, μηδεὶς αὐτὸν κρινέτω.



1BUT let every one who comes in the name of the Lord be received,113 and afterward you shall prove and know him; for you shall have understanding right and left. 2. If he who comes is a wayfarer, assist him as far as you are able; but he shall not remain with you, except for two or three days, if need be. 3. But if he wishes to abide with you, being an artisan, let him work and eat;114 but if he has no trade, 4. according to your understanding see to it that, as a Christian,115 he shall not live with you idle. 5. But if he will not do this, he is a Christ-monger.116 Watch that you keep aloof from such.

12.1 Πᾶς δὲ ὁ ἐρχόμενος πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐν ὀνόματι κυρίου δεχθήτω, ἔπειτα δὲ δοκιμάσαντες αὐτὸν γνώσεσθε σύνεσιν γὰρ ἔχετε) δεξιὰν καὶ ἀριστεράν. 12.2 Εἰ μὲν παρόδιός ἐστιν ὁ ἐρχόμενος, βοηθεῖτε αὐτῷ, ὅσον δύνασθε· οὐ μενεῖ δὲ πρὸς ὑμᾶς εἰ μὴ δύο ἢ τρεῖς ἡμέρας, ἐὰν ᾖ ἀνάγκη. 12.3 Εἰ δὲ θέλει πρὸς ὑμᾶς καθῆσθαι, τεχνίτης ὤν, ἐργαζέσθω καὶ φαγέτω. 12.4 Εἰ δὲ οὐκ ἔχει τέχνην, κατὰ τὴν σύνεσιν ὑμῶν προνοήσατε, πῶς μὴ ἀργὸς μεθ' ὑμῶν ζήσεται χριστιανός. 12.5 Εἰ δ' οὐ θέλει οὕτω ποιεῖν, χριστέμπορός ἐστι· προσέχετε ἀπὸ τῶν τοιούτων.

Support of Prophets.


1BUT every true prophet that wills to abide among you118 is worthy of his support.119 2. So also a true teacher is himself worthy, as the workman, of his support.120 3. Every first-fruit, therefore, of the products of wine-press and threshing-floor, of oxen and of sheep, you shall take and give to the prophets, for they are your high priests.121 4. But if you do not have a prophet, give it to the poor. 5. If you make a batch of dough, take the first-fruit and give according to the commandment. 6. So also when you open a jar of wine or of oil, take the first-fruit and give it to the prophets; 7. and of money (silver) and clothing and every possession, take the first-fruit, as it may seem good to you, and give according to the commandment.

13.1 Πᾶς δὲ προφήτης ἀληθινός, θέλων καθῆσθαι πρὸς ὑμᾶς, ἄξιός ἐστι τῆς τροφῆς αὐτοῦ. 13.2Ὡσαύτως διδάσκαλος ἀληθινός ἐστιν ἄξιος καὶ αὐτὸς ὥσπερ ὁ ἐργάτης τῆς τροφῆς αὐτοῦ. 13.3 [Πᾶσαν οὖν ἀπαρχὴν γεννημάτων ληνοῦ καὶ ἅλωνος, βοῶν τε καὶ προβάτων λαβὼν δώσεις τοῖς προφήταις· αὐτοὶ γάρ εἰσιν οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς ὑμῶν. 13.4 [Ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ἔχητε προφήτην, δότε τοῖς πτωχοῖς. 13.5Ἐὰν σιτίαν ποιῇς, τὴν ἀπαρχὴν λαβὼν δὸς κατὰ τὴν ἐντολήν. 13.6Ὡσαύτως κεράμιον οἴνου ἢ ἐλαίου ἀνοίξας, τὴν ἀπαρχὴν λαβὼν δὸς τοῖς προφήταις. 13.7Ἀργυρίου δὲ καὶ ἱματισμοῦ καὶ παντὸς κτήματος λαβὼν τὴν ἀπαρχήν, ὡς ἄν σοι δόξῃ, δὸς κατὰ τὴν ἐντολήν.]

5 Apostles & Prophets  »cont. . . .


Sacrificial Language in regard to

the Eucharist



1EVERY day that you gather  together to break bread, give thanks after having confessed your transgressions,124 so that your sacrifice may be pure.125 2. But let no one that is at variance with his fellow come together with you, until they be reconciled, that your sacrifice may not be profaned. 3. For this is that which was spoken by the Lord: In every place and time offer to me a pure sacrifice;127 for I am a great King, saith the Lord, and my name is wonderful among the nations.128

14.1 Καθ' ἡμέραν δὲ κυρίου συναχθέντες κλάσατε ἄρτον καὶ εὐχαριστήσατε, προεξομολογησάμενοι τὰ παραπτώματα ὑμῶν, ὅπως καθαρὰ ἡ θυσία ὑμῶν ᾖ. 14.2 Πᾶς δὲ ἔχων τὴν ἀμφιβολίαν μετὰ τοῦ ἑταίρου αὐτοῦ μὴ συνελθέτω ὑμῖν, ἕως οὗ διαλλαγῶσιν, ἵνα μὴ κοινωθῇ ἡ θυσία ὑμῶν. 14.3 Αὕτη γάρ ἐστιν ἡ ῥηθεῖσα ὑπὸ κυρίου·Ἐν παντὶ τόπῳ καὶ χρόνῳ προσφέρειν μοι θυσίαν καθαράν· ὅτι βασιλεὺς μέγας εἰμί, λέγει κύριος, καὶ τὸ ὄνομά μου θαυμαστὸν ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσι.

5 Apostles & Prophets  »cont. . . .


Local appointment of Bishops

and Deacons



1. APPOINT, therefore, for yourselves, bishops and deacons worthy of the Lord, men meek, and not lovers of money,130 and truthful and proved; for they also render to you the service131 of prophets and teachers. 2. Despise them not therefore, for they are your honoured ones, together with the prophets and teachers. 3. And reprove one another, not in anger, but in peace, as you have it in the Gospel;132 but to every one that acts amiss against another, let no one speak, nor let him hear anything from you until he repent. 4. But your prayers and alms and all your deeds so do, as you have it in the Gospel of our Lord.134

15.1 Χειροτονήσατε οὖν ἑαυτοῖς ἐπισκόπους καὶ διακόνους ἀξίους τοῦ κυρίου, ἄνδρας πραεῖς καὶ ἀφιλαργύρους καὶ ἀληθεῖς καὶ δεδοκιμασμένους· ὑμῖν γὰρ λειτουργοῦσι καὶ αὐτοὶ τὴν λειτουργίαν τῶν προφητῶν καὶ διδασκάλων. 15.2 Μὴ οὖν ὑπερίδητε αὐτούς· αὐτοὶ γάρ εἰσιν οἱ τετιμημένοι ὑμῶν μετὰ τῶν προφητῶν καὶ διδασκάλων. 15.3Ἐλέγχετε δὲ ἀλλήλους μὴ ἐν ὀργῇ, ἀλλ' ἐν εἰρήνη, ὡς ἔχετε ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ· καὶ παντὶ ἀστοχοῦντι κατὰ τοῦ ἑτέρου μηδεὶς λαλείτω μηδὲ παρ' ὑμῶν ἀκουέτω, ἕως οὗ μετανοήσῃ. 15.4 Τὰς δὲ εὐχὰς ὑμῶν καὶ τὰς ἐλεημοσύνας καὶ πάσας τὰς πράξεις οὕτως ποιήσατε, ὡς ἔχετε ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν.

The Coming of the Lord.


      1. WATCH for your life’s sake.136 Let not your lamps be quenched, nor your loins unloosed;137 but be you ready, for you know not the hour in which our Lord comes.138 2. But often shall you come together, seeking the things which are befitting to your souls: for the whole time of your faith will not profit you,139 if you are not made perfect in the last time. 3. For in the last days140 false prophets and corrupters shall be multiplied, and the sheep shall be turned into wolves, and love shall be turned into hate;141 4. for when lawlessness increases, they shall hate and persecute and betray one another,142 and then shall appear the world-deceiver as Son of God,144 and shall do signs and wonders,145 and the earth shall be delivered into his hands, and he shall do iniquitous things which have never yet come to pass since the beginning.

16.1 Γρηγορεῖτε ὑπὲρ τῆς ζωῆς ὑμῶν· οἱ λύχνοι ὑμῶν μὴ σβεσθήτωσαν, καὶ αἱ ὀσφύες ὑμῶν μὴ ἐκλυέσθωσαν, ἀλλὰ γίνεσθε ἕτοιμοι· οὐ γὰρ οἴδατε τὴν ὥραν, ἐν ᾗ ὁ κύριος ἡμῶν ἔρχεται. 16.2 Πυκνῶς δὲ συναχθήσεσθε ζητοῦντες τὰ ἀνήκοντα ταῖς ψυχαῖς ὑμῶν· οὐ γὰρ ὠφελήσει ὑμᾶς ὁ πᾶς χρόνος τῆς πίστεως ὑμῶν, ἐὰν μὴ ἐν τῷ ἐσχάτῳ καιρῷ τελειωθῆτε. 16.3Ἐν γὰρ ταῖς ἐσχάταις ἡμέραις πληθυνθήσονται οἱ ψευδοπροφῆται καὶ φθορεῖς, καὶ στραφήσονται τὰ πρόβατα εἰς λύκους, καὶ ἡ ἀγάπη στραφήσεται εἰς μῖσος· 16.4 αὐξανούσης γὰρ τῆς ἀνομίας μισήσουσιν ἀλλήλους καὶ διώξουσιν καὶ παραδώσουσι καὶ τότε φανήσεται ὁ κοσμοπλανὴς ὡς υἱὸς θεοῦ καὶ ποιήσει σημεῖα καὶ τέρατα καὶ ἡ γῆ παραδοθήσεται εἰς χεῖρας αὐτοῦ, καὶ ποιήσει ἀθεμίτα, ἃ οὐδέποτε γέγονεν ἐξ αἰῶνος.

5. Then shall the creation of men come into the fire of trial, and many shall be made to stumble and shall perish; but they that endure in their faith shall be saved147 from under the curse itself. 6. And then shall appear the signs of the truth;149 first, the sign of an out-spreading in heaven; then the sign of the sound of the trumpet; and the third, the resurrection of the dead; 7. yet not of all, but as it is said: The Lord shall come and all His saints with Him.151 8. Then shall the world see the Lord coming upon the clouds of heaven.152

16.5 Τότε ἥξει ἡ κτίσις τῶν ἀνθρώπων εἰς τὴν πύρωσιν τῆς δοκιμασίας, καὶ σκανδαλισθήσονται πολλοὶ καὶ ἀπολοῦνται· οἱ δὲ ὑπομείναντες ἐν τῇ πίστει αὐτῶν σωθήσονται ἀπ' αὐτοῦ τοῦ καταθέματος. 16.6 Καὶ τό τε φανήσεται τὰ σημεῖα τῆς ἀληθείας· πρῶτον σημεῖον ἐκπετάσεως ἐν οὐρανῷ, εἶτα σημεῖον φωνῆς σάλπιγγος, καὶ τὸ τρίτον ἀνάστασις νεκρῶν· 16.7 οὐ πάντων δέ, ἀλλ' ὡς ἐρρέθη·Ἥξει ὁ κύριος καὶ πάντες οἱ ἅγιοι μετ' αὐτοῦ. 16.8 Τότε ὄψεται ὁ κόσμος τὸν κύριον ἐρχόμενον ἐπάνω τῶν νεφελῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ...



2 This phrase connects the book with the Duae Viae; see Introductory Notice. Barnabas has “light” and “darkness” for “life” and “death.”

3 Dt. 30. 15, 19; Jer. 21. 8; Mt. 7. 13, 14.

4 Comp. Dt. 6. 5, which is fully cited in Apostolic Constitutions, vii. 2, though the verb here is more exactly cited from LXX.

5 Lev. 19. 18; Mt. 22. 37, 39. Comp. Mk 12. 30, 31.

6 Comp. Tob 4. 15; and Mt. 7. 12; Lk 6. 31.

7 These Old-Testament commands are thus taught by the Lord.

8 Mt. 5. 44. But the last clause is added, and is of unknown origin; not found in Apostolic Constitutions.

9 Matt. 5. 46, 47; Lk 6. 32. The two passages are combined.

10 So Apostolic Constitutions. Comp. 1 Pet. 3. 13.

11 1 Pet. 2. 11.

12 Mt. 5. 39; Lk 6. 29.

13 Mt. 5. 41.

14 Mt. 5. 40; Lk 6. 29.

15 Lk 6. 30. The last clause is a peculiar addition: “are not able,” since you are a Christian; otherwise it is a commonplace observation.

16 Lk 6. 30. The rest of the sentence is explained by the parallel passage in Apostolic Constitutions, which cites Mt. v. 45.

17 Bryennios finds a parallel (or citation) in Hermas, Commandment Second, p. 20, vol. i. Ante-Nicene Fathers. The remainder of this chapter has no parallel in Apostolic Constitutions.

18 Probably = imprisonment; see next clause.

19 Mt. 5. 26.

21 The chapter, except this opening sentence and part of verse 7, is found in Apostolic Constitutions, vii. 2–5; but the precepts are separated and enlarged upon.

22 Ex. 20. 13, 14.

23 Or, “corrupt boys,” as in the version of Apostolic Constitutions.

24 Ex. 20. 15.

25 Comp. Ex. 21. 22, 23..

26 Ex. 20. 17.

27 Mt. 5. 34.

28 Ex. 20. 16.

29 Rendered “nor shall you be mindful of injuries” in version of Apostolic Constitutions.

30 So Barn., 19.

31 Verse 5, except the first clause, occurs only here.

32 Latter half of verse 6 in Barnabas, xix.

33 Lev. xix. 17; Apostolic Constitutions.

34 Or, “soul.” The last part of the clause is found in Barnabas; but “and concerning some…pray, and some” has no parallel. An interesting verse in its literary history.

35 About one-half of the matter of this chapter is to be found, in well-nigh the same order, scattered through Apostolic Constitutions, vii. 6–8. The precepts are aimed at minor sins, and require no particular comment. This chapter has the largest number of Greek words not found in the New Testament.

36 The address “my child” does not occur in the parallel passages.

37 Matt. v. 5.

38 Isa. lxvi. 2, 5; Apostolic Constitutions, vii. 8.

39 Comp.Luke xviii. 14.

40 Ecclus. ii. 4. So Bryennios. Comp. last part of Apostolic Constitutions vii. 8.

41 This chapter, with the exception of a few clauses and words, is found in Apostolic Constitutions. vii. 9–17. There are verbal variations, but the order is exact. In Barnabas not so much of the matter is found. There is, however, even greater verbal agreement in many cases, though the order is quite different. Two important clauses (verses 8, 14) find an exact parallel only in Barnabas. One phrase is peculiar to the Teaching; see ver. 14.

42 Comp. Heb. xiii. 7. In Apostolic Constitutions there is a transposition of words.

43 Schaff: “The Lordship is spoken of.” Apostolic Constitutions, “where the doctrine concerning God is,” etc.

44 Or, “acquiesce in” (Apostolic Constitutions).

46 Comp. Ecclus. i. 28. The verse occurs in Barnabas; and in Apostolic Constitutions “in thy prayer” is inserted, which is probably the sense here.

47 Ecclus. iv. 31.

48 Apostolic Constitutions adds, in explanation, Prov. xvi. 6.

49 Comp. Acts iv. 32; Rom. xv. 27. The latter half of the verse is in Barnabas (not in Apostolic Constitutions), but with the substitution of “incorruptible” and “corruptible.”

50 Comp. Eph. vi. 4.

51 Comp. Eph. vi. 9; Col. iv. 1.

52 Codex reads “our;” editors correct to “your.”

53 Comp. Eph. vi. 5; Col. iii. 22.

54 Deut. xii. 32.

55 “In the congregation;” i.e., assembly of believers. This phrase is omitted in both Barnabas and Apostolic Constitutions. Comp. Jas. v. 16.

56 Or, “to thy place of prayer” (Schaff).

57 So Barnabas; but Apostolic Constitutions, “in the day of thy bitterness.”

58 So Apostolic Constitutions; but Barnabas, “the way of light.” See note on chap. i. 1.

59 This chapter finds nearly exact parallels in Barnabas, xx., and Apostolic Constitutions. vii. 18, but with curious variations.

60 Barnabas has “darkness” but afterwards “way of eternal death.”

61 Not in Apostolic Constitutions, and no exact parallel in Barnabas.

62 Of the twenty-two sins named in this verse, Barnabas gives fourteen, in differing order, and in the singular; Apostolic Constitutions gives all but one (uyo", “loftiness” “haughtiness”), in the same order, and with the same change from plural to singular.

63 This verse appears almost word for word in Barnabas, with two additional clauses.

64 The Apostolic Constitutions give a parallel from this point; verbally exact from the phrase, “not for that which is good.”

65 This word occurs only here, and in the parallel passage in Barnabas (rendered in this edition “who are in every respect transgressors,” vol. i. p. 149), and in Apostolic Constitutions (rendered “full of sin”). A similar term occurs in the recently recovered portion of 2 Clement, xviii., where Bishop Lightfoot renders, as above, “an utter sinner.”

66 Found verbatim in Apostolic Constitutions, not in Barnabas: with the latter there is no further parallel, except a few phrases in chap. xvi. 2, 3 (which see).

67 Of this chapter, two phrases and one entire clause are found in Apostolic Constitutions, vii. 19–21.

68 Comp. Matt. xxiv. 4 (Greek); Revised Version, “lead you astray:’” Apostolic Constitutions, vii. 19.

69 Or, “the whole yoke.” Those who accept the Jewish-Christian authorship refer this to the ceremonial law. It seems quite as likely to mean ascetic regulations. Of these there are many traces, even in the New-Testament churches.

70 Apostolic Constitutions, vii. 20, begins with a similar phrase, but is explicitly against asceticism in this respect. The precepts here do not indicate any such spirit as that opposed by Paul.

71 Comp. Acts xv. 20, 29; 1 Cor. viii. 4, etc., x. 18, etc. (Rom. xiv. 20 refers to ascetic abstinence.) This prohibition had a necessary permanence; comp. Apostolic Constitutions, vii. 21.

72 Comp. the same phrase in 2 Clement, iii. This chapter closes the first part of the Teaching, that supposed to be intended for catechumens. The absence of doctrinal statement does not necessarily prove the existence of a circle of Gentile Christians where the Pauline theology was unknown. If such a circle existed, emphasizing the ethical side of Christianity to the exclusion of its doctrinal basis, it disappeared very soon. From the nature of the case, that kind of Christianity is intellectually weak and necessarily short-lived.

73 Verse 1 is found, well-nigh entire, in Apostolic Constitutions vii. 22, but besides this only a few words of verses 2 and 4. The chapter has naturally called out much discussion as to the mode of baptism.

74 [Elucidation I.]

75 Matt. xxviii. 19.

76 Probably running water.

77 The previous verses point to immersion; this permits pouring in certain cases, which indicates that this mode was not unknown. The trine application of the water, and its being poured on the head, are both significant.

78 The fasting of the baptized is enjoined in Apostolic Constitutions, but that of the baptizer (and others) is peculiar to this document.

79 The entire chapter is found almost verbatim in Apostolic Constitutions, vii. 23, 24.

80 Comp. Matt. vi. 16.

81 The reasons for fasting on Wednesday and Friday are given in Apostolic Constitutions (the days of betrayal and of burial). Monday and Thursday were the Jewish fast-days. The word “Preparation” (day before the Jewish sabbath) occurs in Matt. xxvii. 62, etc., and for some time retained a place in Christian literature.

82 Matt. vi. 5, 9–13. This form of the Lord’s Prayer is evidently cited from Matthew, not from Luke. The textual variations are slight. The citation is of importance as proving that the writer used this Gospel, and that the liturgical use of the Lord’s Prayer was common.

83 On this phrase, comp. Revised Version, Matt. vi. 11; Luke xi. 3 (text, margin, and American appendix).

84 The variation in the form of the doxology confirms the judgment of textual criticism, which omits it in Matt. vi. 13. All early liturgical literature tends in the same direction; comp. Apostolic Constitutions, vii. 24.

85 This is in accordance with Jewish usage. Dan. vi. 10; Ps. lv. 17. Comp. Acts iii. 1, x. 9.

86 The eucharistic prayers of this and the following chapter are only partially reproduced in Apostolic Constitutions, vii. 25, 26; that of verse 2 has no parallel.

87 This is a variation from the order of the New Testament and of all liturgies: probably this led to its omission in Apostolic Constitutions. The word “for” may be substituted for “concerning” here and in verse 3. [Possibly a response for recipients.]

88 Peculiar to this passage, but derived from a common scriptural figure and from the paschal formula. Comp. especially John xv. 1; Matt. xxvi. 29; Mark xiv. 25.

89 This word is found in the accounts of the feeding of the multitude (Matt. xiv. 20, xv. 37, and parallels); it was naturally applied to the broken bread of the Eucharist.

90 This reference to “hills,” or “mountains,” is used as an argument against the Egyptian origin of the Teaching.

91 This part of the verse is found in Apostolic Constitutions. Schaff properly calls attention to the distinction here made between “Thy Church” and “Thy kingdom.”

92 Matt. vii. 6.

93 This post-communion thanksgiving is found in Apostolic Constitutions, vii. 26, but with many omissions, alterations, and additions. Still, the correspondence in thought and language is very remarkable. Schaff cites a similar prayer at the Passover (after the Hallel cup).

94 “After the participation” (Apostolic Constitutions) points to a distinct Eucharistic service. Here the Lord’s Supper is evidently connected with the Agape [a noteworthy suggestion]; comp. 1 Cor. xi. 20–22, 33. This is an evidence of early date; comp. Justin Martyr, Apol. i. chaps. 64–66, where the Lord’s Supper is shown to be distinct (Ante-Nicene Fathers, i. pp. 185, 186).

95 This last clause has no parallel in Apostolic Constitutions, and points to an earlier and more spiritual conception of the Eucharist. Verse 4 also is peculiar to this passage.

96 The above rendering follows Bryennios; that of Harnack (formerly accepted by Hall and Napier) is: “Gather it, sanctified, from the four winds, into Thy kingdom,” etc. The phrase “from the four winds” recalls Matt. xxiv. 31.

97 This is peculiar; but comp. 1 Cor. vii. 31 for the last clause.

99 This exhortation indicates a mixed assembly; comp. Apostolic Constitutions. [If so, it belongs to the Agape.]

100 1 Cor. xvi. 22, Revised Version, margin: “That is, our Lord cometh.” Comp. Rev. xxii. 20.

101 A limitation as compared with 1 Cor. xiv 29, 31, and yet indicating a combination of extemporaneous devotion with the liturgical form. The verse prepares the way for the next chapter.

103 This refers to all teachers, more fully described afterwards.

104 Lit. “being turned:” i.e. turned from the truth, perverted.

105 Matt. x. 40. The mention of apostles here has caused much discussion, but there are many indications that travelling evangelists were thus termed for some time after the apostolic age. Bishop I.ightfoot has shown, that, even in the New Testament, a looser use of the term applied it to others than the Twelve. Comp. Rom. xvi. 7; 1 Cor. xv. 5, 7 (?); Gal. i. 19; 1 Thess. ii. 6: also, as applied to Barnabas, Acts xiv. 4, 14.

106 Reach a place where he can lodge.

107 Under the influence of the charismatic gift spoken of in 1 Cor. xii. 3, xiv. 2.Another indication of an early date.

108 Probably a reference to the sin against the Holy Spirit. Matt. xii. 31, 32; Mark iii. 29, 30.

109 Probably a love-feast, commanded by the prophet in his peculiar utterance.

112 Verse 1 is almost identical with the beginning of Apostolic Constitutions, vii. 28; the remaining verses have no parallel.

113 All professed Christians are meant.

114 Comp. 2 Thess. iii. 10.

115 The term occurs only here in the Teaching.

116 “Christ-trafficker.” The abuse of Christian fellowship and hospitality naturally followed the remarkable extension of Christianity. This expressive term was coined to designate the class of idlers who would make gain out of their professed Christianity. It occurs in the longer form of the Ignatian Epistles (Trallians, vi.) and in literature of the fourth century.

117 A large part of this chapter is found in Apostolic Constitutions vii. 28, 29, but with modifications and additions indicating a later date.

118 “Who will settle among you” (Hitchcock and Brown). The itinerant prophets might become stationary, we infer. Chaps. xi.-xv. point to a movement from an itinerant and extraordinary ministry to a more settled one.

119 Lit., “nourishment,” “food.”

120 Matt. x. 10; comp. Luke x. 7.

121 This phrase, indicating a sacerdotal view of the ministry, seems to point to a later date than that claimed for the Teaching. Some regard it as an interpolation: others take it in a figurative sense. In Apostolic Constitutions the sacerdotal view is more marked. [1 Pet. ii. 9. If the plebs = “priests,” prophets = “high priests.”] Here the term is restricted to the prophets: compare Schaff in loco.
124 Comp chap. iv. 14. No parallel in Apostolic Constitutions.

125 On this spiritual sense of “sacrifice,” comp. Rom. xii. 1; Phil. ii. 17; Heb. xiii. 15; 1 Pet. ii. 5.

127 [See Mal. i. 11. See Irenaeus, cap. xvii. 5, vol. i. p. 484.]

128 Mal. i. 11, 14. Quoted in Apostolic Constitutions and by several Ante-Nicene Fathers, with the same reference to the Eucharist.

130 Comp. 1 Tim. iii. 4.

131 Or, “ministry.” This clause and the following verse indicate that the extraordinary ministers were as yet more highly regarded.

132 Comp. Matt. xviii. 15–17.

134 The reference here is probably to the Sermon on the Mount: Matt. v.-vii., especially to chap. vi.

135 The resemblance between this chapter and Apostolic Constitutions, vii. 31, 32, is mainly in order of topics and in the identity of some phrases and terms. Verses 3 and 4 (to the word “world-deceiver”) are reproduced almost verbatim. That the writer of the Teaching used Matt. xxiv. is extremely probable, but the connection of Apostolic Constitutions, with this passage is evident. In Barnabas, iv., there are a few corresponding phrases.

136 Or, “over your life;” the clause occurs verbatim in Apostolic Constitutions.

137 Comp. Luke xii. 35, which is exactly cited in Apostolic Constitutions.

138 Matt. xxiv. 42.

139 Here Barnabas, iv., furnishes a parallel.


140 This reference to the last days as present or impending is an evidence of early date; comp. Barnabas, iv., and many passages in the New Testament. The mistake has been in measuring God’s prophetic chronology by our mathematical standard of years.

141 Comp. Matt. xxiv. 11, 12.

142 Comp. Matt. xxiv. 10.

144 Not found in Apostolic Constitutions. The expression plainly implies the belief that Jesus Christ was Son of God.

145 Comp. Matt. xxiv. 24. The rest of the verse has no parallel.

147 Comp. Matt x. 22 and similar passages; none of them directly cited here.

149 “Truth” might refer to Christ Himself, but the personal advent is spoken of in verse 8; it is better, then, to refer it to the truth respecting the parousia held by the early Christians. For this belief they were mocked, and hence dwelt upon it and the prophecies respecting it. The verse is probably based upon Matt. xxiv. 30, 31; but some find here, as in verse 4, an allusion to Paul’s eschatological statements in the Epistles to the Thessalonians.

151 Zech. xiv. 5. This citation is given substantially in Apostolic Constitutions. As here used, it seems to point to the first resurrection. Comp. 1 Thess. iv. 17; 1 Cor. xv. 23; Rev. xx. 5. Probably it is based upon the Pauline eschatology rather than upon that of the Apocalypse. At all events, there is no allusion to the millennial statement of the latter. Since there was in the early Church, in connection with the expectation of the speedy coming of Christ, a marked tendency to Chiliasm, the silence respecting the millennium may indicate that the writer was not acquainted with the Apocalypse. This inference is allowable, however, only on the assumption of the early date of the Teaching.

152 Comp. Matt. xxiv. 30. The conclusion is abrupt, and in Apostolic Constitutions the New-Testament doctrine of future punishment and reward is added. The absence of all reference to the destruction of Jerusalem would indicate that some time had elapsed since that event. An interval of from thirty to sixty years may well be claimed.

Adapted from The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, (ed. E. Livingstone)

Didache (Διδαχὴ Κυρίου διὰ τῶν δώδεκα ἀποστόλων), a short early Christian manual on morals and Church practice. Of its 16 brief chapters, chs. 1–6 describe the ‘Two Ways’, the ‘Way of Life’ and the ‘Way of Death’; they include quotations from the Sermon on the Mount. Chs. 7–15 contain instructions on Baptism, fasting, prayer, the Eucharist, and how to treat apostles and prophets, bishops, and deacons. Ch. 16 is a prophecy of the Antichrist and the Second Coming. The treatise contains much of interest to the student of early Christian liturgy. The Lord’s Prayer is given in full. Baptism is by immersion if possible, otherwise by threefold affusion. Fasting on Wednesdays and Fridays is ordered. Two Eucharistic Prayers, of an unusual and primitive kind, are given. The ecclesiastical organization described is under-developed. An itinerant ministry of ‘apostles and prophets’ is of great importance; they are described as ‘your chief priests’ and may celebrate the Eucharist. At the same time a local ministry of bishops and deacons is also envisaged and seems to be taking the place of the itinerant ministry.

The author, date, and place of origin are unknown. The work was quoted as Scripture by Clement of Alexandria, and is mentioned by Eusebius of Caesarea and by Athanasius. It is the earliest of the series of ‘Church Orders’, and forms the basis of the 7th Book of the ‘Apostolic Constitutions’. Although in the past many English and American scholars tended to assign it to the late 2nd cent., most scholars now place it in the 1st cent. It describes the life of a Christian community, prob. in Syria. The author knew the tradition of Christ’s teaching which lies behind the Gospels. The ‘Two Ways’ section is closely paralleled in the Ep. of Barnabas (18 ff.) and the Latin Doctrina Apostolorum (once thought to be a translation of the Didache); it seems likely that they are all based on an earlier Jewish source.

The only known MS (written in 1056) was discovered by P. Bryennios at the ‘Jerusalem Monastery of the Holy Sepulchre’ at Constantinople in 1873 and published by him in 1883.

Ed., with facsimile, by J. R. Harris (Baltimore and London, 1887). Other edns. by A. Harnack (TU 2, Hefte 1–2; 1884), with crit. comm. by J.-P. Audet, OP (Études Bibliques, 1958), and by W. Rordorf and A. Tuilier (SC 248; 1978), as well as in the modern edns. of the Apostolic Fathers (q.v.). Eng. tr. by C. Bigg (1898; rev. by A. J. Maclean, 1922). Doctrina Apostolorum, ed. J. Schlecht from Cod. Monac. 6264 (11th cent.) at Freiburg i.B., 1900; cf. B. Altaner, ‘Zum Problem der lateinischen Doctrina Apostolorum’, VC 6 (1952), pp. 160–7; repr. in his Kleine patristische Schriften (TU 83; 1967), pp. 335–42. Coptic frag. in Brit. Lib. (MS Or. 9271), ed. G. Horner, JTS 25 (1923–4), pp. 225–31; cf. C. Schmidt in ZNTW 24 (1925), pp. 81–99. J. A. Robinson, Barnabas, Hermas and the Didache (1920). F. E. Vokes, The Riddle of the Didache (1938). E. Peterson, ‘Ueber einige Probleme der Didache-Ueberlieferung’, Riv. A.C. 27 (1951), pp. 37–60. B. C. Butler, OSB, ‘The Literary Relations of Didache, Ch. xvi’, JTS NS 11 (1960), pp. 265–83; id., ‘The “Two Ways” in the Didache’, ibid. 12 (1961), pp. 27–38. L. Clerici, Einsammlung der Zerstreuten: Liturgiegeschichtliche Untersuchung zur Vor-und Nachgeschichte der Fürbitte für die Kirche in Didache 9, 4 und 10, 5 (Liturgiewissenschaftliche Quellen und Forschungen, 44; 1965);A. Vööbus, Liturgical Traditions in the Didache (Stockholm, 1968). S. Giet, L’Énigme de la Didachè (posthumously pub., 1970); G. Schöllgens, ‘Die Didache als Kirchenordnung’, Jahrbuch für Antike und Christentum, 29 (1986), pp. 5–26. K. Niederwimmer, Die Didache (Ergänzungsreihe zum KEK, 1; 1989; Eng. tr., Hermeneia, Minneapolis [1998]). C. N. Jefford (ed.), The Didache in Context: Essays on its Text, History and Transmission (Supplements to Novum Testamentum, 77; 1995). J. A. Draper (ed.), The Didache in Modern Research (Arbeiten zur Geschichte des antiken Judentums und das Urchristentums, 37; 1996), incl. Eng. tr. of Schöllgens, op. cit., pp. 43–71. H. van de Sandt and D. Flusser, The Didache: Its Jewish Sources and its Place in Early Judaism and Christianity (Compendia Rerum Iudaicarum ad Novum Testamentum, Section 3, vol. 5; Assen and Minneapolis, 2002). CPG 1 (1983), pp. 225 f. (nos. 1735 f.), and Suppl. (1998), p. 37.