Concerning Virtues and Vices



Engl. available online at

On Virtues and Vices tr. adapted by L. Dysinger, O.S.B., based on Rackham, Loeb, vol. 20, pp. 488-503.
Greek: TLG 86.45 De virtutibus et vitiis, ser. Aristotelis opera, vol. 2  (Reimer, Berlin,1831 rpr. De Gruyter, Berlin, 1960) pp. 1249a26-1251b37 edr Bekker, I.







[1249a] 1.1 PRASEWORTHY are good things; blameworthy are shameful things: and of all good things the virtues are the leaders; while the shameful are led by the vices.

Ἐπαινετὰ μέν ἐστι τὰ καλά͵ ψεκτὰ δὲ τὰ αἰσχρά. καὶ τῶν μὲν καλῶν ἡγοῦνται αἱ ἀρεταί͵ τῶν δ΄ αἰσχρῶν αἱ κακίαι.

1.2 Thus praiseworthy, too are: the causes of the virtues; the things that accompany the virtues; the things that result from the virtues and their works; while blameworth are the opposite.

ἐπαινετὰ δ΄ ἐστὶ καὶ τὰ αἴτια τῶν ἀρετῶν καὶ τὰ παρεπόμενα ταῖς ἀρεταῖς καὶ τὰ γινόμενα ἀπ΄ αὐτῶν καὶ τὰ ἔργα αὐτῶν͵ ψεκτὰ δὲ τὰ ἐναντία.

The Location of the Virtues and Vices
in the Tripartite Soul


1.3TRIPARTITE is the soul, as we have received it from Plato: τριμεροῦς δὲ τῆς ψυχῆς λαμβανομένης κατὰ Πλάτωνα͵ τ

[1] the virtue of the reasoning part 1249b is prudence;

οῦ μὲν λογιστικοῦ 1249b ἀρετή ἐστιν ἡ φρόνησις͵

[2] of the irascible part [the virtues are] gentleness and courage;

τοῦ δὲ θυμοειδοῦς ἥ τε πραότης καὶ ἡ ἀνδρεία͵

[3] of the desiring part, temperance (sobriety) and self-control;

τοῦ δὲ ἐπιθυμητικοῦ ἥ τε σωφροσύνη καὶ ἡ ἐγκράτεια͵

[4] while to the whole soul [belong the virtues of] justice, liberality, and magnanimity (greatness of soul)

ὅλης δὲ τῆς ψυχῆς ἥ τε δικαιοσύνη καὶ ἡ ἐλευθεριότης καὶ ἡ μεγαλοψυχία.



1.4 [1] The vice of the reasoning part is imprudence;

κακία δ΄ ἐστὶ τοῦ μὲν λογιστικοῦ ἡ ἀφροσύνη͵

[2] of the irascible part, irritability and cowardice;

τοῦ δὲ θυμοειδοῦς ἥ τε ὀργιλότης καὶ ἡ δειλία͵

[3] of the desiring part, licentiousness and [1250a] self-indulgence;

τοῦ δὲ ἐπιθυμητικοῦ ἥ τε ἀκολασία καὶ ἡ 1250a ἀκράτεια͵

[4] and of the whole soul, injustice, miserliness and mean-spiritedness.

ὅλης δὲ τῆς ψυχῆς ἥ τε ἀδικία καὶ ἀνελευθεριότης καὶ μικροψυχία.

Characteristics of The Virtues


2.1 [1] Prudence is [the] virtue of the reasoning part that provides that which directs one earnestly towards happiness.

Ἔστι δὲ φρόνησις μὲν ἀρετὴ τοῦ λογιστικοῦ͵ παρα σκευαστικὴ τῶν πρὸς εὐδαιμονίαν συντεινόντων.

2.2  [2a] Gentleness is [the] virtue of the irascible part that renders one difficult to provoke to wrath.

πραότης δ΄ ἐστὶν ἀρετὴ τοῦ θυμοειδοῦς͵ καθ΄ ἣν ὑπὸ ὀργῆς γίνονται δυσκίνητοι.

2.3 [2b] Courage is [the] virtue of the irascible part that renders one undismayed by fears concerning death.

ἀνδρεία δ΄ ἐστὶν ἀρετὴ τοῦ θυμοειδοῦς͵ καθ΄ ἣν δυσέκπληκτοί εἰσιν ὑπὸ φόβων τῶν περὶ θάνατον.

2.4 [3a] Temperance is [the] virtue of the desiring part that renders one unaroused by the enjoyment of base pleasures.

σωφροσύνη δ΄ ἐστὶν ἀρετὴ τοῦ ἐπιθυμητικοῦ͵ καθ΄ ἣν ἀνόρεκτοι γίνονται περὶ τὰς ἀπολαύσεις τῶν φαύλων ἡδονῶν.

2.5 [3b] Self-control is [the] virtue of the desiring part that enables one to restrain desires by means of reason when [the desiring part] drifts towards base pleasures.

ἐγκράτεια δ΄ ἐστὶν ἀρετὴ τοῦ ἐπιθυμητικοῦ͵ καθ΄ ἣν κατέχουσι τῷ λογισμῷ τὴν ἐπιθυμίαν ὁρμῶσαν ἐπὶ τὰς φαύλας ἡδονάς.

2.6 [4a] Justice is [the] virtue of [the whole] soul that distributes according to what is deserved.

δικαιοσύνη δ΄ ἐστὶν ἀρετὴ ψυχῆς διανεμητικὴ τοῦ κατ΄ ἀξίαν.

2.7 [4b] Liberality is [the] virtue of [the whole] soul that spends appropriately on beautiful [good] things.

ἐλευθεριότης δ΄ ἐστὶν ἀρετὴ ψυχῆς εὐδάπανος εἰς τὰ καλά.

2.8.[4c] Magnanimity is [the] virtue of [the whole] soul that enables one to bear good fortune or bad, honor or dishonor.

μεγαλοψυχία δ΄ ἐστὶν ἀρετὴ ψυχῆς͵ καθ΄ ἣν δύναται φέρειν εὐτυχίαν καὶ ἀτυχίαν καὶ τιμὴν καὶ ἀτιμίαν.

Characteristics of The Vices


3.1. On the other hand, [1] imprudence is [the] vice of the reasoning part that causes bad living.

Ἀφροσύνη δ΄ ἐστὶ  κακία τοῦ λογιστικοῦ͵ αἰτία τοῦ ζῆν κακῶς.

 3.2. [2a] Irritability is [the] vice of the irascible part that makes one easily provoked to anger.

ὀργιλότης δ΄ ἐστὶ κακία τοῦ θυμοειδοῦς͵ καθ΄ ἣν εὐκίνητοι γίνονται πρὸς ὀργήν.

 3.3. [2b] Cowardice is [the] viceof the irascible part that causes men to be dismayed by fear, and especially (20) by fear of death.

δειλία δ΄ ἐστὶ κακία τοῦ θυμοειδοῦς͵ καθ΄ ἣν ἐκπλήττονται ὑπὸ φόβων͵ καὶ μάλιστα τῶν περὶ θάνατον.

3.4. [3a] Licentiousness is [the] vice of the desiring part that makes men desirous of the base pleasures of sensual enjoyment.

ἀκολασία δ΄ ἐστὶ κακία τοῦ ἐπιθυμητικοῦ͵ καθ΄ ἣν αἱροῦνται τὰς φαύλας ἡδονάς. [περὶ μὲν τῆς ἀκρα είας οὐδέν· οὕτω δὲ σὺ δύνασαι ὁρίζειν.]

3.5. [3b] Self-indulgence is [the] vice of the desiring part that makes men choose base pleasures, even when [reason] tries to hinder the irrational desire.

ἀκράτεια δ΄ ἐστὶ κακία τοῦ ἐπιθυμητικοῦ͵ καθ΄ ἣν παρασύρουσι τῇ ἀλογίᾳ τὴν ἐπιθυμίαν ὠθοῦσαν ἐπὶ τὰς τῶν φαύλων  ἡδονῶν ἀπολαύσεις.

3.6. [4a] Injustice is [the] vice of [the whole] soul that makes persons covetous of things they do not deserve.

ἀδικία δ΄ ἐστὶ κακία ψυχῆς͵ καθ΄ ἣν πλεονεκτικοὶ γίνονται παρὰ τὴν ἀξίαν.

3.7. [4b] Miserliness is [the] vice of [the whole] soul that makes one try to get profit from everything.

ἀνελευθερία δ΄ ἐστὶ κακία ψυχῆς͵ καθ΄ ἣν ὀρέγονται τοῦ πανταχόθεν κέρδους.

3.8. [4c] Mean-spiritedness is [the] vice of [the whole] soul that makes one unable to bear good or bad fortune, honor or dishonor.

   μικροψυχία δ΄ ἐστὶ κακία ψυχῆς͵ καθ΄ ἣν ἀδύνατοί εἰσι φέρειν εὐτυχίαν καὶ ἀτυχίαν καὶ τιμὴν καὶ ἀτιμίαν.

Definitions and Traits that Accompany The Virtues


4.1. It pertains to PRUDENCE to take counsel, to judge the goods and evils and all the things in life that are desirable and to be avoided, to use all the available goods finely, to behave rightly in society, to observe due occasions, to employ both speech and action with sagacity, to have expert knowledge of all things that are useful.

Τῆς δὲ φρονήσεώς ἐστι τὸ βουλεύσασθαι͵ τὸ κρῖναι τὰ ἀγαθὰ καὶ τὰ κακὰ καὶ πάντα τὰ ἐν τῷ βίῳ αἱρετὰ καὶ φευκτά͵ τὸ χρῆσθαι πᾶσι καλῶς τοῖς ὑπάρχουσιν ἀγαθοῖς͵ τὸ ὁμιλῆσαι ὀρθῶς͵ τὸ συνιδεῖν τοὺς καιρούς͵ τὸ ἀγχίνως χρήσασθαι καὶ λόγῳ καὶ ἔργῳ͵ τὸ τὴν ἐμπειρίαν ἔχειν τῶν χρησίμων πάντων.

4.2. Memory and experience and acuteness are each of them either a consequence or a concomitant of prudence; or some of them are as it were subsidiary causes of prudence, as for instance experience and memory, others as it were parts of it, for example good counsel and acuteness.

ἡ μνήμη δὲ καὶ ἐμπειρία καὶ ἀγχίνοια ἤτοι ἀπὸ τῆς φρονήσεως ἑκάστη αὐτῶν ἐστίν͵ ἢ παρέπεται τῇ φρονήσει· ἢ τὰ μὲν αὐτῶν οἷον συναίτια τῆς φρονήσεώς ἐστι͵ καθάπερ ἐμπειρία καὶ ἡ μνήμη͵ τὰ δὲ οἷον μέρη αὐτῆς͵ οἷον εὐβουλία καὶ ἀγχίνοια.



4.3. To GENTLENESS pertains the ability to bear reproaches and slights with moderation, and not to embark on revenge quickly, and not to be easily provoked to anger, but free from bitterness and contentiousness, having tranquillity and stability in the spirit.

πραότητος δ΄ ἐστὶ τὸ δύνασθαι φέρειν μετρίως ἐγκλήματα καὶ ὀλιγω ρίας͵ καὶ τὸ μὴ ταχέως ὁρμᾶν ἐπὶ τὰς τιμωρίας͵ καὶ τὸ μὴ εὐκίνητον εἶναι πρὸς τὰς ὀργάς͵ ἄπικρον δὲ τῷ ἤθει καὶ ἀφιλόνεικον͵ ἔχοντα τὸ ἠρεμαῖον ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ καὶ στάσιμον.



4.4. To COURAGE it pertains to be undismayed by fears of death and confident in alarms and [1250b] (1) brave in face of dangers, and to prefer a fine death to base security, and to be a cause of victory.

ἀνδρείας δ΄ ἐστὶ τὸ δυσέκπληκτον ὑπὸ φόβων τῶν περὶ θάνατον͵ καὶ τὸ εὐθαρσῆ ἐν τοῖς δεινοῖς͵ καὶ τὸ 1250b εὔτολμον πρὸς τοὺς κινδύνους͵ καὶ τὸ μᾶλλον αἱρεῖσθαι τε θνάναι καλῶς ἢ αἰσχρῶς σωθῆναι͵ καὶ τὸ νίκης αἴτιον εἶναι.

It also pertains to courage to labor and endure and play a manly part.

ἔτι δὲ ἀνδρείας ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ πονεῖν καὶ καρτερεῖν καὶ αἱρεῖσθαι ἀνδραγαθίζεσθαι.

Courage is accompanied by confidence and bravery and daring, and also by perseverance and endurance.

παρέπεται δὲ τῇ ἀνδρείᾳ καὶ ἡ εὐτολμία καὶ ἡ εὐψυχία καὶ τὸ θάρσος καὶ τὸ θράσος͵ ἔτι δὲ καὶ ἡ φιλοπονία καὶ ἡ καρτερία.



4.5. To TEMPERANCE it pertains not to value highly bodily pleasures and enjoyments, not to be covetous of every enjoyable pleasure, to fear disorder, and to live an orderly life in small things and great alike.

σωφροσύνης δ΄ ἐστὶ τὸ μὴ θαυμάζειν τὰς ἀπολαύσεις τῶν σωματικῶν ἡδονῶν͵ καὶ τὸ εἶναι πάσης ἀπολαύσεως αἰσχρᾶς ἡδονῆς ἀνόρεκτον͵ καὶ τὸ φοβεῖσθαι καὶ τὴν δικαίαν ἄδειαν͵ καὶ τὸ τετάσθαι περὶ τὸν βίον ὁμοίως ἔν τε μικροῖς καὶ μεγάλοις.

Temperance is accompanied by orderliness, regularity, modesty, caution.

παρέπεται δὲ τῇ σωφροσύνῃ εὐταξία͵ κοσμιότης͵ αἰδώς͵ εὐλάβεια.



5.1. To SELF-CONTROL pertains the ability to restrain desire by reason when it is set on base enjoyments and pleasures, and to be resolute, and readiness to endure natural want and pain.

ἐγκρατείας δ΄ ἐστὶ τὸ δύνασθαι κα τασχεῖν τῷ λογισμῷ τὴν ἐπιθυμίαν ὁρμῶσαν ἐπὶ φαύλας ἀπολαύσεις καὶ ἡδονάς͵ καὶ τὸ καρτερεῖν͵ καὶ τὸ ὑπομονητικὸν εἶναι τῆς κατὰ φύσιν ἐνδείας καὶ λύπης.



5.2. To JUSTICE it pertains to be ready to distribute according to desert, and to preserve ancestral customs and institutions and the established laws, and to tell the truth when interest is at stake, and to keep agreements. First among the claims of righteousness (20) are our duties to the gods, then our duties to the spirits, then those to country and parents, then those to the departed; and among these claims is piety, which is either a part of righteousness or a concomitant of it. 5.3. 

δικαιοσύνης δ΄ ἐστὶ τὸ διανεμητικὸν εἶναι τοῦ κατ΄ ἀξίαν͵ καὶ σώζειν τὰ πάτρια ἔθη καὶ τὰ νόμιμα͵ καὶ τὸ σώζειν τοὺς γεγραμμένους νόμους͵ καὶ τὸ ἀληθεύειν ἐν τῷ διαφέροντι͵ καὶ τὸ διαφυλάττειν τὰς ὁμολογίας. ἔστι δὲ πρώτη τῶν δικαιοσυνῶν πρὸς τοὺς θεούς͵ εἶτα πρὸς δαίμονας͵ εἶτα πρὸς πατρίδα καὶ γονεῖς͵ εἶτα πρὸς τοὺς κατοιχομένους· ἐν οἷς ἐστὶν ἡ εὐσέβεια͵ ἤτοι μέρος οὖσα δικαιοσύνης ἢ παρακολου θοῦσα.

Justice is also accompanied by holiness and truth and loyalty and hatred of evil.

ἀκολουθεῖ δὲ τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ καὶ ὁσιότης καὶ ἀλήθεια καὶ ἡ πίστις καὶ ἡ μισοπονηρία.



5.4. To LIBERALITY it pertains to be profuse of money on praiseworthy objects and lavish in spending on what is necessary, and to be helpful in a matter of dispute, and not to take from wrong sources. The liberal man is cleanly in his dress and dwelling, and fond of providing himself with things that are above the ordinary and fine and that afford entertainment without being profitable; and he is fond of keeping animals that have something special or remarkable about them.

ἐλευθεριότητος δ΄ ἐστὶ τὸ προετικὸν εἶναι χρημάτων εἰς τὰ ἐπαινετά͵ καὶ δα ψιλῆ ἐπὶ τῷ εἰς τὰ δέοντα ἀναλωθῆναι͵ καὶ τὸ βοηθητι κὸν εἶναι ἐν τῷ διαφόρῳ͵ καὶ τὸ μὴ λαβεῖν ὅθεν μὴ δεῖ. ἔστι δὲ ὁ ἐλευθέριος καὶ περὶ ἐσθῆτα καθαρὸς καὶ περὶ οἴκησιν͵ καὶ κατασκευαστικὸς τῶν περιττῶν καὶ καλῶν καὶ διαγωγὴν ἐχόντων ἡδεῖαν ἄνευ τοῦ λυσιτελοῦντος͵ καὶ θρε πτικὸς τῶν ζῴων τῶν ἴδιον ἐχόντων τι ἢ θαυμαστόν.

5.5. Liberality is accompanied by elasticity and adptability of character, and kindness, and a compassionate and affectionate and hospitable and honorable nature.

ἀκολουθεῖ δὲ τῇ ἐλευθεριότητι τοῦ ἤθους ὑγρότης καὶ εὐαγωγία καὶ φιλανθρωπία καὶ τὸ εἶναι ἐλεητικὸν καὶ φιλόφιλον καὶ φιλόξενον καὶ φιλόκαλον.



5.6. To MAGNANIMITY it pertains to bear finely both good fortune and bad, honor and disgrace, and not to think highly of luxury or attention or power or victories in contests, and to possess a certain depth and magnitude of spirit. He who values life highly and who is fond of life is not magnanimous. The magnanimous man is simple and noble in character, able to bear injustice and not revengeful. μεγαλοψυχίας δ΄ ἐστὶ τὸ καλῶς ἐνεγκεῖν καὶ εὐτυχίαν καὶ ἀτυχίαν καὶ τιμὴν καὶ ἀτιμίαν͵ καὶ τὸ θαυμάζειν μήτε τρυφὴν μήτε θερα πείαν μήτε ἐξουσίαν μήτε τὰς νίκας τὰς ἐναγωνίους͵ ἔχειν δέ τι βάθος τῆς ψυχῆς καὶ μέγεθος. ἔστι δὲ μεγαλόψυ χος οὔθ΄ ὁ τὸ ζῆν περὶ πολλοῦ ποιούμενος οὔθ΄ ὁ φιλόζωος. ἁπλοῦς δὲ τῷ ἤθει καὶ γενναῖος͵ ἀδικεῖσθαι δυνάμενος͵ καὶ οὐ τιμωρητικός.

5.7. Magnanimity is accompanied by simplicity and sincerity.

ἀκολουθεῖ δὲ τῇ μεγαλοψυχίᾳ ἁπλότης καὶ ἀλήθεια.

Definitions and Traits
that Accompany The Vices


6.1. To IMPRUDENCE pertains bad judgement of affairs, bad counsel, bad fellowship, bad use of one's resources, false opinions [1251a] (1) about what is fine and good in life.

Ἀφροσύνης δ΄ ἐστὶ τὸ κρίνειν κακῶς τὰ πράγματα͵ τὸ βουλεύσασθαι κακῶς͵ τὸ ὁμιλῆσαι κακῶς͵ τὸ χρήσασθαι κακῶς τοῖς παροῦσιν ἀγαθοῖς͵ τὸ ψευδῶς δοξάζειν 1251a περὶ τῶν εἰς τὸν βίον καλῶν καὶ ἀγαθῶν.

6.2. Imprudence is accompanied by unskilfulness, ignorance, self-indulgence, awkwardness, forgetfulness.

παρακολουθεῖ δὲ τῇ ἀφροσύνῃ ἀπειρία͵ ἀμαθία͵ ἀκρασία͵ ἐπαριστερότης͵ ἀμνημοσύνη.



6.3. Of IRRITABILITY there are three kinds, irascibility, bitterness, sullenness. It belongs to the irritable man to be unable to bear either small slights or defeats but to be given to retaliation and revenge, and easily moved to anger by any chance deed or word.

ὀργιλότητος δ΄ ἐστὶν εἴδη τρία͵ ἀκροχολία πικρία βαρυθυμία. ἔστι δὲ τοῦ ὀργίλου μὴ δύνασθαι φέρειν μήτε τὰς μικρὰς ὀλιγωρήσεις μήτε ἐλαττώσεις͵ εἶναι δὲ κολαστικὸν καὶ τιμωρητικὸν καὶ εὐκίνητον πρὸς ὀργὴν καὶ ὑπὸ ἔργου καὶ ὑπὸ λόγου τοῦ τυχόντος.

6.4. Irritability is accompanied by excitability of character, instability, bitter speech, and liability to take offence at trifles and to feel these feelings quickly and on slight occasions.

ἀκολουθεῖ δὲ τῇ ὀρ γιλότητι τὸ παροξυντικὸν τοῦ ἤθους καὶ εὐμετάβολον͵ καὶ ἡ πικρολογία͵ καὶ τὸ ἐπὶ μικροῖς λυπεῖσθαι͵ καὶ τὸ ταῦτα πάσχειν ταχέως καὶ παρὰ βραχὺν καιρόν.



6.5. To COWARDICE it pertains to be easily excited by chance alarms, and especially by fear of death or of bodily injuries, and to think it better to save oneself by any means than to meet a fine end. 6.6. 

δειλίας δ΄ ἐστὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν τυχόντων φόβων εὐκίνητον εἶναι͵ καὶ μά λιστα τῶν περὶ θάνατον καὶ τὰς σωματικὰς πηρώσεις͵ καὶ τὸ ὑπολαμβάνειν κρεῖττον εἶναι ὁπωσοῦν σωθῆναι ἢ τελευ τῆσαι καλῶς.

Cowardice is accompanied by softness, unmanliness, faint-heartedness, fondness of life; and it also has an element of cautiousness and submissiveness of character.

ἀκολουθεῖ δὲ τῇ δειλίᾳ μαλακία͵ ἀνανδρία͵ ἀπονία͵ φιλοψυχία. ὕπεστι δέ τις εὐλάβεια καὶ τὸ ἀφι λόνεικον τοῦ ἤθους.



6.7. To LICENTIOUSNESS pertains choosing harmful and base pleasures and enjoyments, and thinking that the happiest people are those who pass their lives in pleasures of that kind, and being fond of laughter and mockery (20) and jokes and levity in words and deeds.

ἀκολασίας δ΄ ἐστὶ τὸ αἱρεῖσθαι τὰς ἀπολαύσεις τῶν ἡδονῶν τῶν βλαβερῶν καὶ αἰσχρῶν͵ καὶ τὸ ὑπολαμβάνειν εὐδαιμονεῖν μάλιστα τοὺς ἐν ταῖς τοιαύ ταις ἡδοναῖς ὄντας͵ καὶ τὸ φιλογέλοιον εἶναι καὶ τὸ φι λοσκώπτην καὶ φιλευτράπελον͵ καὶ τὸ ῥᾳδιουργὸν εἶναι ἐν τοῖς λόγοις καὶ ἐν τοῖς ἔργοις.

6.8. Licentiousness is accompanied by disorder, shamelessness, irregularity, luxury, slackness, carelessness, negligence, remissness.

ἀκολουθεῖ δὲ τῇ ἀκολασίᾳ ἀταξία͵ ἀναίδεια͵ ἀκοσμία͵ τρυφή͵ ῥᾳθυμία͵ ἀμέλεια͵ ὀλι γωρία͵ ἔκλυσις.



6.9. To SELF-INDULGENCE it pertains to choose the enjoyment of pleasures when reason would restrain, and although one believes that it would be better not to participate in them, to participate in them all the same, and while thinking one ought to do fine and expedient things yet to abstain from them for the sake of one's pleasures. 6.10.  ἀκρασίας δ΄ ἐστὶ τὸ κωλύοντος τοῦ λο γισμοῦ τὰς ἀπολαύσεις τῶν ἡδονῶν αἱρεῖσθαι͵ καὶ τὸ ὑπο λαμβάνοντα κρεῖττον εἶναι μὴ μετασχεῖν μὲν αὐτῶν͵ με τέχειν δὲ μηδὲν ἧττον͵ καὶ τὸ οἴεσθαι μὲν δεῖν πράττειν καὶ τὰ καλὰ καὶ τὰ συμφέροντα͵ ἀφίστασθαι δὲ αὐτῶν διὰ τὰς ἡδονάς.

Self-indulgence is accompanied by softness and negligence and in general the same [vices] as those of licentiousness.

ἀκολουθεῖ δὲ τῇ ἀκρασίᾳ μαλακία καὶ μεταμέλεια καὶ τὰ πλεῖστα ταὐτὰ ἃ καὶ τῇ ἀκολασίᾳ.



7.1. Of INJUSTICE there are three kinds, impiety, greed, outrage. 7.2.] Impiety in regard to gods and spirits, or even in regard to the departed and to parents and country, is impiety. 7.3. Impiety in regard to contracts, taking what is in dispute contrary to one's desert, is greed. 7.4. Outrage is the injustice that makes men procure pleasures for themselves while leading others into disgrace; in consequence of which Evenus says about outrage:

ἀδικίας δ΄ ἐστὶν εἴδη τρία͵ ἀσέβεια πλεονεξία ὕβρις. ἀσέβεια μὲν ἡ περὶ θεοὺς πλημμέλεια καὶ περὶ δαίμονας ἢ καὶ περὶ τοὺς κατοιχομένους͵ καὶ περὶ γονεῖς καὶ περὶ πατρίδα· πλεονεξία δὲ περὶ τὰ συμβόλαια͵ παρὰ τὴν ἀξίαν αἱρουμένη τὸ διάφορον· ὕβρις δέ͵ καθ΄ ἣν τὰς ἡδονὰς αὑτοῖς παρασκευάζουσιν͵ εἰς ὄνειδος ἀγαγόντες ἑτέρους͵ ὅθεν Εὔηνος περὶ αὐτῆς λέγει

She who wrongs others
    even when she gains nothing.

 ἥτις κερδαίνουσ΄ οὐδὲν ὅμως ἀδικεῖ.

7.5. And it pertains to injustice to transgress ancestral customs and regulations, to disobey the laws and the rulers, to [1251b] (1) lie, to perjure, to transgress covenants and pledges.

ἔστι δὲ τῆς ἀδικίας τὸ παραβαίνειν τὰ πάτρια ἔθη καὶ τὰ νό μιμα͵ καὶ τὸ ἀπειθεῖν τοῖς νόμοις καὶ τοῖς ἄρχουσι͵ τὸ 1251b ψεύδεσθαι͵ τὸ ἐπιορκεῖν͵ τὸ παραβαίνειν τὰς ὁμολογίας καὶ τὰς πίστεις.

7.6. Injustice is accompanied by slander, imposture, pretence of kindness, malignity, unscrupulousness

ἀκολουθεῖ δὲ τῇ ἀδικίᾳ συκοφαντία͵ ἀλαζονεία͵ φιλανθρωπία προσποίητος͵ κακοήθεια͵ πανουργία.



7.7. Of MISERLINESS there are three kinds, love of base gain, parsimony, niggardliness. 7.8. Love of base gain makes men seek profit from all sources and pay more regard to the profit than to the disgrace; 7.9. parsimony makes them unwilling to spend money on a necessary object; 7.10 niggardliness causes them only to spend in driblets and in a bad way, and to lose more than they gain by not at the proper moment letting go the difference. 7.11. It belongs to miserliness to set a very high value on money and to think nothing that brings profit a disgrace--a menial and servile and squalid mode of life, alien to ambition and to liberality.

ἀνελευθερίας δ΄ ἐστὶν εἴδη τρία͵ αἰσχροκερδία φειδωλία κιμβεία. αἰσχροκερδία μέν͵ καθ΄ ἣν κερδαίνειν ζητοῦσι πανταχόθεν͵ καὶ τὸ κέρδος τῆς αἰσχύνης περὶ πλείονος ποιοῦνται· φειδωλία δ΄ ἐστὶ καθ΄ ἣν ἀδάπανοι γίνονται τῶν χρημάτων εἰς τὸ δέον· κιμβεία δ΄ ἐστὶ καθ΄ ἣν δαπανῶσι μέν͵ κατὰ μικρὸν δὲ καὶ κακῶς͵ καὶ πλέον βλάπτονται τῷ μὴ κατὰ καιρὸν ποιεῖσθαι τὸ διάφορον. ἔστι δὲ τῆς ἀνελευθερίας τὸ περὶ πλείστου ποιεῖσθαι χρήματα͵ καὶ τὸ μηδὲν ὄνειδος ἡγεῖσθαι τῶν ποιούντων τὸ κέρδος͵ βίος θητι κὸς καὶ δουλοπρεπὴς καὶ ῥυπαρός͵ φιλοτιμίας καὶ ἐλευθερίας ἀλλότριος.

7.12. Miserliness is accompanied by pettiness, sulkiness, self-abasement, lack of proportion, ignobleness, misanthropy.

ἀκολουθεῖ δὲ τῇ ἀνελευθεριότητι μικρολογία͵ βαρυθυμία καὶ μικροψυχία͵ ταπεινότης͵ ἀμετρία͵ ἀγένεις͵ μισανθρωπία.



7.13. It pertains to MEAN-SPIRITEDNESS to be unable to bear either honor or dishonor, either good fortune or bad, but to be filled with conceit when honored and puffed up by trifling good fortune, and to be unable to bear (20) even the smallest dishonor and to deem any chance failure a great misfortune, and to be distressed and annoyed at everything. Moreover the mean-spirited man is the sort of person to call all slights an insult and dishonor, even those that are due to ignorance or forgetfulness. μικροψυχίας δ΄ ἐστὶ τὸ μήτε τιμὴν μήτε ἀτιμίαν μήτε εὐτυχίαν μήτε ἀτυχίαν δύνα σθαι φέρειν͵ ἀλλὰ τιμώμενον μὲν χαυνοῦσθαι͵ μικρὰ δὲ εὐτυχήσαντα ὑπεξαίρεσθαι͵ ἀτιμίαν δὲ μηδὲ τὴν ἐλαχί στην ἐνεγκεῖν δύνασθαι͵ ἀπότευγμα δ΄ ἄτην καὶ ἀτυχίαν κρίνειν μεγάλην͵ ὀδύρεσθαι δ΄ ἐπὶ πᾶσι καὶ δυσφορεῖν. ἔτι δὲ τοιοῦτός ἐστιν ὁ μικρόψυχος οἷος πάντα τὰ ὀλιγω ρήματα καλεῖν ὕβριν καὶ ἀτιμίαν͵ καὶ τὰ δι΄ ἄγνοιαν ἢ λήθην γιγνόμενα.

 7.14. Mean-spiritedness is accompanied by pettiness, querulousness, pessimism, self-abasement.

ἀκολουθεῖ δὲ τῇ μικροψυχίᾳ μικρολο γία͵ μεμψιμοιρία͵ δυσελπιστία͵ ταπεινότης.



Conclusions on Virtues




8.1. In general it pertains to virtue to make the spirit's disposition virtuous, experiencing tranquil and ordered emotions and in harmony throughout all its parts; this is the cause of the opinion that the disposition of a good soul is a pattern of a good constitution of the state. 8.2.  Καθόλου δὲ τῆς μὲν ἀρετῆς ἐστὶ τὸ ποιεῖν σπουδαίαν τὴν διάθεσιν περὶ τὴν ψυχήν͵ ἠρεμαίαις καὶ τεταγμέναις κινήσεσι χρωμένην͵ συμφωνοῦσαν κατὰ πάντα τὰ μέρη· διὸ καὶ δοκεῖ παράδειγμα πολιτείας ἀγαθῆς εἶναι ψυχῆς σπουδαία διάθεσις.
It also belongs to virtue to do good to the deserving and love the good and hate the wicked, and not to be eager to inflict punishment or take vengeance, but gracious and kindly and forgiving. ἔστι δὲ ἀρετῆς καὶ τὸ εὐεργετεῖν τοὺς ἀξίους͵ καὶ τὸ φιλεῖν τοὺς ἀγαθούς͵ καὶ τὸ μήτε κολαστικὸν εἶναι μήτε τιμωρητικόν͵ ἀλλὰ ἵλεων καὶ εὐμενικὸν καὶ συγγνωμονικόν.

8.3. Virtue is accompanied by honesty, reasonableness, kindness, hopefulness, and also by such traits as love of home and of friends and comrades and guests, and of one's fellow-men, and love of what is noble--all of which qualities are among those that are praised.

 ἀκολουθεῖ δὲ τῇ ἀρετῇ χρηστότης͵ ἐπιείκεια͵ εὐγνωμοσύνη͵ ἐλπὶς ἀγαθή.ἔτι δὲ καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα οἷον φίλοικον εἶναι καὶ φιλόφιλον͵ φιλέταιρον͵ φιλόξενον͵ φι λάνθρωπον καὶ φιλόκαλον· ἃ δὴ πάντα τῶν ἐπαινουμένων ἐστίν.

8.4. To vice pertain the opposite qualities. [and it has the opposite concomittants: all the qualities and concomitants of vice are among the things that are blamed.]

τῆς δὲ κακίας ἐστὶ τὰ ἐναντία.



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