from the
on the
Lumen Gentium 10-11, 26
(Vatican II, Lumen Gentium, 21 Nov. 1964)


 Last Supper, Ravenna





10. CHRIST the Lord, high priest taken from among human beings (cf. Heb. 5:1-5), made the new people a kingdom of priests to God, his Father (Rev. 1:6; cf. 5:9-10).

10. Christus Dominus, Pontifex ex hominibus assumptus (cf. Hebr. 5,1-5) novum populum "fecit regnum et sacerdotes Deo et Patri suo" (Apoc. 1,6; cf. 5,9-10).

The baptized, by regeneration and the annointing of the Holy Spirit, are consecrated to be a spiritual house and a holy priesthood, that through all the works of Christian people they may offer spiritual sacrifices and proclaim the perfection of him who has called them out of darkness into his marvellous light (cf. 1 Pet.2:4-10).

Baptizati enim, per regenerationem et Spiritus Sancti unctionem consecrantur in domum spiritalem et sacerdotium sanctum, ut per omnia opera hominis christiani spirituales offerant hostias, et virtutes annuntient Eius qui de tenebris eos vocavit in admirabile lumen suum (cf. 1 Petr. 2,4-10).

THEREFORE all the disciples of Chist, persevering in prayer and praising God (cf. Acts 2:42-47), should present themselves as a sacrifice, living, holy, and pleasing to God (cf. Rom. 12.1).

Ideo universi discipuli Christi, in oratione perseverantes et collaudantes Deum (cf. Act. 2,42 ad 47), seipsos hostiam viventem, sanctam, Deo placentem exhibeant (cf. Rom. 12,1),

They should everywhere on earth bear witness to Christ and give an answer to everyone who asks a reason for the hope of an eternal life which is theirs. (cf. 1 Pet. 3:15).

ubique terrarum de Christo testimonium perhibeant, atque poscentibus rationem reddant de ea, quae in eis est, spe vitae aeternae (cf. 1 Petr. 3,15)

       Though they differ essentially and not only in degree, the common priesthood of the faithful and the ministerial or hierarchical priesthood are none the less ordered one to another; each in its own proper way shares in the one priesthood of Christ. [See Pius XII, Alloc. Magnificate Dominum,2 Nov. 1954: AAS 46 (1954) p. 669. Litt. Encycl. Mediator Dei, 20 Nov. 1947: AAS 39 (1947) p.555]

Sacerdotium autem commune fidelium et sacerdotium ministerale seu hierarchicum, licet essentia et non gradu tantum defferant, ad invicem tamen ordinantur; unum enim et alterutrum suo peculiari modo de uno Christi sacerdotio participant.2

The ministerial priest, by the sacred power that he has, forms and rules the priestly people; in the person of Christ he effects the eucharistic sacrifice and offers it to God in the name of all the people.

Sacerdos quidem ministerialis, potestate sacra qua gaudet, populum sacerdotalem efformat ac regit, sacrificium eucharisticum in persona Christi conficit illudque nomine totius populi Deo offert;

THE faithful indeed, by virtue of their royal priesthood, participate in the offering of the Eucharist.3

fideles vero, vi regalis suo sacerdotii, in oblationem Eucharistiae concurrunt,3

They exercise that priesthood, too, by[:]

(1) the reception of the sacraments,

(2) prayer and thanksgiving,

(3) the witness of a holy life,

(4) abnegation

(5) and active charity.


in sacramentis suscipiendis,

in oratione et gratiarum actione,

testimonio vitae sanctae,


et actuosa caritate exercent.





11. The sacred nature and organic structure of the priestly community is brought into operation through the sacraments and the exercise of virtues. 

11. Indoles sacra et organice extructa communitatis sacerdotalis et per sacramenta et per virtutes ad actum deducitur.

Incorporated into the Church by Baptism, the faithful are appointed by their baptismal character to religious worship; reborn as sons of God, they must profess before men the faith they have received from God through the Church.4

Fideles per baptismum in Ecclesia incorporati, ad cultum religionis christianae charactere deputantur et, in filios Dei regenerati, fidem quam a Deo per Ecclesiam acceperunt coram hominibus profiteri tenentur.4

By the sacrament of Confirmation they are more perfectly bound to the Church and are endowed with the special strength of the Holy Spirit.  Hence they are, as true witnesses of Christ, more strictly obliged to spread the faith by word and deed.5  

Sacramento confirmationis perfectius Ecclesiae vinculantur, speciali Spiritus Sancti robore ditantur, sicque ad fidem tamquam veri testes Christi verbo et opere simul diffundendam et defendendam arctius obligantur.5

TAKING part in the eucharistic sacrifice, the source and summit of the Christian life, they offer the divine victim to God and themselves along with it.6

Sacrificium eucharisticum, totius vitae christianae fontem et culmen, participantes, divinam Victimam Deo offerunt atque seipsos cum ea;6

And so it is that, both in the offering and in Holy Communion, each in his own way, though not of course indiscriminately, has his own part to play in the liturgical action.

ita tum oblatione tum sacra communione, non promiscue sed alii aliter, omnes in liturgica actione partem propriam agunt.

Then, strengthened by the body of Christ in the eucharistic communion, they manifest in a concrete way that unity of the People of God which this holy sacrament aptly signifies and admirably realizes.

Porro corpore Christi in sacra synaxi refecti, unitatem Populi Dei, quae hoc augustissimo sacramento apte significatur et mirabiliter efficitur, modo concreto exhibent.










26. A bishop marked with the fullness of the sacrament of Orders, is “the steward of the grace of the supreme priesthood,” (48*) especially in the Eucharist, which he offers or causes to be offered,(49*) and by which the Church continually lives and grows. This Church of Christ is truly present in all legitimate local congregations of the faithful which, united with their pastors, are themselves called churches in the New Testament.(50*) For in their locality these are the new People called by God, in the Holy Spirit and in much fullness.(167) In them the faithful are gathered together by the preaching of the Gospel of Christ, and the mystery of the Lord’s Supper is celebrated, that by the food and blood of the Lord’s body the whole brotherhood may be joined together.(51*) In any community of the altar, under the sacred ministry of the bishop,(52*) there is exhibited a symbol of that charity and “unity of the mystical Body, without which there can be no salvation.”(53*) In these communities, though frequently small and poor, or living in the Diaspora, Christ is present, and in virtue of His presence there is brought together one, holy, catholic and apostolic Church.(54*)

26. Episcopus, plenitudine sacramenti Ordinis insignitus, est "oeconomus gratiae supremi sacerdotii"(84), praesertim in Eucharistia, quam ipse offert vel offerri curat(85), et qua continuo vivit et crescit Ecclesia. Haec Christi Ecclesia vere adest in omnibus, legitimis fidelium congregationibus localibus, quae, pastoribus suis adhaerentes, et ipsae in Novo Testamento ecclesiae vocantur(86). Hae sunt enim loco suo Populus novus a Deo vocatus, in Spiritu Sancto et in plenitudine multa (cf. 1Thess 1,5). In eis praedicatione Evangelii Christi congregantur fideles et celebratur mysterium Coenae Domini, "ut per escam et sanguinem Domini corporis fraternitas cuncta copuletur"(87) In quavis altaris communitate, sub Episcopi sacro ministerio(88), exhibetur symbolum illius caritatis et "unitatis Corporis mystici, sine qua non potest esse salus"(89). In his communitatibus, licet saepe exiguis et pauperibus, vel in dispersione degentibus, praesens est Christus, cuius virtute consociatur una, sancta, catholica et apostolica Ecclesia(90).

theosis in holy communion

For “the partaking of the body and blood of Christ does nothing other than make us be transformed into that which we consume”. (Leo the Great, Sermon 63, 7 PL54 357C) [...]

Etenim "non aliud agit participatio corporis et sanguinis Christi, quam ut in id quod sumimus transeamus"(91).  [...]



3 See Pius XI, Litt. Encycl. Miserentissimus Redemptor, 8 May 1928: AAS 20 (1928) p. 171; Pius XII, Alloc. Vous nous avez,22 Sept. 1956: AAS 48 (1956) p. 714.

4 See St. Thomas, Summa Theol. III, q. 63, a. 2.

5 See St. Cyril of Jerusalem, Catech. 17, de Spiritu Sancto, II, 35-37: PG 33 1009-1012. Nic. Cabasilas, De Vita in Christo, bk. III, de utilitate chrismatis: PG  150, 569-580.  St. Thomas, Summa Theol. III, q. 65 a. 3 and q. 72, a. 1 and 5.

6 See Pius XII, Litt. Encycl. Mediator Dei, loc. cit., especially p. 552 s.


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