παράδεισος [paradeisos]
Liddell/Scott & Kittel


Liddel/Scott: The Meaning of the Greek Word

πᾰρᾰδεισος, (also παράδισος SIG463.8 (Crete, iii b.c.)), enclosed park or pleasure-ground, Oriental word first used by Xenophon (v.-iv C.B.C.)., always in reference to the parks of the Persian kings and nobles; π. μέγας ἀγρίων θηρίων πλήρης An.1.2.7; π. δασὺς παντοίων δένδρων ib. 2.4.14; τὰ ἐν π. θηρία Cyr.1.3.14; θῆραι .. ἐν περιειργμένοις παραδείσοις HG4.1.15, cf. Thphr.HP4.4.1, AJA16.13 (Sardes, 300 b.c.), LxxNe.2.8, Plu.Art.25.


2. generally, garden, orchard, PRev.Laws33.11 (iii b.c.), PCair.Zen.33.3 (iii b.c.), OGI90.15 (Rosetta, ii b.c.), LxxCa.4.13, Ec.2.5, CIG2694b (Mylasa), PFay.55.7 (ii a.d.), etc.

3. the garden of Eden, LxxGe.2.8.

b. Paradise, the abode of the blessed, Ev.Luc.23.43, 2Ep.Cor.12.4, pl., παραδίζοισι κατοικῶ AS5.32.24 (N. Phrygia, iv a.d.).

c. expl. of μακάρων νῆσοι, Hes.Op.169.


 παράδεισος*ᾅδης, I, 146, 33 ff.

Contents: A. History of the Word: 1. In Greek; 2. In Hebrew and Aramaic. B. Paradise in the Later Judaism of the NT Period: 1. Paradise in the First Age; 2. The Return of Paradise in the Last Age; 3. The Hiddenness of Paradise in the Present Time; 4. The Identity of the Paradise of the First Time, the Last Time, and the Intervening Time. C. Paradise in the New Testament: 1. The First, Hidden, and Last Paradise in the NT; 2. Paul’s Rapture into the Hidden Paradise (2 C. 12:4); 3. Fellowship with Christ in Paradise (Lk. 23:43); 4. Paradise and Hades in the Christological Statements of the NT; 5. Jesus. the One who Brings Back Paradise.

A.     History of the Word.

1. παράδεισος is a loan word from old Persian, where the pairi-daēza- (read pari-daiza- or -dēza-) of the Avesta denotes an enclosure, then the park surrounded by a wall.1 In Gk. it occurs first in Xenoph. for the parks of the Persian king and nobility.2 Already by the 3rd cent. b.c. it can then be used generally for a “park.”3 In Jewish Gk., from the LXX on, it is used esp. for the garden of God in the creation story (LXX Gn. 2:8–10, 16 etc.).4 More exactly God’s garden as distinct from secular parks is ὁ παράδεισος τοῦ θεοῦ (LXX Gn. 13:10; Ez. 28:13; 31:8; cf. ὡς παράδεισος κυρίου, Is. 51:3)5 or ὁ παράδεισος τῆς τρυφῆς (LXX Gn. 2:15 vl.; 3:23f.; Is. 51:3 vl.; Ez. 31:9; cf. ὡς παράδεισος τρυφῆς, Jl. 2:3; ὡς κῆπος τρυφῆς, Ez. 36:35).6 This involves a notable shift in meaning; the LXX has moved the term from the profane sphere to the religious. Test. L. 18:10 (→ n. 16) was then the first to give the simple word the technical sense of “Paradise.”7 This religious use is in the pseudepigr. extended to the intervening hidden Paradise (→ 767, 15 ff.) and the eschatological reappearance (→ 767, 3 ff.) of Paradise. In Jewish Gk. it seems to have led to the replacement of παράδεισος in the secular sense by κῆπος.8

2. The Persian term was adopted in Heb. and Aram. too (Heb. פַּרְדֵּס, Aram. פַּרְדֵּיסָא) Here, however, it kept its profane sense and was used for “garden,” “park.”9 Only once10 does פַּרְדֵּס have a transf. sense in older Rabb. literature. In this instance it is used for metaphysical Gnostic speculations which are cosmogonic in content,11 but the exception is due to Jewish Gk. influence. The consistent Rabb. term for the Paradise of the first, the intervening, and the last time is Heb. גַּן עֵדֶן, Aram. גִּנְּתָא דְעֵדֶן.12

B.     Paradise in the Later Judaism of the New Testament Period.13

1.     Paradise in the First Age.

The exclusive starting-point of all later Jewish statements about the Paradise of the first age is the Paradise story in Gn. 2 f. If this alone offered rich materials for imaginative adornment,14 this tendency was increased even further by the combination of Paradise with the eschatological hope.

2.     The Return of Paradise in the Last Age.

The hope of a future time of bliss, which is commonly attested in the OT, may be traced back to long before the Exile. The depiction of this age uses Paradise motifs.15 The last time is like the first. Ez. is the first explicitly to compare the expected time of salvation with the Paradise of the first age, 36:35; Is. 51:3. Only in pre-Christian apocalyptic, however, do we find the idea that the Paradise of the last age is identical with that of the first,16 that the Paradise of the first age reappears in that of the last. The site of reopened Paradise17 is almost without exception the earth,18 or the new Jerusalem.19 Its most important gifts are the fruits of the tree of life,20 the water and bread of life,21 the banquet of the time of salvation,22 and fellowship with God.23 The belief in resurrection gave assurance that all the righteous, even those who were dead, would have a share in reopened Paradise.

3.     The Hiddenness of Paradise in the Present Time.

Identification of the Paradise of the first age with that of the second necessarily carried with it the further idea that Paradise exists now in hidden form. This hidden Paradise is first mentioned in Eth. En. Throughout apocalyptic it is the present abode of the souls of the departed patriarchs,24 the elect and the righteous,25 and Enoch and Elijah, who were translated thither during their lifetime.26 Whereas according to the older view sheol received the souls of all the dead, only the ungodly were now sought in sheol and the righteous in Paradise, → I, 147, 11–16. Hell. ideas about the future life played a normative part in this reconstruction of the concept of the intermediate state (→ n. 13). It should be noted, however, that both old and new ideas were still current in the NT period. Either Hades or Paradise (→ I, 147, 22–30) is here the abode of the souls of the righteous after death. This duality is important for an understanding of the statements about what happened to Jesus between Good Friday and Easter Day, → 771, 37 ff.

Pre-Christian apocalyptic has no consistent answer to the question where this hidden Paradise is to be found. a. The older view seeks it on earth, usually in the extreme East (cf. Gn. 2:8),27 also the North (Eth. En. 61:1–4; 77:3; cf. Is. 14:13) or Northwest (Eth. En. 70:3 f.), or the extreme West,28 or on a high mountain reaching up to heaven, cf. Ez. 28:13 f.29 b. Closely related to the notion of a high mountain whose peak reaches into heaven is the idea, found from the 1st cent. a.d., that after Adam’s fall Paradise was translated to God (S. Bar. 4:3, 6), and that since then it has been in heaven,30 or more precisely in the third heaven.31 Conceptually statements about the delights of the intervening32 and the eschatological Paradise33 merge into one another, though the former are not so strong, esp. in apocalyptic literature.

4.     The Identity of the Paradise of the First Time, the Last Time, and the Intervening Time.

That we do not have three distinct entities in the Paradise of the first, the last, and the intervening time, but one and the same garden of God, may be seen quite indubitably from both the terminology and the content of the relevant statements. As regards the terms, Paradise in all three ages is παράδεισος in the Gk., גַּן עֵדֶן in the Heb., גִּנְּתָא דְעֵדֶן in Aram.34 As regards the content, identity is proved esp. by the common mention of the tree of life in statements about the intervening and the eschatological Paradise.35

C.     Paradise in the New Testament.

In the NT the word παράδεισος—and this can hardly be accidental (→ 772, 33 ff.)—occurs only three times (Lk. 23:43; 2 C. 12:4; Rev. 2:7), though the thing itself is more common.

1.     The First, Hidden, and Last Paradise in the New Testament.

The Paradise of the first age is not mentioned under the term παράδεισος but there are in the NT repeated refs. to the story of Paradise, → I, 141 ff. In his paradisial state Adam had δόξα (R. 3:23); sin and death were unknown (R. 5:12; 8:20); there was no divorce (Mt. 19:8b).

In its present concealment Paradise is according to Lk. 23:43 the abode of the souls of the redeemed in the intermediate state between death and resurrection. Elsewhere, however, the word παράδεισος is used for the hidden Paradise only in 2 C. 12:4. As later Judaism had no consistent view of the intermediate state of the righteous, but used many other figures of speech as well as גַּן עֵדֶן,36 so the NT has other expressions as well as παράδεισος for the state of the redeemed after death: table fellowship with Abraham (ἐν τοῖς κόλποις Ἀβραάμ, Lk. 16:23),37 being with the Lord (2 C. 5:8), σὺν Χριστῷ εἶναι (Phil. 1:23 cf. Ac. 7:59; Jn. 12:26), the heavenly kingdom (2 Tm. 4:18), the heavenly Jerusalem (Hb. 12:22), abiding-places in the Father’s house (Jn. 14:2).38 As concerns the location of the hidden Paradise, it appears from Mk. 13:27 that Jesus sought it in the heavenly world, for the assembling of the elect from the four winds from the point of earth to the point of heaven is the assembling of the living and the dead (who dwell in Paradise), → 516, 18 ff.39

Paradise as now concealed points beyond itself to its eschatological return. The first saying to the victors in Rev. 2:7 refers to this: Τῷ νικῶντι δώσω αὐτῷ φαγεῖν ἐκ τοῦ ξύλου τῆς ζωῆς,40 ὅ ἐστιν ἐν τῷ παραδείσῳ τοῦ θεοῦ, → 766, 3 f. That it is really speaking of the eschatological Paradise may be seen from the fact that all the victor sayings in the seven letters of Rev.41 have an eschatological character, and also from the fact that the gift of enjoyment of the fruit of the tree of life is an established attribute of the Paradise of the last time.42 Even though the word “paradise” is not used, the garden of God is in Rev. the epitome of the glory of the consummation. The Jerusalem of the last time is depicted as Paradise when ref. is made to the trees of life by the water of life (22:1f., cf. 14, 19), to the destruction of the old serpent (20:2 cf. 10), and to freedom from suffering, affliction and death (21:4). According to 21:2, 10 the eschatological Paradise is centred on the Jerusalem of the renewed earth.

2.     Paul’s Rapture into the Hidden Paradise (2 C. 12:4).

In writing which has all the force of an experience whose strange character is expressed by the use of the third person, Paul mentions in 2 C. 12:4 a rapture into Paradise, that is, acc. to established usage (→ 767, 18 ff.), the place of the righteous departed.43 The reserve which leads him to make only a brief reference distinguishes his account from the fantastic descriptions of heavenly journeys by contemporary Hellenistic mystics and Jewish apocalyptists.44 Since we cannot say for certain whether the rapture to the third heaven in 12:2 is the same as that into Paradise in v. 4,45 we do not know whether Paul located Paradise in the third heaven (→ 534, 25 ff.; 768, 17) or in some other place (→ 768, 10 ff.). All that can be said for certain is that ineffable revelations (ἄρρητα ῥήματα) were granted to him in Paradise.

Since Pl. says in the introductory words that he is going to tell about visions of Christ (ὀπτασίαςκυρίου, 2 C. 12:1), one is tempted to conclude that he saw Christ among the departed in Paradise.46 But against this is the cogent consideration that 14 years before writing 2 C. Paul still had no specific Christian pronouncement to make on the intermediate state, → 771, 22 ff. Hence ὀπτασίας κυρίου is to be taken as a gen. auct. (not obj.), → 357, 19 ff.

3.     Fellowship with Christ in Paradise (Lk. 23:43).

According to Lk. the penitent thief prayed to Jesus: “Be graciously mindful of me (→ IV, 677, 6 ff.) when thou comest again47 as king,”48 i.e., at the last judgment49 (23:42). The answer of Jesus: ἀμήν σοι λέγω, σήμερον50 μετ᾽ ἐμοῦ ἔσῃ ἐν τῷ παραδείσῳ (23:43), goes beyond what is asked, for it promises the thief that already to-day he will enjoy fellowship with Jesus in Paradise. Paradise is here the place which receives the souls of the righteous departed after death, → 767, 18 ff.51 It is thus the hidden (intervening) Paradise.52 But in the eschatological → σήμερον there is also expressed the hic et nunc of the dawn of the age of salvation. In the promise of forgiveness the “one day” becomes the “to-day” of fulfilment. Paradise is opened even to the irredeemably lost man hanging on the cross. He is promised fellowship with the Messiah. This shows how unlimited is the remission of sins in the age of forgiveness which has now dawned.53

In the martyr stories of later Judaism a recurrent feature is that converted Gentiles who (voluntarily or otherwise) share the destiny of the martyrs will also share their reward. Thus, when the fate of the martyr Chananiah b. Teradyon (c. 135 a.d.), who was condemned to be burned to death, was announced to a philosopher, he said: “Tomorrow my portion will be with this man in the future world,” S. Dt. on 32:4 § 307. It has thus been concluded that the promise to the malefactor represents a special privilege,54 i.e., ordination to be a companion of the Messiah,55 cf. 4 Esr. 14:9: “Thou thyself wilt be translated, and henceforth thou wilt be with my servant (the Messiah, → 681, 16 ff.) and with those like thee, until the times are at an end,” cf. 7:28. But closer to the saying to the thief is Eth. En. 39:4 ff.; 70:1–4, where the Son of Man is with the righteous departed. The other NT statements about the intermediate state, which extend the promise of fellowship with Christ after death to all believers, are against a restrictive interpretation which would isolate Lk. 23:43.

The NT consistently represents fellowship with Christ after death as the distinctively Christian view of the intermediate state. Stephen prays: κύριε Ἰησοῦ, δέξαι τὸ πνεῦμά μου, (Ac. 7:59). Paul in the older epistles has no authority to pronounce on the intermediate state,56 but he expects the union of the dead with Christ only after the parousia, 1 Th. 4:17. When he does speak of the intermediate state, however, fellowship with Christ is its sole content, 2 C. 5:8; Phil. 1:23; 2 Tm. 4:18; cf. R. 8:38 f.; 14:7–9. The σὺν Χριστῷ of Phil. 1:23 is simply the μετ᾽ ἐμοῦ of Lk. 23:43 in the third person. Though Paul was obviously acquainted with the Paradise traditions (→ 770, 8 ff.), he ignores them and refers the hope directly to Christ. In exactly the same way Jn. 12:26; 14:2 f. and Rev. 7:9–17 set fellowship with Christ in the centre. This assurance entails a radical refashioning of ideas about the future by faith in Christ. All fantastic speculations concerning the hidden Paradise and its delights are set aside.

4. Paradise and Hades in the Christological Statements of the New Testament.57

In the NT statements concerning what happens to Jesus directly after death we find two different views, namely, that of descent and that of ascent. On the one side the saying to the thief implies the entry of Jesus into Paradise (Lk. 23:43, cf. v. 46). The Christology of Hb. also gives us a depiction of Jesus offering His blood in the heavenly sanctuary (Hb. 7:26 f.; 9:11–14). Similarly, the → ὑψοῦσθαι sayings in Jn. (3:14; 8:28; 12:32) interrelate the lifting up on the cross and the exaltation to the heavenly world.58 On the other side we have statements about the sojourn in → ᾅδης (R. 10:7; Ac. 2:27, 31; Mt. 12:40) and the redemptive work there (1 Pt. 3:19 f.; 4:6; cf. Rev. 1:18).59 The two conceptions arose independently. Those which imply ascent are linked to apocalyptic ideas like those in Eth. En. 39:4 ff.; 70:3 f., while those which imply descent are based on Ps. 16:8–11 (Ac. 2:25–28). The decisive pt. is that the context of both groups of sayings expresses the same assurance of faith, though in different garb. This is the certainty that the atoning efficacy of Christ’s death is unique, unrestricted, and universal.60

5. Jesus, the One Who Brings Back Paradise.61

In the victor saying in Rev. 2:7 the exalted Lord promises that He will give to eat of the fruit of the tree of life in the Paradise of God. He is thus shown to be the awaited Messiah who “will open the gates of paradise, remove the sword which threatened Adam. and give the saints to eat of the tree of life,” Test. L. 18:10 f. The new thing as compared with the OT and later Judaism, however, is the fact that the message of the Gospels goes much further when it says that the return of Paradise has come already with the coming of Jesus. Jesus Himself declared this when in Mt. 11:5 (par. Lk. 7:22) He showed by word and deed that His proclamation is a fulfilment of the depiction of Paradise in Is. 35:5 f. and when He accordingly made the divine will in Paradise binding again upon His disciples, Mk. 10:2–12 and par. The Marcan version of the temptation also depicts Jesus as the one who brings back the garden of God (ἦν μετὰ τῶν θηρίων, καὶ οἱ ἄγγελοι διηκόνουν αὐτῷ, Mk. 1:13),62 and the chorus in Mk. 7:37 extols Him in quotations from Gn. 1:31 and Is. 35:5 f. According to Jn. Jesus offered in His own person both the bread and the water of life, the ancient symbols of Paradise.63 All these passages express the certainty that Jesus is already the one who brings back Paradise.64

In the 2nd century one can see an invasion of Christian writings by sayings about Paradise from Jewish apocalyptic, cf. the (inauthentic) agraphon which Papias (c. 130) quotes and which has Jesus depict in fantastic terms the fruitfulness of the last time.65 This relapse perhaps explains why the term “paradise” is so rare in the NT; it could so easily divert attention to the external aspects. For Jesus and the primitive Church the garden is not important as an independent entity. What really matters is not the felicity of Paradise but the restoration of the communion with God which was broken by Adam’s fall.

Joachim Jeremias


before the heading of an article indicates that all the New Testament passages are mentioned in it.

* παράδεισος. Str.-B., I, 207–214; III, 533 f.; IV, 892 f., 965–967, 1020 f., 1118–1165 (basic). Also Deissmann B., 146; Ide Vuippens, Le paradis terrestre au troisième ciel (1925); Volz Esch., 395 f., 412–419; J. B. Frey, “La vie de l’au-delà dans les conceptions juives au temps de Jésus-Christ,” Biblica, 13 (1932), 129–168; O. Michel, “Der Mensch zwischen Tod u. Gericht,” Theologische Gegenwartsfragen, ed. O. Eissfeldt (1940), 6–28; E. Langton, Good and Evil Spirits (1942), Index, s.v. “Paradise”; K. Galling, Art. “Paradeisos,” Pauly-W., 18, 2 (1949), 1131–1134; J. Jeremias, “Zwischen Karfreitag u. Ostern,” ZNW, 42 (1949), 194–201; J. Daniélou, Sacramentum futuri (1950), 3–52; H. Bietenhard, D. himmlische Welt im Urchr. u. im Spätjudt. (== Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen z. NT, 2 [1951]), 161–191.

NT New Testament.

1 Pari-daiza-corresponds etym. to a (non-attested) Gk. περίτοιχος, and belongs to the Indo-Europ. root dheigh- “to knead” (cf. Gk. τεῖχος, τοῖχος, Germ. “Teig,” Lat. fingo), v. Boisacq, 746 f.; J. Pokorny, Indogermanisches etym. Wörterbuch (1949 ff.), 244 f.; E. Kieckers in Indogerm. Forschungen, 38 (1917/20), 212 f.; παρα- instead of the etym. corresponding περι- is an assimilation of the Iranian pari- to the Gk. prep. παρα- [Debrunner].

Gk. Greek.

Xenoph. Xenophon, of Athens (c. 430–354 b.c.), pupil of Socrates, author of various historical, philosophical and scholarly works, ed. E. C. Marchant, 1900 ff.

2 Instances in Liddell-Scott, s.v.; also once in LXX at 2 Εσδρ. 12:8 (Neh. 2:8).

3 Pap. inscr., LXX (Nu. 24:6; Qoh. 2:5 etc.); Apcr. Ez. (in Epiph.Haer., 64, 70. 5–17); Philo; Jos. (Schl. Lk., 451: only in this sense).

esp. especially.

4 Equivalent in the Heb. OT גַּן, occasionally עֵדֶן as a name for Paradise (Sir. 40:27: Is. 51:3 LXX vl. Σ).

5 Fig. the righteous are ὁ παράδεισος τοῦ κυρίου, τὰ ξύλα τῆς ζωῆς (Ps. Sol. 14:3).

vl. varia lectio.

6 τρυφή is a rendering of the Heb. עֵדֶן. The LXX (except Sir. 40:27, where παράδεισος) usually has τρυφή for עֵדֶן, only at Gn. 2:8, 10; 4:16, where the Heb. indicates by prepositions that Eden is meant to be a place-name, does its have the transcription Εδεμ.

Test. L. Testament of Levi.

16 Test. L. 18:10 f.: “He himself (the priestly Messiah) will open the gates of Paradise, take away the sword which threatened Adam, and give the saints to eat of the tree of life; then will the spirit of holiness rest upon them”; Test. D. 5:12; Eth. En. 25:4 f.: The tree of life will be planted in the temple; cf. Slav. En. 65:9 A, 10 B; 4 Esr. 7:36, 123; 8:52; Apc. Mos. 13 etc. Rabb. writings are hesitant and restrained here (Str.-B., IV, 892 f.); this is connected with the Rabb. injunction to treat eschatological statements as arcanum (ibid., 1151g).

7 As against Deissmann B., 146, who thinks the first use as a tt. is in Paul (2 C. 12:4).

pseudepigr. pseudepigraphical.

8 In the NT the garden is always κῆπος, Lk. 13:19; Jn. 18:1, 26; 19:41 (twice), never παράδεισος.

Heb. Hebrew.

Aram. Aramaic.

9 In the OT only 3 late vv.: Cant. 4:13; Qoh. 2:5 (== park); Neh. 2:8 (forest of the Persian king in Palestine). Later T. Sukka, 2, 3; T. Jom tob, 1, 10; T. Taan., 4, 7 (twice); T. Ar., 2, 8; b.Sanh., 91a b; b.Ar., 14a etc. Aram.: Tg. J. I, Gn. 14:3; J. II, Gn. 21:33; Tg. Ju. 4:5; Tg. Qoh. 2:5; Tg. Job 2:11; b.BM, 73a, 103a etc.

10 Str.-B., IV, 1119 β.

Rabb. Rabbis,

11 T. Chag., 2, 3 par. jChag., 2, 1 (77b); b.Chag., 14b; Midr. Cant. on 1:4. Cf. Bacher Tannaiten, I2, 332 f.; Str.-B., IV, 1119; M. Abraham, Légendes juives apocryphes sur la vie de Moïse (1925), 23, n. 2.

12 Cf. Gn. 2:15 (3:23f.).

13 Near Eastern ideas of Paradise (cf. A. Jeremias, Das AT im Lichte des alten Orients4 [1930], 79–98), and Gk. ideas of the golden age, the isles of the blessed, the Elysian fields and the garden of Hesperides (cf. on the historico-religious significance of the garden in the Gk. and Hell. world C. Schneider, “Die griech. Grundlagen d. hell. Religionsgeschichte,” ARW, 36 [1939], 324 f. [Kleinknecht]), exerted no direct influence on the NT. The same applies to Philo’s allegorical interpretation of Paradise (Daniélou, 45–52), towards which there are tendencies already in Sir. 24:12–33; 40:17, 27 and Ps. Sol. 14:3 (→ n. 5); cf. also → supra.

14 Str.-B., IV, 1118 f., 1120–1130.

OT Old Testament.

15 Great fruitfulness: Hos. 2:24; Am. 9:13; Is. 7:15; Jl. 3:18, esp. abundant water: Is. 35; 41:18 f.; Ez. 47:1–12; Ps. 46:4; Zech. 14:8, peace between the nations: Is. 2:4; 9:6; Mi. 5:9 f., also between animals: Is. 11:6 f., and between men and animals: Is. 11:8, cf. Hos. 2:20, longevity: Is. 65:20, 22; no disease: Zech. 8:4, no death: Is. 25:8; 26:19, fellowship with God: Hos. 2:21 f.; Jer. 31:31–34. Cf. H. Gunkel, Schöpfung u. Chaos (1921), 368; Bousset-Gressm., 282–285; A. Bentzen, Messias, Mose redivivus, Menschensohn (1948), 37 ff.; Daniélou, 4 f.

17 For this cf. Test. L. 18:10; 4 Esr. 8:52, cf. Sib., 3, 769 f.

18 Only S. Bar. and Slav. En. put the final consummation in heaven. This is because these two works do not distinguish between the present and the last form of its manifestation, Str.-B., IV, 1145, 1150 f.

19 Eth. En. 25:4 (→ n. 16); 4 Esr. 7:36 (as distinct from γέεννα); for further examples cf. Str.-B., IV, 1151h. Cf. also Rev. 21 f.

20 Test. L. 18:10 f. (→ n. 16); Eth. En. 24:4–25:7; 4 Esr. 7:123; 8:52; Apc. Mos. 28:4 etc.

21 The water of life: Slav. En. 8:5 f. A; Str.-B., III, 854–856; the bread of life, Sib. prooem., 87.

22 Eth. En. 62:14, cf. 60:7 f.; Str.-B., IV, 1146 f., 1154–65.

23 Apc. Mos. 13:4; Str.-B., IV, 1146, 1153 f. Cf. also Slav. En. 65:9 A: “From then on there will be among them neither toil nor pain nor suffering nor waiting nor distress nor violence nor night nor darkness, but the great light will be among them (and) a great indestructible wall and great incorruptible Paradise; for everything corruptible will pass away, but the incorruptible will come, and it will be the shelter of an eternal dwelling” (based on the transl. of Bonwetsch).

Eth. En. Ethiopian Enoch, ed. A. Dillmann, 1851; R. Charles, 1906.

24 Eth. En. 70:4; Apc. Mos. 37:5; Test. Abr. 20 A (→ n. 37). With Enoch, Abel in Paradise (Test. Abr., 10 B, ed. M. R. James, TSt, II, 2 [1892], 114) holds a judgment of souls after death, ibid. 11 B, James, op. cit., 115 f.

25 Eth. En. 60:7 f., 23; 61:12; 70:4; cf. 32:3; Slav. En. 9:1; 42:3 A: Apc. Abr. 21:6 f.; Moses in Gan Eden after death, b.Tem., 16a; Shadrach’s soul after death ἐν τῷ παραδείσῳ μετὰ τῶν ἁγίων ἁπάντων, Apc. Shadrach 16, ed. M. R. James, TSt, II, 3 (1893), 137.

26 Enoch: Eth. En. 60:8; 70:3; 87:3 f.; 89:52; Jub. 4:23; Test. Abr. 11:3, cf. 10:2. Elijah: Eth. En. 89:52. Other righteous men who were translated into Paradise while yet alive are enumerated in Däräk ’äräc zutta, 1 (ed. A. Tawrogi, Diss. Königsberg [1885], 8 f.).

27 Eth. En. 32:2 f.; Jub. 8:16; cf. 4:26; Slav. En. 42:3 f. A (→ n. 34); b.BB, 84a (the sun is red at morning because it passes over Gan Eden and reflects the gleam of its roses); Midr. Konen, ed. A. Jellinek, Bet ha-Midrasch, II (1853), 28, 8.

28 So the Essenes: Jos.Bell., 2, 155 f. (“beyond the ocean”), and perhaps also 4 Esr. 14:9 (the Messiah comes out of Paradise) compared with 13:3 (out of the sea).

29 Eth. En. 24:3 f.; 25:3 cf. 87:3; Jub. 4:26, → 483, 11 ff.

S. Bar. Syrian Apocalypse of Baruch, originally Hebrew and strongly dependent on 4 Esdras (c. 100 a.d.), ed. R. Charles, 1896.

30 4 Esr. 4:7f.; Vit. Ad. 25:3; Test. Abr. 10 B, M. R. James, op. cit., 114. It cannot be said for certain whether b.Ber., 28b (Rabban Jochanan b. Zakkai, d. c. 80 a.d.) refers to the intermediate Paradise in heaven (Str.-B., IV, 1034, 1131) or the eschatological Paradise on earth. b.Chag., 15b (cf. Str.-B., IV, 1119) and Gn. r., 65 on 27:27 par. Midr. Ps. 11 § 7 (ibid., 1130 f.) are the first definite attestations of the idea of a heavenly Paradise in Rabb. literature.

31 Apc. Mos. 37:5; Slav. En. 8:1 (Str.-B., IV, 1137 f.); Gr. Bar. 4:8 (→ 512, 5 ff.). There is a combination of an earthly and a heavenly location of Paradise in Slav. En. 42:3 A: the intervening Paradise is in the East, but is opened to the third heaven.

32 Str.-B., IV, 1130–1144.

33 → 767, 10 ff.; Str.-B., IV, 1144–1165.

34 Str.-B., IV, 1118–1120, 1130 f. has an excellent review of the terminology, though the statement on 1118 is mistaken: “The older Synagogue knows a threefold Paradise”; more precisely the ref. ought to be to three stages or forms of the one Paradise. Vit. Ad. distinguishes between the “Paradise of righteousness” (25:3) and the “Paradise of visitation and the command of God” (28:3), but the ref. is really to two different spheres of Paradise rather than two Paradises; the former is the abode of God and the latter the smaller portion of Paradise allotted to the first man, Str.-B., IV, 1119. Slav. En. 8:1–6 A; 42:3 A (Str.-B., IV, 1137 f.) is to be taken in the same way.

35 Str.-B., IV, 1132, 1143 (intervening Paradise); 1146, 1152 k (eschatological Paradise). Acc. to Eth. En. the tree of life is now on the loftiest of seven hills (24:3f.) and after the judgment of the world it will be planted toward Jerusalem (25:4f.).

36 Str.-B., II, 264–269 mentions the world to come, heaven, the domain of God, the heavenly academy, the throne of God, the treasure house, the covenant of the living, the land of the living, with the angels, in Abraham’s bosom.

37 That Lk. 16:22–31 refers to the state after death and not after the last judgment may be seen from the use of the word → ᾅδης in 16:23 (not → γέεννα) and also from comparison with the Egyptian and later Jewish story which Jesus uses, cf. H. Gressmann, “Vom reichen Mann u. armen Lazarus,” AAB (1918), No. 7, 32; cf. also Test. Abr., 20 A (M. R. James, op. cit., 103 f.), where God says to the angels after Abraham’s death: “Lead my friend Abraham into Paradise where the tabernacles of my righteous are and the dwellings of my saints, Isaac and Jacob ἐν τῷ κόλπῳ αὐτοῦ.” That the righteous and the ungodly may look across to one another in the intermediate state (Lk. 16:23) is a common idea in later Judaism, 4 Esr. 7:85, 93; cf. Str.-B., II, 228 and IV, 1040 for Rabb. examples.

38 Cf. also the verses which speak esp. of the martyrs, 6:9; 7:9–17; 14:13.

39 Cf. Schl. Mk., ad loc. Whether the abode of Lazarus with Abraham (Lk. 16:23b) is on account of the “gt. gulf” (16:26) to be sought in the underworld is not so certain as I assumed in → I, 147, 18 f.; 148, 34 ff. in the light of Eth. En. 22 (a bright place with a source of water in the underworld) and in company with Str.-B., IV, 1019 f. Older and later ideas seem to interfuse in Lk. 16:23–26 (→ I, 147, 7–15). It is certainly true that later Judaism never set גַּן עֵדֶן in sheol, → n. 52.

40 עֵץ הַחַיִּים, Gn. 2:9 == the tree of life whose fruit confers eternal life.

41 2:7, 11, 17, 26–28; 3:5, 12, 21.

42 Test. L. 18:10 f. (→ n. 16); Eth. En. 25:4 f.; 4 Esr. 8:52; Apc. Mos. 13:2 f.; 28:4; Rev. 22:2, 14, 19. It should be noted, however, that in “conscious interpenetration” (Loh. Apk., 27) Rev. uses eschatological ideas proleptically to depict the intermediate state of the martyrs (e.g., 6:11), so that intermediate and eschatological statements are intermingled in what is said about the martyrs.

43 Schl. K., ad loc.

44 Cf. Wnd. 2 K., ad loc. The closest par. is b.Chag., 14b: ערבעה נכנסו לפרדס (→ n. 11).

v. verse.

45 The comm. are divided. One experience (because only one ref. to time) is assumed by Bchm., Ltz. K., ad loc., Wnd. 2 K., ad loc., Bietenhard, 164 f., H. Traub, → 535, 1 f.; Schl. and H. D. Wendland (NT Deutseh), ad loc. favour two.

46 Schl. K. on 2 C. 12:4.

obj. object.

47 The Semitism frequently does not express the nuance “again” when it is indispensable in other languages.

48 Read ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ σου (אACΘR) == בְּמַלְכוּתָךְ == “as king” (Dalman WJ, I, 109). The reading εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν σου (only BL lat) arose when the Semitism was no longer understood and βασιλεία was mistakenly regarded as a spatial kingdom.

49 The vl. ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῆς ἐλεύσεώς σου D confirms that the petition refers to the parousia.

50 To obviate contradiction of the doctrine of a descent into Hades (→ 771, 37 ff.) the σήμερον has occasionally been dropped or related to what precedes (cf. Zn. Lk., ad loc.), though on the latter view it is superfluous. The D reading θάρσει, σήμερον κτλ. confirms its relation to what follows.

51 Str.-B., III, 534: Zn. Lk., ad loc.; Schl. Lk., ad loc.

52 Lk. 23:43 says nothing about its location. It simply rules out any idea that, to avoid contradiction with the doctrine of the descent, one can seek it in Hades, so H. H. Wendt, Die Lehre Jesu2 (1901), 153; Gan Eden is never set in Hades, Str.-B., II, 227.

53 The ref. of the word παράδεσος to the hidden Paradise in which Jesus stays until the parousia certainly corresponds to the view of Lk. The question is whether an older. purely eschatological sense lies behind it. If so, παράδεισος is the eschatological Paradise and the thief is promised a share in the imminent new creation. The σήμερον, after the analogy of the “three days” of Mk. 14:58, is then fig.

b. ben, when between the personal and family names of rabbis.

c. circa.

S. Dt. Sifre Deuteronomium, Tannaitic Midrash on Deuteronomy (Strack, Einl., 200 f.).

54 M. Dibelius, Die Formgeschichte d. Ev.2 (1933), 204, n. 1; Dib. Ph.3, 69.

55 Michel, 13, 20 f.

56 Dib. Ph.3, 68. Argument from silence, for otherwise he would not have given the. disturbed Thessalonian church the teaching about the departed in 1 Th, 4:13–18.

57 Jeremias, 194–201 (with bibl.).

58 G. Bertram, “Die Himmelfahrt Jesu vom Kreuz aus u. der Glaube an seine Auferstehung,” Festschr. A. Deissmann (1927), 187–217. But for the sake of clarity one should not speak of an “ascension” from the cross, since Lk. 23:43 (unlike Ac. 1:9) does not refer to a physical ascent.

59 J. Kroll, Gott u. HöIle (1932).

60 Jeremias, 201.

61 J. Jeremias, Jesus als Weltvollender (1930), esp. 19–21, 52 f., 68 f., 74.

par. parallel.

62 → I, 141, 14 ff.; Daniélou, 8 f.

63 The bread of life, Jn. 6; the water of life, Jn. 4:10–14; 7:37. Probably one should also refer to Mk. 7:27–29 in this connection: The Syrophoenician woman is not approved by Jesus because she is quick witted, but because in her answer (7:28) she accepts the fact that Jesus dispenses the bread of life. It is an open question whether comparison with Jn. 6 justifies the conclusion that the one bread of Mk. 8:14 is Jesus. the bread of life.

64 Pl. uses the Adam/Christ typology (→ I, 141 ff.) to depict the concept of the restitution of creation by Christ which the Gospels express with the help of the symbolism of the garden of God.

65 Iren. Haer., V, 33, 3 f.; cf. J. Jeremias, Unbekannte Jesusworte (1951), 15. The closest par. is in S. Bar. 29:5, though it goes much beyond this.

Joachim Jeremias Joachim Jeremias, Greifswald (Vol. 1), Göttingen (Vol. 2–7).


= denotes defintions added or revised in accordance with instructions in the Supplement.


SIG = Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum, ed. W. Dittenberger, editio tertia, Leipzig 1915–24 [Hildesheim 1960]. (SIG2 = editio altera, 1898–1901.)

X Xenophon Historicus [X.]     v/iv b.c.

See entry in Author and Works List for specific works.

ib ib. = ibidem (i.e. in the same work)

cf cf. = confer, conferatur

Thphr Theophrastus Philosophus [Thphr.]     iv/iii b.c.

See entry in Author and Works List for specific works.

AJA AJA = American Journal of Archaeology, second series, 1897–.

Lxx Vetus Testamentum Graeca redditum [LXX]

See entry in Author and Works List for specific works.

Plu Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus [Plu]     i/ii a.d.

See entry in Author and Works List for specific works.

PRev.Laws PRev.Laws = B. P. Grenfell, Revenue Laws of Ptolemy Philadelphus, Oxford 1896; re-edited by J. Bingen in SB Beiheft 1, Göttingen 1952.

PCair.Zen PCair.Zen. = C. C. Edgar, Zenon Papyri, 4 vols. (Catal. gén. des Antiq. égypt. du Musée du Caire, 79) 1925–31: digits indicating 59(000) omitted in refs., thus 2 = 59002; vol v: O. Guéraud, P. Jouguet, Cairo 1940 nos. (59)801–(59)853 [Hildesheim 1971, all 5 vols.].

OGI OGI = Orientis Graeci Inscriptiones Selectae, ed. W. Dittenberger, Leipzig 1903–5 [Hildesheim 1970].

CIG CIG = A. Boeckh, Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum, Berlin 1828–77.

PFay PFay. = B. P. Grenfell, A. S. Hunt, D. G. Hogarth, Fayûm Towns and their Papyri, London 1900.


etc. = et cetera (i.e. in other authors)


pl. = plural

AS AS = Anatolian Studies, Journal of the British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, London 1951– (Anat.St. in LSJ).

expl expl., expld. = explanation, explained Hes Proclus Philosophus [Procl.]     v a.d.

See entry in Author and Works List for specific works.

Com.Adesp Comica Adespota [Com.Adesp.]

See entry in Author and Works List for specific works.


Pollianus Epigrammaticus [Poll.]     ii a.d.(?)

See entry in Author and Works List for specific works.


Photius Lexicographus, etc. [Phot.]     ix a.d.

See entry in Author and Works List for specific works.


Avest. = Avestan

[i]Liddell, H. G., Scott, R., Jones, H. S., & McKenzie, R. (1996). A Greek-English lexicon. "With a revised supplement, 1996." (Rev. and augm. throughout /) (Page 1308). Oxford; New York: Clarendon Press; Oxford University Press.


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