Founded 909

 Cluny, Capitol, The Virtue of Charity

The Following is adapted from: The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, ed. Cross, Livingstone; (OUP, 1983).

CLUNY. The influential monastery of Cluny, near Mâcon in Burgundy, was founded by William the Pious, Duke of Aquitaine, in 909/10. The high standard of monastic observance set by Berno of Baume, its first Abbot (909/10–927), was adopted before Berno’s death in some five or six neighbouring monasteries. The real founder of Cluny’s influence, however, was Berno’s successor, St Odo (927–42), under whose encouragement many monasteries in the S. of France, and even some of the most important Italian houses (Monte Cassino, Santa Maria on the Aventine, Subiaco) reformed themselves after the Cluniac model. Under Odo’s gifted successors Aymardus (942–c.954; d. c.963 [perh. 964]), Majolus (c.954–94) and St Odilo (994–1048) an ever-growing number of houses, old and new, adopted the reform. Its objects included a return to the strict Benedictine rule, esp. as expounded by St Benedict of Aniane, cultivation of the personal spiritual life, stress on the choir office (which tended to grow to excessive length) and the splendour and solemnity of worship generally, with a corresponding reduction in manual labour. Great attention was also paid to sound economic organization and independence of lay control. It now seems clear that in the 10th cent. the Cluniac houses were not yet welded into a system, which only developed under Odilo and his successor Hugh (1049–1109). Under Hugh, when the influence of Cluny reached its height, the number of Cluniac houses was well over 1,000. Then the centralization was such that the heads of the subject-houses were ordinarily priors, not abbots.

Esp. in the 11th and early 12th cents. Cluny exercised decisive influence on the life of the Church. Its leading figures came from noble families who increasingly enjoyed the confidence of sovereigns and popes. Their ideals were widely admired by the secular clergy and largely inspired the reforms (repression of simony, celibacy of clergy) of Gregory VII. The new church at Cluny (begun in 1088), of which Urban II consecrated the high altar in person on 25 Oct. 1095 and Innocent II the whole church (except the narthex) in 1131–2, was then the largest church in Europe (555 ft. long).

After Hugh’s death the next abbots were Pontius (1109–22), Hugh II (1122), and Peter the Venerable (1122–56). From the beginning of the 13th cent., the Cluniacs became organized as an Order on the Cistercian model, with General Chapters and a system of visitations. In the later Middle Ages the influence of Cluny greatly declined, but the monastery survived until 1790. The Hôtel de Cluny in Paris (since 1833 a museum) was formerly the town-house of the Abbots of Cluny.

The first English Cluniac house was St Pancras at Lewes, founded by William de Warenne in 1077. Others soon followed at Wenlock (c.1081), Bermondsey (c.1085), Castle Acre (1089), and Thetford (1104), and, in Scotland, at Paisley (1163). By the middle of the 12th cent. their number had risen to 36. As alien priories they were frequently sequestered by the Crown during the French Wars. In the later Middle Ages the control from Cluny was in fact slight. At the Dissolution there were eight greater and nearly 30 lesser Cluniac houses.

Bibliotheca Cluniacensis, ed. M. Marrier, OSB, and A. Quercetanus (Paris, 1614); Bullarium Sacri Ordinis Cluniacensis, ed. P. Simon, OSB (Lyons, 1680). Consuetudines Cluniacensium Antiquiores cum redactionibus derivatis, ed. K. Hallinger, OSB (Corpus Consuetudinum Monasticarum, 7, pt. 2; Siegburg, 1983; see also introd., ibid., 7, pt. 1; 1984); Liber Tramitis Aevi Odilonis Abbatis, ed. P. Dinter (ibid., 10; 1980); for Abbot Hugh’s reign, ‘Ordo Cluniacensis Bernardi monachi’ in [M. Herrgott, OSB (ed.)] Vetus Disciplina Monastica (Paris, 1726; repr. Siegburg, 1999), pp. 133–364, and ‘Antiquiores Consuetudines Cluniacensis Monasterii collectore S. Udalrico’ in L. *d’Achery, OSB, Spicilegium, ed. S. *Baluze and E. *Martène, 1 (1723), pp. 641–703, repr. in J. P. Migne, PL 149. 635–778. Statuts, chapitres généraux et visites de l’ordre de Cluny with preface and notes by G. Charvin, OSB (9 vols. in 11, 1965–82). G. de Valous, Le Monachisme clunisien des origines au XVe siècle: Vie intérieure des monastères et organisation de l’ordre (Archives de la France monastique, 39–40; 1935; 2nd edn., 2 vols., 1970). G. F. Duckett, Charters and Records among the Archives of the ancient Abbey of Cluni (2 vols., 1888); E. Sackur, Die Cluniacenser (2 vols., 1892–4). K. Hallinger, OSB, Gorze Kluny: Studien zu den monastischen Lebensformen und Gegensätizen im Hochmittelalter (2 vols., Studia Anselmiana, 22–25; 1950–1951). J. Wollasch, H. E. Mager, and A. Diener, Neue Forschungen über Cluny und die Cluniacenser, ed. G. Tellenbach (Freiburg, 1959). H. E. J. Cowdrey, The Cluniacs and the Gregorian Reform (Oxford, 1970). M. Pacaut, L’Ordre de Cluny (909–1789) (1986). N. Hunt, Cluny under St Hugh, 1049–1109 (1967). K. J. Conant, Cluny: Les Églises et la Maison du Chef d’Ordre (Mâcon, 1968). N. Hunt (ed.), Cluniac Monasticism in the Central Middle Ages (1971). [M.] D. *Knowles, OSB, The Monastic Order in England (1940; 2nd edn., 1963), esp. chs. 8 and 16. J. Wollasch, Cluny – ‘Licht der Welt’: Aufstieg und Niedergang der klosterlichen Gemeinschaft [1996]). E. M. Wischermann, Marcigny-sur-Loire: Gründungs- und Frühgeschichte des ersten Cluniacenserinnenpriorates (1055–1150) (Münstersche Mittelalter-Schriften, 42; 1986); D. W. Poeck, Cluniacensis Ecclesia: Der cluniacensische Klosterverband (10.–12. Jahrhundert) (ibid., 71; 1998). D. Méhu, Paix et commaunités autour de l’abbaye de Cluny (Xe–XVe siècle) (Collection d’histoire et d’archéologie médiévales, 9; Lyon [2001]). P. Racinet, Les Maisons de l’Ordre de Cluny au Moyen Âge: Evolution et permanence d’un ancien ordre bénédictin au nord de Paris (Bibliothèque de la RHE 76; 1990). G. de Valous in DHGE 13 (1956), cols. 35–174, with extensive bibl. N. Bulst and others in Lexikon des Mittelalters, 2 (1983), cols. 2172–94, s.v. ‘Cluny, Cluniazenzer’. See also works cited under odilo, hugh, and peter the venerable.




PRAYER at CLUNY, Jean Leclercq, OSB
Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Vol. 51, No. 4, (Dec., 1983), pp. 651-665



IT is obvious from the customaries that for the monks of Cluny the choral office, the daily round of prayer and praise, was the core of their life. It was the most important though by no means the only occupation of their busy days. It was carried out with great care seven times a day and once at night. It was not only the basis of their spiritual life and the source of their strength, but the raison d'etre and and the inspiration with their lectio divina of their wide artistic achievement in many media.

They rose between 1:30 and 2:30 for a service called Vigils and Matins, which was preceded and followed by additional psalmody, the whole amounting to about two hours.

Lauds followed, after an interval devoted to reading at daybreak, and Prime after sunrise.

The work of the day then started, was carried out either in the scriptorium or in the different offices and workshops of the monastery, or in the garden or on the farm. Studies were always in high esteem, especially under Odilo, when, for example, Ralph Glaber wrote his histories (1047), and under Peter the Venerable, when Alger of Liege, Peter of Poitiers and Richard of Poitiers produced theological and historical works. Peter the Venerable was himself a poet. Cluny also had a school of illumination, music and stone carving which maintained a high standard.

At the end of the morning, broken by the Office of Terce and the short Morrow or Chapter Mass,

came the solemn Community Mass about midday,

preceded by Sext and followed by dinner.

After that there was a period of rest or optional reading until None.

By this time the afternoon was well advanced and Vespers was sung at about four o'clock, followed by supper, on certain days, only a drink, and a period of reading in common called Collatio.

Compline brought the long day to an end at about six o'clock.












 of the
Founded by Duke William 910

 Duke William and the Monks of Cluny

from the edition of A. Bruel in “Recueil des Chartes de L’Abbaye de Cluny”. Paris, 1876, pp. 124-128. trans in Ernest F. Henderson, Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages, (London: George Bell and Sons, 1910), 329-333



Charter by which William, Count and Duke founds the monastery of Cluny

Charta qua Vuillelmus, comes et dux, fundat monasterium Cluniacense.

TO all right thinkers it is clear that the providence of God has so provided for certain rich men that, by means of their transitory possessions, if they use them well, they may be able to merit everlasting rewards. As to which thing, indeed, the divine word, showing it to be possible and altogether advising it, says: “The riches of a man are the redemption of his soul.” (Prov. 13.7) I, William, count and duke by the grace of God, diligently pondering this, and desiring to provide for my own safety while I am still able, have considered it advisable - nay, most necessary, that from the temporal goods which have been conferred upon me I should give some little portion for the gain of my soul. I do this indeed in order that I who have thus increased in wealth may not, per chance, at the last be accused of have having spent all in caring for my body, but rather may rejoice, when fate at last shall snatch all things away, in having reserved something for myself. Cunctis sane considerantibus liquet quod ita Dei dispensacio quibusque ditibus consulit, ut ex rebus quæ transitorie possidentur, si eis bene utuntur, semper mansura valeant præmia promereri; quod videlicet divinus sermo possibile ostendens, atque ad hoc omnino suadens, dicit: «Divicię viri redemptio animę ejus.» Quod ego Guillelmus, dono Dei comes et dux, sollicite perpendens ac proprie saluti, dum licitum est, providere cupiens, ratum, immo pernecessarium duxi, ut ex rebis quæ michi temporaliter conlata sunt, ad emolumentum animę aliquantulum inperciar. Quippe qui adeo in his videor excrevisse, ne fortassis totum ad curam corporis in suppremo redarguar expendisse, quin pocius, cum subprema sors cuncta rapuerit, quiddam michi gaudeam reservasse.
Which end, indeed, seems attainable by no more suitable means than that, following the precept of Christ “I will make his poor my friends” (Luke 16. 9), and making the act not a temporary but a lasting one, I should support at my own expense a congregation of monks. And this is my trust, this is my hope, indeed, that although I myself am unable to despise all things, nevertheless by receiving despisers of this world, whom I believe to be righteous, I may receive the reward of the righteous. Quæ scilicet causa nulla specie vel modo congruentius posse fieri videtur, nisi ut juxta Christi preceptum: «Amicos michi faciam pauperes ejus,» utque hujusmodi [p.125] actio non ad tempus, set continue peragatur, monastica professione congregatos ex propriis sumptibus sustentem. Ea si quidem fide, ea spe, ut quamvis ipse cuncta contempnere nequeam, tamen, dum mundi contemptores, quos justos credo, susceperim, «justorum mercedem accipiam.»
Therefore be it known to all who live in the unity of the faith and who await the mercy of Christ, and to those who shall succeed them and who shall continue to exist until the end of the world, that, for the love of God and of our Saviour Jesus Christ, I hand over from my own rule to the holy apostles, Peter, namely, and Paul, the possessions over which I hold sway, the town of Cluny, namely, with the court and demesne manor, and the church in honour of St. Mary the mother of God and of St. Peter the prince of the apostles, together with all the things pertaining to it, the vills, indeed, the chapels, the serfs of both sexes, the vines, the fields, the meadows, the woods, the waters and their outlets, the mills, the incomes and revenues, what is cultivated and what is not, all in their entirety. Which Igitur omnibus in unitate fidei viventibus Cristique misericordiam prestolantibus, qui sibi successuri sunt et usque ad seculi consummationem victuri, notum sit quod, ob amorem Dei et Salvatoris nostri Jhesu Christi, res juris mei sanctis apostolis Petro videlicet et Paulo de propria trado dominatione, Clugniacum scilicet villam, cum cortile et manso indominicato, et capella quæ est in honore sancte Dei genetricis Mariæ et sancti Petri, apostolorum principis, cum omnibus rebus ad ipsam pertinentibus, villis siquidem, capellis, mancipiis utriusque sexus, vineis, campis, pratis, silvis, aquis earumque decursibus, farinariis, exitibus et regressibus, cultum et incultum, cum omni integritate.
things are situated in or about the country of Macon, each one surrounded by its own bounds.. I give, moreover, all these things to the aforesaid apostles - I William and my wife Ingelberga - first for the love of God; then for the soul. Of my lord king Odo, or my father and mother; for myself and my wife - for the salvation, namely, of our souls and bodies;- and not least for that of Ava who left me these things in her will; for the souls of our brothers and sisters and nephews, and of all our relatives of both sexes; for our faithful ones who adhere to our service; for the advancement, also, and integrity of the catholic religion. Quæ res sitę sunt in comitatu Matisconense, vel circa, suis unaquęque terminis conclusæ. Dono autem hæc omnia jam dictis apostolis, ego Wuillelmus et uxor mea Ingelberga, primum pro amore Dei, inde pro anima senioris mei Odonis regis, progenitoris ac genitricis mee, pro me et uxore mea, salute scilicet animarum nostrarum et corporum, pro Avanæ nichilominus, que michi easdem res testamentario jure concessit, pro animabus quoque fratrum ac sororum nostrorum nepotumque, ac omnium utriusque sexus propincorum, pro fidelibus nostris, qui nostro servitio adherent, pro statu etiam ac integritate catholicæ religionis.
Finally, since all of us Christians are held together by one bond of love and faith, let this donation be for all, - for the orthodox namely, of past, present or future times. I give these things, moreover, with this understanding, that in Cluny a regular monastery shall be constructed in honour of the holy apostles Peter and Paul, and that there the monks shall congregate and live according to the rule of St. Benedict, and that they shall possess, hold, have and order these same things unto all time. In such wise, however, that the venerable house of prayer which is there shall be faithfully frequented with vows and supplications, and the celestial converse shall be sought and striven after with all desire and with the deepest ardour; and also that there shall be sedulously directed to God prayers, beseechings and exhortations as well for me as for all, according to the order in which mention has been made of them above. Postremo sicut omnes christiani unius compagę caritatis ac fidei tenemur, ita pro cunctis, preteritorum scilicet, presencium sive futurorum temporum orthodoxis hęc donatio fiat. Eo siquidem dono tenore, ut in Clugniaco in honore sanctorum apostolorum Petri et Pauli monasterium regulare construatur, ibique monachi juxta regulam beati Benedicti viventes congregentur, qui ipsas res perhennis temporibus possideant, teneant, habeant [atque] ordinent; ita duntaxat ut ibi venerabile oracionis domicilium votis ac subplicationibus [p.126] fideliter frequentetur, conversatioque celestis omni desiderio et ardore intimo perquiratur et expetatur, sedule quoque oraciones, postulationes atque obsecrationes Domino dirigantur, tam pro me quam pro omnibus, sicut eorum memoria superius digesta est.
AND let the monks themselves, together with all the aforesaid possessions, be under the power and dominion of the abbot Berno, who, as long as he shall live, shall preside over them regularly according to his knowledge and ability. But after his death, those same monks shall have power and permission to elect any one of their order whom they please as abbot and rector, following the will of God and the rule promulgated by St. Benedict-in such wise that neither by the intervention of our own or of any other power may they be impeded from making a religious [purely canonical] election. Sintque ipsi monachi cum omnibus prescriptis rebus sub potestate et dominatione Bernonis abbatis, qui, quandiu vixerit, secundum suum scire et posse eis regulariter presideat. Post discessum vero ejus, habeant idem monachi potestatem et licentiam quemcumque sui ordinis, secundum placitum Dei adque regulam Sancti Benedicti promulgatam, eligere maluerint abbatem adque rectorem, ita ut nec nostra nec alicujus potestatis contradictione contra religiosam duntaxat electionem inpediantur.
Every five years, moreover, the aforesaid monks shall pay to the church of the apostles at Rome ten solidi to supply them with lights; and they shall have the protection of those same apostles and the defence of the Roman pontiff; and those monks may, with their whole heart and soul, according to their ability and knowledge, build up the aforesaid place. We will, further, that in our times and in those of our successors, according as the opportunities and possibilities of that place shall allow, there shall daily, with the greatest zeal be performed there works of mercy towards the poor, the needy, strangers and pilgrims. Per quinquennium autem Rome ad limina apostolorum ad luminaria ipsorum concinnanda, X solidos prefati monachi persolvant; habeantque tuitionem ipsorum apostolorum atque Romani pontificis defensionem; et ipsi monachi corde et animo pleno prelibatum locum pro posse et nosse suo edificent. Volumus etiam ut nostris successorumque nostrorum temporibus, prout oportunitas adque possibilitas ejusdem loci sese dederit, cotidie misericordiæ opera pauperibus, indigentibus, advenis, peregrinantibus, summa intencione ibidem exibeatur.
It has pleased us also to insert in this document that, from this day, those same monks there congregated shall be subject neither to our yoke, nor to that of our relatives, nor to the sway of the royal might, nor to that of any earthly power. Placuit etiam huic testamento inseri ut ab hac die nec nostro, nec parentum nostrorum, nec fastibus regie magnitudinis, nec cujuslibet terrenę potestatis jugo, subiciantur idem monachi ibi congregati; neque aliquis principum secularium,
And, through God and all his saints, and by the awful day of judgment, I warn and abjure that no one of the secular princes, no count, no bishop whatever, not the pontiff of the aforesaid Roman see, shall invade the property of these servants of God, or alienate it, or diminish it, or exchange it, or give it as a benefice to any one, or constitute any prelate over them against their will. non comes quisquam, nec episcopus quilibet, non pontifex supradicte sedis Romanæ, per Deum et in Deum omnibusque sanctis ejus, et tremendi judicii diem contestor, deprecor invadat res ipsorum servorum Dei, non distrahat, non minuat, non procamiet, non beneficiet alicui, non aliquem prelatum super eos contra eorum voluntatem constituat.
And that such an unhallowed act be more strictly prohibited to all rash and wicked men, I do adjure ye, oh holy apostles and glorious princes of the world, Peter and Paul, and thee, oh supreme pontiff, that, through the canonical and apostolical authority which ye received from God, ye do remove from participation in the holy Church and in eternal life, the robbers and invaders and alienators of these possesions which I do give to thee with joyful heart and ready will; and be ye protectors and defenders of the aforementioned place of Cluny and of the servants of God abiding there, and of all these possession - on account of the clemency and mercy of the most holy Redeemer. Et ut hoc nefas omnibus temerariis ac improbis arcius inibeatur, [p.127]  adhuc idem inculcans subjungo. Et obsecro vos, o sancti apostoli et gloriosi principes terrę, Petre et Paule, et te, pontifex pontificum apostolice sedis, ut per auctoritatem canonicam et apostolicam, quam a Deo accepistis, alienetis a consortio sanctæ Dei ecclesię et sempiternę vitę predones et invasores atque distractatores harum rerum quas vobis hilari mente promtaque voluntate dono; sitisque tutores ac defensores jam dicti loci Clugniaci et servorum Dei ibi commanencium, harum quoque omnium facultatum propter clementiam et misericordiam piissimi redemptoris.
If anyone - which Heaven forbid, and which through the mercy of God and the protection of the holy apostles I do not think will happen - whether he be a neighbour or a stranger, no matter what his condition or power, should, though any kind of wile, attempt to do any act of violence contrary to this deed of gift which we have ordered to be drawn up for the love of almighty God and for reverence of the chief apostles Peter and Paul; first indeed let him incur the wrath of almighty God; and let God remove him from the land of the living and wipe out his name from the book of life, and let his portion be with those who said to the Lord God: Depart from us; and with Dathan and Abiron whom the earth opening its jaws swallowed up, and hell absorbed whill still alive, let him incur everlasting damnation. Si quis forte, quod absit, et quod per Dei misericordiam et patrocinia apostolorum evenire non estimo, vel ex propinquis aut extraneis, vel ex qualibet condicione sive potestate, qualicunque calliditate, contra hoc testamentum, quod pro amore Dei omnipotentis ac veneratione principum apostolorum Petri et Pauli fieri sanccivi, aliquam concussionem inferre temptaverit, primum quidem iram Dei omnipotentis incurrat, auferatque Deus partem illius de terra vivencium, et deleat nomen ejus de libro vitæ, fiatque pars illius com his qui dixerunt Domino Deo: Recede a nobis, et cum Dathan et Abiron, quos terra ore aperto deglutivit et vivos infernus absorbuit, perhennem dampnacionem incurrat;
And being made a companion of Judas, let him be kept thrust down their with eternal tortures, and, let it seem to human eyes that he pass through the present world with impunity, let him experience in his own body, indeed, the torments of future damnation, sharing the double disaster with Heliodorus and Antiochus, of whom one being coerced with a sharp blow scarcely escaped alive; and the other, struck down by the divine will, his members putrefying and swarming with vermin, perished most miserably. sotius quoque Judæ proditoris Domini effectus, æternis cruciatibus retrusus teneatur; et ne ei in presenti seculo humanis oculis impune transire videatur, in corpore quidem proprio futurę damnacionis tormenta experiatur, sortitus duplicem direptionem cum Hæliodoro et Antiocho, quorum alter acris verberibus coercitus vix semivivus evasit; alter vero, nutu superno perculsus, putrescentibus membris et scatentibus vermibus miserrime interiit;
And let him be a partaker in with other sacrilegious persons who presume to plunder the treasure house of God; and let him, unless he come to his senses, have as an enemy and as one who will refuse him entrance in the blessed paradise, the key-keeper of the whole hierarchy of the Church, and joined with the latter, St. Paul; both of whom, if he had wished, he might have had as holy mediators for him. cæterisque sacrilegis qui ærarium domus Domini temerare presumpserunt particeps existat, habeatque, nisi resipuerit, archiclavum totius monarchiæ ecclesiarum, juncto sibi sancto Paulo, obstitorem, et ameni paradisi aditus contradictorem, quos, si vellet, habere poterat pro se piissimos intercessores [p. 128] .
But as far as the worldly law is concerned, he shall be required, the judicial power compelling him to pay a hundred pounds of gold to those he has harmed; and his attempted attack, being frustrated, shall have no effect at all. But the validity of this deed of gift, endowed with all authority, shall always remain inviolate and unshaken, together with the stipulation subjoined. Done publicly in the city of Bourges. I William, commanded this to made and drawn up and confirmed it with my own hand. Secundum mundialem vero legem, his quibus calumniam intulerit centum auri libras, cogente judiciaria potestate, coactus exsolvat; et congressio appetus illius frustrata nullum omnino effectum obtineat. Sed hujus firmitas testamenti omni auctoritate suffulta semper inviolata ac inconcussa permaneat, cum stipulatione subnixa. Actum Bituricæ civitatis publice. Wilelmus ego hanc auctoritatem fieri et firmare rogavi, ac manu propria roboravi.

Signed by Ingelberge, his wife; Madalbertus, a sinner [and] Archbishop of Bourges; Adalard, Bishop; Atto, Bishop and sinner; Count William, his nephew;  Signed [also by]: Armanni; Wigonis; Ugberti; Stephani; Heracli; Gotbranni; Gauzfredi vicecomitis; Teutardi; Isnardi; Ursonis Greci; Rataldi; Rainberti; Isingerii; Rotberti; Otberti; Girberti; Bermundi; Gerardi; Amblardi; Aimardi; Achedei; Widonis; Grimberti; Umberti; Arnaldi; Ainardi; Rotberti; Bodonis; Atsonis; Girbaldi; Ismidonis; Teotberti; item Teotberti; Bernardi; Walonis; Geraldi; Truanni.,

Signum Ingelberge, uxoris ejus. Madalbertus, peccator, Biturigensis archiepiscopus. Adalardus episcopus. Atto, peccator, episcopus. S. Willelmi comitis, nepotis ejus. Sig. Armanni. Sig. Wigonis. S. Ugberti. S. Stephani. S. Heracli. S. Gotbranni. S. Gauzfredi vicecomitis. S. Teutardi. S. Isnardi. S. Ursonis Greci. S. Rataldi. S. Rainberti. S. Isingerii. S. Rotberti. S. Otberti. S. Girberti. S. Bermundi. S. Gerardi. S. Amblardi. S. Aimardi. S. Achedei. S. Widonis. S. Grimberti. S. Umberti. S. Arnaldi. S. Ainardi. S. Rotberti. S. Bodonis. S. Atsonis. S. Girbaldi. S. Ismidonis. S. Teotberti. S. item Teotberti. S. Bernardi. S. Walonis. S. Geraldi. S. Truanni.
The date: Third of the Ides of September, the eleventh year in the reign of King Charles, the 13th indiction.  I, Oddo, have written this and sign it at the request of the chancellor. Data tercio idus sebtembris, anno undecimo regnante Karolo rege, indictione XIII. Ego Oddo, lævita, ad vicem cancellarii scripsi et subscripsi.







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